BEOWULF

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last updated on 20-August-2012


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Hwt! W Grdena      in gardagum

 

Listen! We --of the Spear-Danes      in the days of yore,
odcyninga      rym gefrnon

 

of those clan-kings--      heard of their glory.
h elingas      ellen fremedon.

 

how those nobles      performed courageous deeds.
Oft Scyld Scfing      sceaena ratum

 

Often Scyld, Scef's son,      from enemy hosts
monegum magum      meodosetla oftah

5

from many peoples      seized mead-benches;
egsode Eorle      syan arest wear

 

and terrorised the fearsome Heruli      after first he was
fasceaft funden      h s frfre gebd

 

found helpless and destitute,      he then knew recompense for that:-
wox under wolcnum      weormyndum h

 

he waxed under the clouds,      throve in honours,
o t him aghwylc      ra ymbsittendra

 

until to him each      of the bordering tribes
ofer hronrde      hran scolde,

10

beyond the whale-road      had to submit,
gomban gyldan      t ws gd cyning.

 

and yield tribute:-      that was a good king!
am eafera ws      fter cenned

 

To him a heir was      born then
geong in geardum      one god sende

 

young in the yards,      God sent him
folce t frfre      fyrenearfe ongeat

 

to comfort the people;      He had seen the dire distress
t he ar drugon      aldorlase

15

that they suffered before,      leader-less
lange hwle      him s lffr

 

a long while;      them for that the Life-Lord,
wuldres wealdend      woroldre forgeaf:

 

Ruler of Glory,      granted honour on earth:
Bowulf ws brme      --blad wde sprang--

 

Beowulf (Beaw) was famed      --his renown spread wide--
Scyldes eafera      Scedelandum in.

 

Scyld's heir,      in Northern lands.
Sw sceal geong guma      gde gewyrcean

20

So ought a young man      by good deeds deserve,
fromum feohgiftum      on fder bearme

 

(and) by fine treasure-gifts,      while in his father's keeping,
t hine on ylde      eft gewunigen

 

that him in old age      shall again stand by,
wilgesas      onne wg cume

 

willing companions,      when war comes,
lode gelasten:      lofdadum sceal

 

people serve him:      by glorious deeds must,
in maga gehware      man gen.

25

amongst his people, everywhere,      one prosper.
Him Scyld gewt      t gescphwle

 

Then Scyld departed      at the destined time,
felahrr fran      on fran ware

 

still in his full-strength, to fare      in the protection of the Lord Frea;
h hyne tbaron      t brimes faroe

 

he they carried      to the sea's surf,
swase gesas      sw h selfa bd

 

his dear comrades,      as he himself had bid,
enden wordum wold      wine Scyldinga

30

when he yet wielded words,      that friend of the Scyldings,
lof landfruma      lange hte

 

beloved ruler of the land,      had ruled for a long time;
ar t he std      hringedstefna

 

there at the harbour stood      with a ringed-prow,
sig ond tfs      elinges fr

 

icy and keen to sail,      a hero's vessel;
ldon      lofne oden

 

they then laid down      the beloved prince,
baga bryttan      on bearm scipes

35

the giver of rings and treasure,      in the bosom of the boat,
marne be mste      ar ws mdma fela

 

the mighty by the mast;      many riches were there,
of feorwegum      frtwa geladed

 

from far-off lands      ornate armour and baubles were brought;
ne hrde ic cmlcor      col gegyrwan

 

I have not heard of a comelier      keel adorned
hildewapnum      ond heaowadum

 

with weapons of battle      and war-dress,
billum ond byrnum      him on bearme lg

40

bill-blades and byrnies;      there lay on his breast
mdma mnigo      him mid scoldon

 

many treasures,      which with him must,
on fldes aht      feor gewtan

 

in the power of the waves,      drift far off;
nals h hine lassan      lcum todan

 

in no way had they upon him fewer      gifts bestowed
odgestronum      onne dydon

 

with the wealth of a nation,      than those did
e hine t frumsceafte      for onsendon

45

who him in the beginning      had sent forth
anne ofer e      umborwesende

 

alone upon the waves      being but a child;
gt he him setton      segen gyldenne

 

yet then they set up      the standard of gold,
hah ofer hafod      lton holm beran

 

high over head;      they let the sea bear,
gafon on grsecg      him ws gemor sefa

 

gave to the ocean,      in them were troubled hearts,
murnende md      men ne cunnon

50

mourning minds;      men cannot
secgan t se      seleradenne

 

say for certain,      (neither) court-counsellors
hle under heofenum      hw am hlste onfng.

 

(nor) heroes under heaven,      who received that cargo.

I

 

ws on burgum      Bowulf Scyldinga

 

Then was in boroughs,      Beowulf the Scylding (Beaw),
lof lodcyning      longe rge

 

beloved king of the people      a long age
folcum gefrage      --fder ellor hwearf

55

famed among the folk      --his father having gone elsewhere,
aldor of earde--      o t him eft onwc

 

elder on earth--      until unto him in turn was born
hah Healfdene      hold enden lifde

 

high Half-Dane,      he ruled so long as he lived
gamol ond grouw      glde Scyldingas

 

old and battle-fierce,      the glad Scyldings;
am fower bearn      forgermed

 

to him four sons      in succession
in worold wcun      weoroda raswan:

60

woke in the world,      the leader of the legions:
Heorogr ond Hrgr      ond Hlga til

 

Heorogar and Hrothgar      and good Halga;
hrde ic t rse      ws Onelan cwn

 

I heard that Yrse      was Onela's queen,
Heao-Scilfingas      healsgebedda.

 

the War-Scylfing's      belovd embraced in bed.
ws Hrgre      herespd gyfen

 

Then was to Hrothgar      success in warcraft given,
wges weormynd      t him his winemgas

65

honour in war,      so that his retainers
georne hrdon      o t so geogo gewox

 

eagerly served him      until the young war-band grew
magodriht micel      him on md bearn

 

into a mighty battalion;      it came into his mind
t healreced      htan wolde

 

that a hall-house,      he wished to command,
medorn micel      men gewyrcean

 

a grand mead-hall,      be built by men
one yldo bearn      afre gefrnon

70

which the sons of men      should hear of forever,
ond ar on innan      eall gedalan

 

and there within      share out all
geongum ond ealdum      swylc him god sealde

 

to young and old,      such as God gave him,
bton folcscare      ond feorum gumena

 

except the common land      and the lives of men;
a ic wde gefrgn      weorc gebannan

 

Then, I heard, widely      was the work commissioned
manigre mage      geond isne middangeard

75

from many peoples      throughout this middle-earth,
folcstede frtwan.      Him on fyrste gelomp

 

to furnish this hall of the folk.      For him in time it came to pass,
adre mid yldum      t hit wear ealgearo

 

early, through the men,      that it was fully finished,
healrna mast      scp him Heort naman

 

the best of royal halls;      he named it Heorot,
s e his wordes geweald      wde hfde

 

he whose words weight      had everywhere;
h bot ne lh      bagas dalde

80

he did not lie when he boasted;      rings he dealt out,
sinc t symle.      Sele hlfade

 

riches at his feasts.      The hall towered,
hah ond horngap      heaowylma bd

 

high and horn-gabled;      it awaited the cruel surges
lan lges      ne ws hit lenge gn

 

of hateful flames;      nor was the time yet nigh
t se ecghete      umsworan

 

that the furious edge-malice      of son-in-law and father-in-law,
fter wlne      wcnan scolde.

85

arising from deadly enmity      would inevitably awaken.
se ellengast      earfolce

 

Then the bold spirit,      impatiently
rge geolode      s e in strum bd

 

endured dreary time,      he who dwelt in darkness,
t h dgora gehwm      dram gehrde

 

he that every day      heard noise of revelry
hldne in healle      ar ws hearpan swg

 

loud in the hall;      there was the harmony of the harp,
swutol sang scopes      sgde s e ce

90

the sweet song of the poet;      he spoke who knew how
frumsceaft fra      feorran reccan

 

the origin of men      to narrate from afar;
cw t se lmihtiga      eoran worhte

 

said he that the almighty one      wrought the earth,
wlitebeorhtne wang      sw wter bebge

 

(that) fair, sublime field      bounded by water;
gesette sigehrig      sunnan ond mnan

 

set up triumphant      the sun and moon,
loman t lohte      land-bendum

95

luminaries as lamps      for the land-dwellers
ond gefrtwade      foldan scatas

 

and adorned      the corners of the earth
leomum ond lafum      lf ac gescep

 

with limbs and leaves;      life too He formed
cynna gehwylcum      ra e cwice hwyrfa

 

for each of the species      which lives and moves.
Sw drihtguman      dramum lifdon

 

So the lord's men      lived in joys,
adiglice      o t n ongan

100

happily,      until one began
fyrene fremman      fond on helle

 

to execute atrocities,      a fiend in hell;
ws se grimma gast      Grendel hten

 

this ghastly demon was      named Grendel,
mare mearcstapa      s e mras hold

 

infamous stalker in the marches,      he who held the moors,
fen ond fsten      ffelcynnes eard

 

fen and desolate strong-hold;      the land of marsh-monsters,
wonsal wer      weardode hwle

105

the wretched creature      ruled for a time
sian him scyppend      forscrifen hfde

 

since him the Creator      had condemned
in Caines cynne      one cwealm gewrc

 

with the kin of Cain;      that killing avenged
ce drihten      s e h bel slg

 

the eternal Lord,      in which he slew Abel;
ne gefeah h are fahe      ac h hine feor forwrc

 

this feud he did not enjoy,      for He drove him far away,
metod for mne      mancynne fram

110

the Ruler, for this crime,      from mankind;
anon untdras      ealle onwcon

 

thence unspeakable offspring      all awoke:
eotenas ond ylfe      ond orcns

 

ogres and elves      and spirits from the underworld;
swylce ggantas      wi gode wunnon

 

also giants,      who strove with God
lange rge      h him s lan forgeald.

 

for an interminable season;      He gave them their reward for that.

II

 

Gewt nosian      syan niht becm

 115

He then went to visit and see      --when night came--
hn hses      h hit Hring-Dene

 

the high house      how it, the Ring-Danes
fter borege      gebn hfdon

 

after the beer-feast,      had occupied;
fand ar inne      elinga gedriht

 

he found then therein      the nobles' company
swefan fter symble      sorge ne con

 

slumbering after the feast;      they did not know sorrow,
wonsceaft wera      wiht unhalo

 120

misery of men;      that damned creature,
grim ond gradig      gearo sna ws

 

grim and greedy,      soon was ready,
roc ond re      ond on rste genam

 

savage and cruel      and from their rest seized
rtig egna      anon eft gewt

 

thirty thanes;      thence back he went
he hrmig      t hm faran

 

proud in plunder      to his home, faring
mid are wlfylle      wca nosan.

 125

with the banquet of bodies      to seek his shelter.
ws on htan      mid ardge

 

Then was in the dark of dawn      before the day
Grendles gcrft      gumum undyrne

 

Grendle's war-might      revealed to the men;
ws fter wiste      wp up hafen

 

then it was after their feasting      they raised up lament
micel morgenswg.      Mare oden

 

in a great morning-cry.      The mighty chieftain,
eling argod      unble st

 130

the prince, old and good,      sat in sorrow,
olode rsw      egnsorge drah

 

The great mighty one suffered,      anguish of thane-loss   oppressed him
syan he s lan      lst scawedon,

 

when they the foe's      tracks beheld,
wergan gstes      ws t gewin t strang

 

of the wicked ghoul;      that strife was too strong,
l ond longsum.      Ns hit lengra fyrst

 

loathsome and lingering.      Nor was it a longer time
ac ymb ne niht      eft gefremede

 135

but after a single night      again he perpetuated
morbeala mre      ond n mearn fore,

 

more brutal slaughter,      and it grieved him not,
fahe ond fyrene      ws t fst on m.

 

violence and viciousness,      he was too entrenched in these.
ws afynde      him elles hwar

 

Then was it easily found,      one who would somewhere else,
germlcor      rste shte

 

further away,      seek rest:
bed fter brum      him gebacnod ws

 140

a bed among the bowers,      when it was made clear to him,
gesgd slce      sweotolan tcne

 

truly told,      by an unmistakable token
healegnes hete      hold hyne syan

 

the enmity of the hall's occupier;      he held himself then
fyr ond fstor      s am fonde twand.

 

further and safer,      he who shunned that fiend.
Sw rxode      ond wi rihte wan

 

Thus he ruled      and challenged justice,
na wi eallum      o t del std

 145

one against all,      until empty stood
hsa slest      ws so hwl micel,

 

that finest of houses;      the time was long
twelf wintra td      torn geolode

 

--the space of twelve winters--      that bitter anguish endured
wine Scyldenda,      wana gehwelcne

 

the friend, the shielder,      --every woe,   
sdra sorga      form secgum wear

 

immense miseries;      therefore to men became
ylda bearnum      undyrne c,

 150

to sons of men,      clearly known
gyddum gemore      tte Grendel wan

 

in mournful ballads,      that Grendle had contended
hwle wi Hrgr      hetenas wg

 

long against Hrothgar,      sustained fierce enmity,
fyrene ond fahe      fela missra,

 

felony and feud,      for many seasons
single sce      sibbe ne wolde

 

continual strife;      he did not want peace
wi manna hwone      mgenes Deniga,

 155

with any man      of the Danish contingent,
feorhbealo feorran,      fa ingian

 

to desist in life-destruction,      to settle it with payment,
n ar nanig witena      wnan orfte

 

none of the counsellors      had any need to hope for
beorhtre bte      t banan folmum

 

noble recompense      from the slayer's hands,
ac se aglaca      htende ws

 

but the wretch      was persecuting
deorc dascua      dugue ond geogoe

 160

--the dark death-shade--      warriors old and young;
seomade ond syrede      sinnihte hold

 

he lay in wait and set snares,      in the endless night he held
mistige mras      men ne cunnon

 

the misty moors;      men do not know
hwyder helrnan      hwyrftum scra.

 

where such hellish enigmas      slink in their haunts.
Sw fela fyrena      fond mancynnes

 

Thus many offences      that foe of mankind,
atol ngengea      oft gefremede,

 165

that terrible lone traveller,      often committed,
heardra hna      Heorot eardode

 

hard humiliations;      he dwelt in Heorot,
sincfge sel      sweartum nihtum

 

the richly-adorned hall,      in the black nights
--n h one gifstl      grtan mste,

 

--by no means he the gift-throne      was compelled to approach respectfully,
mum for metode,      n his myne wisse--

 

the treasure, by the Maker,      nor did he feel love for it--
t ws wrac micel      wine Scyldinga,

 170

That was great misery      for the Friend of the Scyldings,
mdes breca.      Monig oft gest

 

a breaking of his spirit.      Many often sat
rce t rne      rad eahtedon

 

the mighty at counsel;      pondered a plan,
hwt swferhum      slest ware

 

what by strong-minded men      would be best,
wi fargryrum      t gefremmanne

 

against the sudden horror,      to do;
hwlum he gehton      t hrgtrafum

 175

sometimes they pledged      at holy temples
wgweorunga      wordum badon

 

sacred honouring,      in words bid
t him gstbona      goce gefremede

 

that them the demon-slayer      would offer succour
wi odraum      swylc ws aw hyra

 

from the plight of the people;      such was their habit:
haenra hyht      helle gemundon

 

the hope of heathens;      on hell they pondered
in mdsefan      metod he ne con

 180

in the depths of their hearts;      the Creator they did not know,
dada dmend      ne wiston he drihten god

 

the Judge of deeds,      they were not aware of the Lord God,
n he hru heofena helm      herian ne con

 

nor yet they the Helm of the Heavens      were able to honour,
wuldres waldend.      W bi am e sceal

 

Glory's Wielder.      Woe be to him who must,
urh slne n      swle bescfan

 

through dire terror,      thrust his soul
in fres fm,      frfre ne wnan,

 185

into fire's embrace;      hope not for relief,
wihte gewendan      wl bi am e mt

 

or to change at all;      well be he who may
fter dadge      drihten scean

 

after death-day      seek the Lord
ond t fder fmum      freoo wilnian.

 

and in his Father's arms      yearn towards Nirvana.

III

 

Sw malceare      maga Healfdenes

 

So then over the sorrow of the time      the son of Half-Dane
singla sa      ne mihte snotor hle

 190

continually brooded;      the wise hero could not
wan onwendan      ws t gewin t sw

 

turn away woe;      that strife was too strong,
l ond longsum      e on lode becm,

 

hateful and enduring,      that on the people came
ndwracu ngrim      nihtbealwa mast.

 

fearfully cruel, violent trouble,      the greatest night-evil.

 syd-journey t fram hm gefrgn      Higelces egn

 

That from home heard      Hygelac's thane,
gd mid Gatum,      Grendles dada

 195

a good man of the Geats,      of Grendel's deeds;
s ws moncynnes      mgenes strengest

 

he was of mankind      of the greatest strength,
on am dge      ysses lfes

 

on that day      in this life,
ele ond acen      ht him lidan

 

noble and mighty;      he ordered them a wave-crosser
gdne gegyrwan      cw: h gcyning

 

--a good one-- prepare;      he said: the war-king
ofer swanrde      scean wolde

 200

over swan-road      he wished to seek,
marne oden      him ws manna earf

 

that mighty clan-chief,      since he was in need of men;
one sft him      snotere ceorlas

 

that adventure him,      the clear-headed chaps,
lt hwn lgon      ah h him lof ware

 

very little begrudged      though he was dear to them,
hwetton higerfne      hal scawedon.

 

they urged on the valiant-hearted one,      and observed the omens.
Hfde se gda      Gata loda

 205

The worthy one had,      from the Geatish peoples,
cempan gecorone      ra e h cnoste

 

chosen champions,      those who were the boldest he
findan mihte      fftna sum

 

could find;      fifteen together,
sundwudu shte      secg wsade

 

they sought the sea-wood,      he led the warriors,
lagucrftig mon      landgemyrcu.

 

that sea-skilled man,      to the boundary of the shore.
Fyrst for gewt      flota ws on um

 210

Time passed by;      the ship was on the waves,
bt under beorge      beornas gearwe

 

the boat under the cliffs;      the ready warriors
on stefn stigon      --stramas wundon,

 

stepped up into the prow      --the currents curled round,
sund wi sande--      secgas baron

 

sea against sand--      the men bore
on bearm nacan      beorhte frtwe

 

into the bosom of boat      bright arms and armour,
gsearo geatolc      guman t scufon

 215

noble war-gear;      the fellows shoved off,
weras on wils      wudu bundenne.

 

men on a welcome voyage,      in a well-braced ship.
Gewt ofer wagholm      winde gefsed

 

Then they went over the water-waves      urged by the wind,
flota fmheals      fugle gelcost

 

the foamy-necked floater,      remarkably bird-like
o t ymb ntid      res dgores

 

until in due time,      on the second day,
wundenstefna      gewaden hfde

 220

the curved-prow      had made the journey,
t a lende      land geswon,

 

so that the sailors      sighted land,

brimclifu blcan,      beorgas stape

 

bright sea-cliffs,      towering shores,
side sanssas      ws sund liden

 

wide headlands;      then was the sea traversed,
oletes t ende.      anon up hrae

 

their sea-voyage at an end.      Thence up quickly
Wedera lode      on wang stigon

 225

the Wederas-warriors      stepped onto land;
sawudu saldon      syrcan hrysedon

 

moored their vessel;      their mail-shirts clanked
ggewado      gode ancedon

 

those war-garments;      they thanked God
s e him lde      ae wurdon.

 

that for them the wave-paths      had been smooth.
of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga

 

Then from the wall saw      the ward of the Scyldings,
s e holmclifu      healdan scolde

 230

he who the sea-cliffs      had the duty to guard,
beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas

 

borne over the gang-plank,      bright bossed-shields,
fyrdsearu fslicu      hine fyrwyt brc

 

eager war-devices;      in him curiosity broke
mdgehygdum      hwt men waron

 

the thoughts of his heart:      what these men were;
gewt him t waroe      wicge rdan

 

then he went to the shore      riding his horse,
egn Hrgres      rymmum cwehte

 235

the thane of Hrothgar;      he forcefully shook
mgenwudu mundum      meelwordum frgn:

 

his mighty wooden shaft,      and with formal words asked:
'Hwt syndon g      searohbbendra

 

'What are you      armour-wearers
byrnum werede      e us brontne col

 

bound in byrnies,      who thus your tall keel
ofer lagustrate      ladan cwmon

 

over the sea-street      leading came,
hider ofer holmas?'  

 240

hither over the waters?'
H ws endesata      agwearde hold

 

He was the coast-guardian,      he held the sea-watch,
on land Dena      lra nanig

 

so that on Danish land      no enemies at all
mid scipherge      scean ne meahte

 

with a navy      would not be able to ravage.
'N hr clcor      cuman ongunnon

 

'Not here more openly      began to come
lindhbbende      n g lafnesword

 245

lindenwood shield-bearers,      nor you the leave-word
gfremmendra      gearwe ne wisson

 

of our war-makers      certainly don't know
mga gemdu      nafre ic mran geseah

 

our kinsmen's consent;      never have I seen greater
eorla ofer eoran      onne is ower sum,

 

noble on earth      than the one that you are,
secg on searwum      nis t seldguma

 

warrior in armour;      this is no a mere retainer
wapnum geweorad      nfne him his wlite loge,

 250

made worthy by weapons;      unless he is belied by his looks,
anlic ansn!      N ic ower sceal

 

a unique appearance!      Now I must your
frumcyn witan      ar g fyr heonan

 

lineage learn,      ere you far hence,
lasscaweras      on land Dena

 

deceiving spies      in the land of the Danes
furur fran      N g feorbend

 

further fare;      now you far-dwellers
merelende      mnne gehra

 255

you sea-sailors,      hear my
nfealdne geht:      ofost is slest

 

one-fold thought:      speed is best
t gecanne      hwanan owre cyme syndon.'  

 

for reporting,      whence your comings are.'

IIII

 

Him se yldesta      andswarode

 

He the eldest      answered,
werodes wsa      wordhord onlac:

 

the crew's captain,      he unlocked his word-hoard:
'W synt gumcynnes      Gata lode

 260

'We are of the tribe      of the Geat people
ond Higelces      heorgenatas

 

and Hygelac's      hearth-companions;

ws mn fder      folcum geced

 

my father was      known to the folk,
ele ordfruma      Ecgow hten

 

a noble vanguard-warrior,      called Edgetheow,
gebd wintra worn      ar h on weg hwurfe

 

who saw many winters      ere he passed away,
gamol of geardum      hine gearwe geman

 265

old, from our courtyards;      he is readily recalled
witena wlhwylc      wde geond eoran.

 

by each one of the wise      widely throughout the world.
W urh holdne hige      hlford nne

 

We, by resolute resolve,      your lord,
sunu Healfdenes      scean cwmon

 

the son of Half-Dane      have come to seek,
lodgebyrgean      wes s lrena gd

 

that protector of the people;      be you a good guide to us;
habba w t am maran      micel arende

 270

we have, to that grand one,      a great errand
Deniga frn      ne sceal ar dyrne sum

 

to the Danish lord;      there shouldn't some secret
wesan s ic wne.      wst gif hit is

 

be of this, I think.      You know if it is
sw w slce      secgan hrdon

 

as we truly      have heard said,
t mid Scyldingum      sceaona ic nt hwylc

 

that amongst the Scyldings,      some enemy, I know not what,
dogol dadhata      deorcum nihtum

 275

a furtive despoiler,      in dark nights,
awe urh egsan      uncne n

 

sickeningly reveals      unknown enmity,
hnu ond hrfyl.      Ic s Hrgr mg

 

suffering and slaughter.      I can on this matter, to Hrothgar,
urh rmne sefan      rad gelaran

 

from a spacious spirit,      give counsel,
h h frd ond gd,      fond oferswe--

 

how he, wise and good,      overcome the fiend--
gyf him edwendan      afre scolde

 280

if for him a change      ever should,
bealuwa bisigu      bt eft cuman--

 

from this suffering of miseries      to remedy, come after--
ond cearwylmas      clran wura

 

and his hot wellings of melancholic care      grow cooler;
oe syan      earforge

 

or else ever after,      a time of torment,
rand ola      enden ar wuna

 

horrible hardship he will endure,      so long as there remains,
on hahstede      hsa slest.'

 285

in its high place,      that best of houses.
Weard maelode      ar on wicge st

 

The guard made a speech,      sitting there on his horse,
ombeht unforht:      'Aghwres sceal

 

--the unhesistating officer:      'He will --every
scearp scyldwiga      gescd witan

 

sharp shield-warrior--      know the distinction
worda ond worca      s e wl ence.

 

between words and works,      he who reasons rightly.
Ic t gehre      t is is hold weorod

 290

I hear it,      that this is a legion loyal
fran Scyldinga      gewta for beran

 

to the lord of the Scyldings;      go forth bearing
wapen ond gewadu      ic ow wsige

 

weapons and armour;      I shall guide you;
swylce ic maguegnas      mne hte

 

likewise, I  the kin-thanes      of mine will order,
wi fonda gehwone      flotan owerne

 

against any foes      your vessel,
nwtyrwydne      nacan on sande

 295

--newly tarred,      ship on the sand--
rum healdan      o t eft byre

 

to guard in honour,      until it bears back,
ofer lagustramas      lofne mannan

 

over the sea-streams,      the dear man,
wudu wundenhals      t Wedermearce

 

--the swoop-necked wood --      to Wedermark;
gdfremmendra      swylcum gifee bi

 

those who perform noble deeds--      to such as these it shall be granted
t one hilderas      hl gedge.'

 300

that the battle-rush      he survive in one piece.'
Gewiton him fran      --flota stille bd

 

Then they went faring      --the boat at rest awaited,
seomode on sole      sidfamed scip

 

it rode on the sand      the broad-bosomed ship,
on ancre fst--      eoforlc scionon

 

on anchor fast--      boar-figures shone
ofer hlorberan      gehroden golde   atop cheekguards      adorned with gold;
fh ond frheard      ferhwearde hold

 305

glittering and fire-hard;      life-guard they held;
gmd grummon      guman netton

 

war-spirits raised;      the men hastened,
sigon tsomne      o t h sltimbred

 

marched forward together,      until they the timbered hall,
geatolc ond goldfh      ongyton mihton

 

glorious and gold-trimmed,      were able to glimpse;
t ws foremarost      foldbendum

 

that was the foremost      --for earth-dwellers--
receda under roderum      on am se rca bd

 310

of halls under the heavens,      in it the ruler dwelt;
lxte se loma      ofer landa fela.

 

its light glimmered      over many lands.
Him hildedor      hof mdigra

 

Then to them the fierce fellow     --to that court of great men
torht getahte      t he him t mihton

 

glorious-- he lead,      that they to it could
gegnum gangan      gbeorna sum

 

go directly;      the worthy warrior
wicg gewende      word fter cw:

 315

turned his horse,      thereupon spoke words:
'Mal is m t fran.      Fder alwalda

 

'Time it is for me to go.      The Father all-ruling,
mid rstafum      owic gehealde

 

with grace      may He hold you
sa gesunde!      Ic t sa wille

 

sound on your sojourns!      I will to the sea,
wi wr werod      wearde healdan.'

 

against brutal dacoits      keep watch.'

V

 

Strat ws stnfh      stg wsode

 320

The street was paved with stones,      the path guided
gumum tgdere      gbyrne scn

 

the men together;      war-byrnie shone
heard hondlocen      hringren scr

 

harsh, linked by hand,      ring-iron glittering,
song in searwum      he t sele furum

 

they sang in their arms,      as they to the hall straight
in hyra gryregeatwum      gangan cwmon

 

in their grim gear      came marching;
setton same      sde scyldas

 325

they set down, sea-weary,      their wide shields,
rondas regnhearde      wi s recedes weal

 

the rims wondrous-hard      against the wall of the hall,
bugon t bence      byrnan hringdon

 

and bent down then to a bench;      corslets rang--
gsearo gumena      gras stdon

 

the war-clothes of warriors;      spears stood,
samanna searo      samod tgdere

 

seamen's weapons,      all together,
scholt ufan grag      ws se renrat

 330

silvery above a grove of ash;      the iron-clad troop was
wapnum gewurad      ar wlonc hle

 

honoured in weapons;      then a proud noble
retmecgas      fter hleum frgn:

 

the elite soldiers      asked about the heroes:
'Hwanon ferigea g      fatte scyldas

 

'Whence ferry you      plated shields,
grage syrcan      ond grmhelmas

 

steel-hued shirts of mail      and masked-helms,
heresceafta hap?      Ic eom Hrgres

 335

this host of army-shafts?      I am Hrothgar's
r ond ombiht      ne seah ic elodige

 

herald and officer;      I have not seen from a foreign land
us manige men      mdiglcran

 

this many men      looking braver in spirit;
wn' ic t g for wlenco      nalles for wracsum

 

I expect that you from valour,      not from exile,
ac for higerymmum      Hrgr shton.'

 

but from greatness of heart      have sought out Hrothgar.'
Him ellenrf      andswarode

 340

Then him the renowned one      answered
wlanc Wedera lod      word fter sprc

 

--that proud prince of the Wedera nation--      spoke thereafter words,
heard under helme:      'W synt Higelces

 

severe beneath his helmet:      'We are Hygelac's
bodgenatas      Bowulf is mn nama

 

companions at table;      Beowulf  is my name;
wille ic secgan      sunu Healfdenes

 

I wish to proclaim to      the son of Half-Dane,
marum odne      min arende

 345

--that famed sovereign--      my errand
aldre num      gif h s geunnan wile

 

to your lord,      if he wishes to grant us
t w hine sw gdne      grtan mton.'

 

that we him, the virtuous one,      might greet.'
Wulfgr maelode      --t ws Wendla lod

 

Wulfgar began to speak      --he was the Wendels' leader,
ws his mdsefa      manegum geced

 

his courage was      well-known to many,
wg ond wsdm--:      'Ic s wine Deniga

 350

war-skill and wisdom--:      'I this from friend of the Danes,
fran Scildinga      frnan wille

 

lord of the Scyldings,      will inquire,
baga bryttan      sw bna eart

 

from the giver of rings,      --as you are petitioners--
oden marne      ymb nne s

 

from that famed sovereign      about your quest,
ond andsware      adre gecan

 

and to you the answer      promptly make known
e m se gda      gifan ence.'

 355

which to me the virtuous one      sees fit to give.'
Hwearf hrdlce      ar Hrgr st

 

He turned then quickly      to where Hrothgar sat,
eald ond anhr      mid his eorla gedriht

 

old and very grey,      amid his company of earls;
ode ellenrf      t h for eaxlum gestd

 

he strode grandly      so that he stood by the shoulders
Deniga frn:      ce h dugue aw

 

of the Danes' lord:      he knew the custom of veteran-warriors;
Wulfgr maelode      t his winedrihtne:

  360

Wulfgar made this speech      to his friend and lord:
'Hr syndon geferede      feorran cumene

 

'Here have ventured,      come from far away,
ofer geofenes begang      Gata lode

 

over the expanse of the sea,      men of the Geats;
one yldestan      retmecgas

 

the eldest one      of these elite warriors
Bowulf nemna      h bnan synt

 

is called Beowulf;      they are asking
t he, oden min,      wi mton

 365

that they, my lord,      with you might
wordum wrixlan      n him wearne getoh

 

exchange words;      give them not refusal
nra gegncwida,      gldman Hrgr

 

from your answers,      gracious Hrothgar;
h on wggetwum      wyre incea

 

they by their war-gear      seem worthy
eorla gehtlan      hru se aldor dah

 

of the esteem of nobles;      indeed, the prince is powerful,
s am heaorincum      hider wsade.'

 370

who the warriors      led hither.'

VI

 

Hrgr maelode      helm Scyldinga:

 

Hrothgar spoke,      --the Helm of the Scyldings--:
'Ic hine ce      cnihtwesende

 

'I knew him      when he was a youth;

ws his ealdfder      Ecgo hten

 

his old father was      called Ecgtheow,
am t hm forgeaf      Hrel Gata

 

to whom gave into his home      Hrethel of the Geats
ngan dohtor      is his eaforan n

 375

his only daughter;      now his heir is
heard hr cumen      shte holdne wine.

 

come here bravely,      seeking a steadfast friend.
onne sgdon t      salende

 

Further, it has been said by      sea-farers,
e gifsceattas      Gata fyredon

 

they who our gifts of coins      ferried for the Geats
yder t ance      t h rtiges

 

thither in thanks,      that he thirty   
manna mgencrft      on his mundgripe

  380

men's strength      in the grip of his hand,
heaorf hbbe      hine hlig god

 

renowned in war, has;      him holy God,
for rstafum      s onsende

 

in benevolence,      has sent to us,
t West-Denum      s ic wn hbbe

 

to the West-Danes,      of this I have hope,
wi Grendles gryre      ic am gdan sceal

 

against Grendel's terror;      I the good man must
for his mdrce      mdmas bodan.

  385

for his great daring      offer precious treasures.
Bo on ofeste      ht in gn

 

Be you in haste,      order to come in
son sibbegedriht      samod tgdere

 

to see me the noble band of kinsmen      all together;
gesaga him ac wordum      t he sint wilcuman

 

Say to them also in words,      that they are welcome
Deniga lodum.'     

 

to the Danish land.'     
                             Word inne bad:

 

                             A word from within announced:
'ow ht secgan      sigedrihten mn

  391

'To you I am commanded to say      by my valorous lord,
aldor ast-Dena      t h ower elu can

 

the leader of the East Danes,      that he knows your noble history,
ond g him syndon      ofer sawylmas

 

and you are to him,      over sea-swells,
heardhicgende      hider wilcuman

 

--bold in thought--      welcome hither;
n g mton gangan      in owrum ggeatwum

 

now you may enter      in your war-gear,
under heregrman      Hrgr geseon

  396

under visored-helmets,      to see Hrothgar;
lata hildebord      hr onbidan,

 

let battle-boards      here await,
wuduwlsceaftas,      worda geinges.'

 

and wooden slaughter-shafts,      the result of words.'
rs se rca,      ymb hine rinc manig

 

Then the mighty one arose,      about him many warriors,
rlc egna hap      sume ar bidon

 

the glorious troop of thanes;      some waited there,
heaoraf holdon      sw him se hearda bebad

  401

guarding the gear of war      as the hardy leader bade;
snyredon tsomne      secg wsode

 

they hurried together;      the hero led the way for them
under Heorotes hrf

 

under Heorot's roof,
heard under helme      t h on hoe gestd.

 

severe under his helmet,      until he stood in the hall.
Bowulf maelode      --on him byrne scn

 

Beowulf spoke      --on him a mail-coat gleamed,
searonet seowed      smies orancum--:

  406

a net of armour woven      by smith's skilful art--:
'Ws , Hrgr, hl.      Ic eom Higelces

 

'Be you, Hrothgar, whole.       I am Hygelace's
mag ond magoegn      hbbe ic mara fela

 

kinsman and retainer;      I have many great labours
ongunnen on geogoe      m wear Grendles ing

 

undertaken in my youth;      Grendel's enterprises have to me become,
on mnre eltyrf      undyrne c:

 

on my native soil,      clearly known:
secga salend      t s sele stande

  411

it is said by sea-farers      that in this hall stands,
reced slesta      rinca gehwylcum

 

--the best of buildings--      for each and every man,
del ond unnyt      sian afenloht

 

idle and useless,      after evening-light
under heofenes hdor      beholen weore.

 

under the firmament of heaven      goes to hide.
m t gelardon      lode mne

 

Then I was advised that,      by my people,
slestan      snotere ceorlas,

  416

the best ones,      the clever chaps,
oden Hrgr,      t ic shte

 

sovereign Hrothgar,      that it were thee I should seek,
for an he mgenes crft      mne con

 

for that they the force of the strength      of mine knew;
selfe oferswon      ic of searwum cwm

 

themselves had looked on,      when I returned from battle,
fh from fondum      ar ic ffe geband

 

stained with the blood of foes,      where I bound five,
de eotena cyn      ond on um slg

  421

destroyed ogrish kin,      and amid the waves slew
niceras nihtes      nearoearfe drah

 

nicors by night;      I weathered distress in many a tight corner,
wrc Wedera n      --wan hsodon--

 

avenged injury done the Wederas      --they sought woe--
forgrand gramum      ond n wi Grendel sceal

 

the foes I crushed,      and now against Grendel I am bound,
wi m glacan      na gehgan

 

with that terrible creature,      alone,   to settle
ing wi yrse.      Ic n ,

  426

the affair with the troll.      I now then you,
brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,

 

prince of the Bright-Danes,      want to request,
eodor Scyldinga,      nre bne:

 

O protector of the Scyldings,      one boon:
t m ne forwyrne,      wgendra hlo

 

that you not refuse me,      O shield of warriors,
frowine folca,      n ic us feorran cm

 

liege and comrade of the folk,      now that I have come thus far;
t ic mte na,      mnra eorla gedryht

  431

that I might alone,      with my company of nobles
ond es hearda hap,      Heorot falsian

 

and this hardy horde of warriors,      clense Heorot;
hbbe ic ac ge-hsod      t s aglaca

 

I have also heard      that the evil creature
for his wonhdum      wapna ne recce

 

in his recklessness      heeds not weapons;
ic t onne forhicge      --sw m Higelc se

 

then I it scorn      --so that for me Hygelac may be
mn mondrihten      mdes ble--

  436

my liege-lord      blithe in his heart--
t ic sweord bere      oe sdne scyld

 

that I bear a sword      or broad shield,
geolorand t ge      ac ic mid grpe sceal

 

yellow-rim to war,      but I with my grip shall
fn wi fonde      ond ymb feorh sacan,

 

fight with this fiend      and over life strive,
l wi lum      ar gelfan sceal

 

enemy against enemy;      there must trust in
dryhtnes dme      s e hine da nime

  441

the judgement of the Lord,      whichever one that Death takes;
wn' ic t h wille      gif h wealdan mt

 

I expect that he will wish,      if he can compass it,
in am gsele      Gotena lode

 

in the war-hall,      the Geatish people
etan unforhte      sw h oft dyde,

 

to devour fearlessly,      as he often did,
mgenhr manna.      N mnne earft

 

the force of glorious warriors.      You will have no need for my
hafalan hdan      ac h m habban wile

  446

head to shroud,      but rather he will have me
dore fahne      gif mec da nime

 

fiercely stained with gore,      if me Death takes,
byre bldig wl      byrgean ence

 

he will bear my bloody corpse;      he aims to bite,
ete ngenga      unmurnlce

 

the lone prowler eats      unmournfully,
mearca mrhopu      n ymb mnes ne earft

 

marking the limits of his moor enclosures;      nor will you for the needs of my
lces feorme      leng sorgian.

  451

body's funeral-provisions      have any further concern.
Onsend Higelce      gif mec hild nime

 

Send to Hygelac,      if I am taken by battle,
beaduscrda betst      t mne brost were,

 

the best of battle-shrouds,      the one that protects my breast,
hrgla slest      t is Hradlan lf

 

choicest of garments;      that is Hrethel's relic,
Wlandes geweorc.      Ga wyrd sw ho scel.'

 

Wayland's work.        Fate goes always as She must.'

VII

 

Hrgr maelode      helm Scyldinga:

  456

Hrothgar spoke,      the helm of the Scyldings:
'Fre fyhtum, ,      wine mn Bowulf,

 

'Fit to fight, you,      my friend Beowulf,
ond for rstafum      sic shtest.

 

and for honour      us have sought.
Geslh n fder      fahe maste:

 

Your father by striking began      the greatest feud:
wear h Heaolfe      t handbonan

 

he was Heatholaf's      slayer by his own hand
mid Wilfingum      hine gra cyn

  461

of the Wylfings;      then him his spear-kin
for herebrgan      habban ne mihte

 

for dread of troops      could not shelter;
anon h geshte      S-Dena folc

 

thence he sought      the South-Danes' folk
ofer a gewealc,      r-Scyldinga

 

over the welling of the waves,      the Honour-Scyldings;
ic furum wold      folce Deninga

 

at that time I had just begun to rule      the Danish folk
ond on geogoe hold      gimmerce

  466

and in my youth held      the precious kingdom,
hordburh hlea      ws Heregr dad

 

the treasure-keep of heroes;      then was Heregar dead,
mn yldra mag      unlifigende

 

my elder brother      unliving,
bearn Healfdenes      s ws betera onne ic.

 

the son of Half-Dane;      he was better than I.
Sian fahe      fo ingode

 

Then the feud      I settled with fees;
sende ic Wylfingum      ofer wteres hrycg

  471

I sent the Wylfings      across the water's ridge
ealde mdmas      h m as swr.

 

ancient treasures;      he swore oaths to me.
Sorh is m t secganne      on sefan mnum

 

It sorrows me to say      in my heart
gumena angum      hwt m Grendel hafa

 

to any man      Grendel has caused me what
hno on Heorote      mid his heteancum

 

humiliations in Heorot      with his thoughts of hatred,
farna gefremed      is mn fletwerod

  476

carried out lightning-quick attacks;      my hall-troop is
wghap gewanod      he wyrd forswop

 

waned, that war-band;      they have been swept aside by Fate
on Grendles gryre      god ae mg

 

in Grendel's horrid violence;      God can easily
one dolsceaan      dada getwafan.

 

the rash ravager's      deeds put an end to.
Ful oft gebotedon      bore druncne

 

Full oft have vowed,      having drunk beer,
ofer ealowage      retmecgas

  481

over ale-flagons,      battle-men,
t he in borsele      bdan woldon

 

that they in the beer-hall      would await
Grendles ge      mid gryrum ecga.

 

Grendel's onslaught      with vicious edges.
onne ws os medoheal      on morgentd

 

Then, this mead-hall was      in the morning
drihtsele drorfh      onne dg lixte,

 

this noble hall stained with gore      when the day lightened,
eal bencelu      blde bestmed

  486

all of the benches      smeared with blood
heall heoru-drore      hte ic holdra las,

 

the hall battle-gory;      I had friends the fewer,
dorre dugue      da fornam.

 

cherished old battle-retinue,      for these Death took them away.
Site n t symle      ond onsal meoto

 

Sit now to feast      and untie your thoughts
sigehr secgum      sw n sefa hwette.'

 

of your glorious victories to the soldiers,      as your heart urges.'
ws Gatmcgum      geador tsomne

  491

Then the Geatish men were      gathered together
on borsele      benc germed

 

in the beer-hall,      room was made on a bench,
ar swferhe      sittan odon

 

there the strong-souled      went to sit down,
rum dealle      egn nytte behold

 

proud in prowess      a thane performed his office,
s e on handa br      hroden ealowage

 

he who in his hands bore      an ornate ale-cup,
scencte scr wered      scop hwlum sang

  496

decanted pure sweet mead;      a bard sang from time to time
hdor on Heorote      ar ws hlea dram,

 

clear in Heorot;      there was joy of heroes,
dugu unltel      Dena ond Wedera.

 

no small host      of Danes and Wederas.

VIII

Hunfer maelode      Ecglfes bearn
Unferth spoke,      the son of Edgelaf,
e t ftum st      fran Scyldinga who sat at the feet      of the lord of the Scyldings;
onband beadurne      --ws him Bowulfes s

  501

he unbound battle-runes      --for him was the venture of Beowulf,
mdges merefaran      micel funca

 

brave seafarer's,      a source of great displeasure,
foron e h ne e      t anig er man

 

because he did not grant      that any other man
afre mara on m      middangeardes

 

ever glorious deeds the more      on middle-earth
gehdde under heofenum      onne h sylfa--:

 

heeded under the heavens      than he himself--:
'Eart s Bowulf      s e wi Brecan wunne

  506

'Are you the Beowulf,      who contested against Breca          
on sdne sa      ymb sund flite?

 

on the broad sea,      contended around the ocean-sound?
ar git for wlence      wada cunnedon

 

Where you for bravado      tempted the waters
ond for dolgilpe      on dop wter

 

and for a foolish boast      in deep sea
aldrum ndon      n inc anig mon

 

risked your lives,      you no man
n lof n l      belan mihte

  511

--neither friend nor foe--      could dissuade
sorhfullne s      a git on sund rn

 

from that sorrowful jaunt,      when you rowed into the strait;
ar git agorstram      earmum ehton

 

there you sea-currents      in your arms embraced,
maton merestrata      mundum brugdon

 

traversed the ocean-roads,      with hands wove,
glidon ofer grsecg      geofon um

 

gliding over the sea;      the ocean in waves
wol wintrys wylm      git on wteres aht

  516

welled, in winter's swells;      you in the water's grasp
seofon niht swuncon      h t sunde oferflt

 

toiled for seven nights;      he got the better of you on the sea,
hfde mre mgen.      hine on morgentd

 

he had more might.      Then he in the morning
on Heao-Rames      holm up tbr

 

on Heatho-Reams' shore      was cast up by the sea;
onon h geshte      swasne el,

 

thence he sought      his own homeland,
lof his lodum,      lond Brondinga

  521

dear to his people,      the land of the Brondings,
freooburh fgere      ar h folc hte

 

the fair citadel,      he had folk there,
burh ond bagas      bot eal wi

 

boroughs and rings;      the entire boast with you
sunu Banstnes      se gelaste.

 

the son of Beanstan      truly fulfilled.
onne wne ic t      wyrsan geingea

 

I expect then for you      worse results,
ah heaorasa      gehwar dohte

  526

though you in war-assaults      everywhere prevailed,
grimre ge      gif Grendles dearst

 

grim combat,      if you for Grendel dare
nihtlongne fyrst      nn bdan.'

 

the space of a night      nearby wait.'
Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:

 

Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Hwt, worn fela,      wine mn Hunfer,

 

'Listen, you a great deal      --Unferth, my friend,
bore druncen      ymb Brecan sprace

  531

drunk on beer--      have spoken about Breca,
sgdest from his se.      S ic talige

 

told of his journey.      Truth I claim
t ic merestrengo      mran hte

 

that I sea-strength      greater had,
earfeo on um      onne anig er man

 

hardship on the waves,      than any other man;
wit t gecwadon      cnihtwesende

 

we had it agreed,      being lads,
ond gebotedon      --waron bgen git

  536

and vowed      --being both then still
on geogofore--      t wit on grsecg t

 

in the years of youth--      that we out on the ocean
aldrum ndon      ond t gefndon sw.

 

our lives would risk,      and thus that we did.
Hfdon swurd nacod      wit on sund rn

 

We had naked swords      when we rowed on the ocean-sound,
heard on handa:      wit unc wi hronfixas

 

hard in our hands:      we ourselves against whales
werian hton      n h wiht fram m

  541

planned to defend;      not a whit from me was he
fldum feor      flotan meahte

 

on the sea-waves far      able to float,
hraor on holme      n ic fram him wolde

 

swifter on water,      nor did I wish to part from him;
wit tsomne      on sa waron

 

then we together      were on the sea,
ff nihta fyrst      o t unc fld tdrf

 

for the space of five nights,      until the sea-waves drove us apart,
wado weallende      wedera cealdost

  546

the water welling,      the coldest of weathers,
npende niht      ond noranwind

 

the darkening night      and the north wind
heaogrim ondhwearf      hro waron a

 

fierce turned against us;      wild were the waves;
ws merefixa      md onhrred

 

then was the sea-fishes'      wrath roused;
ar m wi lum      lcsyrce mn

 

there me against foes      my body-shirt
heard hondlocen      helpe gefremede

  551

strong and hand-linked,      did me help,
beadohrgl brden      on brostum lg

 

my battle-garment braided      lay on my breast,
golde gegyrwed      m t grunde tah

 

adorned with gold;      to the bottom of the sea I was drawn
fh fondscaa      fste hfde

 

by the hostile foe-scather,      it held me fast,
grim on grpe      hwre m gyfee wear

 

cruel in grip;      however, to it was granted
t ic glacan      orde gerahte

  556

that I the monster      reached with my point,
hildebille      heaoras fornam

 

with battle-bill;      in the battle-rush I destroyed
mihtig meredor      urh mne hand.

 

the mighty sea-beast      with my hand.

VIIII

 

Sw mec gelme      lgetonan

 

Thus me often      hateful attackers
ratedon earle      ic him node

 

pressed sorely;      I served them
doran sweorde      sw hit gedfe ws

  561

with my dear sword,      as it was fitting;
ns he are fylle      gefan hfdon

 

they the feast did not      have rejoicing,
mnfordadlan      t he m gon

 

those perpetrators of crime,      that they partook of me,
symbel ymbsaton      sagrunde nah

 

sitting round a banquet      near the sea-bed
ac on mergenne      mcum wunde

 

but in the morning      by maiche-swords wounded,
be lfe      uppe lagon

  566

along what is left by the waves      up they lay
sweordum swefede      t syan n

 

put to sleep by swords,      so that never since
ymb brontne ford      brimlende

 

on the high waterway      sea-travellers
lde ne letton.      Loht astan cm

 

way did not hinder.      Light came from the east,
beorht bacen godes      brimu swaredon

 

bright beacon of God,      the sea became still,
t ic sanssas      geson mihte

  571

so that I the headlands      was able to see,
windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nere

 

windswept walls.      Fate often spares
unfagne eorl      onne his ellen dah.

 

the hero not fated to die      when his courage endures.
Hwere m gesalde      t ic mid sweorde ofslh

 

However it was my good fortune      that I with my sword slew
niceras nigene      n ic on niht gefrgn

 

nine of the nicors;      I have not heard by night
under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan

  576

under heaven's vault      of a more grievous fight,
n on gstramum      earmran mannon

 

nor on the water-streams      of a more wretched man;
hwaere ic fra feng      fore gedgde

 

yet I the foes' grasp      survived with my life,
sies wrig      mec sa obr

 

weary from my venture;      then the sea bore me off
fld fter faroe      on Finna land

 

flood following current      onto the land of the Lapps,
wudu weallendu.      N ic wiht fram

  581

the tossing boat.      Not a whit of thee
swylcra searona      secgan hrde

 

in such strife of conflict      have I heard told,
billa brgan      Breca nafre gt

 

of bill-blade terror;      Breca never yet
t heaolce      n gehwer incer

 

at battle-play,      nor either of you,
sw dorlce      dad gefremede

 

so boldly      performed a deed
fgum sweordum      --n ic s gylpe--

  586

with bright swords      --I do not boast of this--
ah num brrum      t banan wurde

 

nevertheless, you your brothers'      killer were,
hafodmagum      s in helle scealt

 

near relatives;      for that you must with Hel
werho dreogan      ah n wit duge

 

suffer torment,      though your mind is strong;
secge ic to se,      sunu Ecglfes,

 

I say to you in truth,      son of Edgelaf,
t nafre Grendel sw fela      gryra gefremede

  591

that Grendel would have never so many      atrocities committed,
atol aglaca      ealdre num,

 

--that terrible demon--      to your leader,
hno on Heorote      gif n hige ware

 

humiliation on Heorot,      if your heart were,
sefa sw searogrim      sw self talast

 

and your spirit so battle-fierce      as you yourself tell
ac h hafa onfunden      t h fahe ne earf

 

but he has found      that the fight he needs not,
atole ecgrce      ower lode

  596

that terrible storm of sword-edges      of your nation,
swe onsittan      Sige-Scyldinga

 

greatly to dread,      of the Victory-Scyldings;
nyme ndbde      nanegum ra

 

he takes a forced toll,      spares none
lode Deniga      ac h lust wige

 

of the Danish people,      but he carries on his delight,
swefe ond sende      secce ne wne

 

slaying and despatching,      he does not expect contest
t Gr-Denum.      Ac ic him Gata sceal

  601

from the Spear-Danes.      But I shall him the Geats'
eafo ond ellen      ungera n

 

might and courage,      before long now,
ge gebodan      ga eft, s e mt

 

offer in war;      a man will be able to go back,
t medo mdig      sian morgenloht

 

to mead bravely,      when the morning-light
ofer ylda bearn      res dgores

 

over the sons of men      of another day,
sunne sweglwered      san scne.'

  606

the sun clad in radiance,      shines from the south.'
ws on slum      sinces brytta

 

Then was joyful      the dispenser of treasures,
gamolfeax ond grf      goce gelfde

 

with wizened hair and brave in battle      for support he trusted
brego Beorht-Dena      gehrde on Bowulfe

 

the lord of the Bright-Danes      heard in Beowulf
folces hyrde      fstradne geht

 

the guardian of the folk,      firmly-resolved intent;
ar ws hlea hleahtor      hlyn swynsode

  611

There was the laughter of heroes,      the noise made melody,
word waron wynsume.      ode Wealhow for

 

words were joyful.      Wealhtheow came forth,
cwn Hrgres      cynna gemyndig

 

Hrothgar's queen,      mindful of etiquette,
grtte goldhroden      guman on healle

 

greeted, gold-adorned,      the men in the hall
ond frolc wf      ful gesealde

 

and then the noble lady      gave out full cups,
arest ast-Dena      elwearde

  616

first to the East-Danes      homeland-guardian,
bd hine blne      t are borege

 

bade him be blithe      at the partaking of beer,
lodum lofne      h on lust geeah

 

beloved by the people;      he took in delight
symbel ond seleful      sigerf kyning

 

feast-food and hall-cup,      the victorious king;
ymb-ode      ides Helminga

 

then she went among them,      the lady of the Helmings,
dugue ond geogoe      dal aghwylcne

  621

to veteran and youth      a portion to each,
sincfato sealde      o t sal lamp

 

gave rich cups,      until the time came
t ho Bowulfe,      baghroden cwn

 

that she to Beowulf,      the ring-adorned queen,
mde geungen      medoful tbr

 

blossoming in spirit,      carried a mead-cup;
grtte Gata lod      gode ancode

 

she greeted the Geatish prince,      thanked God,
wsfst wordum      s e hire se willa gelamp

  626

wise in her words,      for that her wish was to be fulfilled,
t ho on anigne      eorl gelfde

 

that she in any      noble man could count on
fyrena frfre.      H t ful geeah

 

relief from wickedness.      He took that full-cup,
wlrow wiga      t Wealhn

 

the slaughter-fierce warrior      from Wealhtheow,
ond gyddode      ge gefsed

 

and then spoke solemnly,      made eager for war;
Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:

  631

Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Ic t hogode      ic on holm gesth

 

'I resolved that,      when I mounted the water,
sabt gest      mid mnra secga gedriht

 

sat down in the sea-boat      amid my company of warriors,
at ic nunga      owra loda

 

that I forthwith      your people's
willan geworhte      oe on wl crunge

 

will would work,      or fall in slaughter,
fondgrpum fst      ic gefremman sceal

  636

fast in the fiend's grasp;      I must perform
eorlc ellen      oe endedg

 

this daring act of courage      or the last day
on isse meoduhealle      mnne gebdan.'

 

in this mead-hall      of mine await.'
m wfe word      wl lcodon

 

The woman these words      liked well,
gilpcwide Gates      ode goldhroden

 

the vow-speech of the Geat;      went gold-adorned,
frolicu folccwn      t hire fran sittan.

  641

the noble queen of the folk,      to sit by her lord.
ws eft sw ar      inne on healle

 

Then were again, as before,      in the hall,
rword sprecen,      od on salum,

 

bold words spoken,      the people full of joy,
sigefolca swg      o t semninga

 

--victory-folk's clamour--      until presently
sunu Healfdenes      scean wolde

 

the son of Half-Dane      wished to seek
afenrste      wiste am hlacan

  646

evening-rest;      he knew that the ogre
t am hahsele      hilde geinged

 

for the high hall      had plotted an attack,
sian he sunnan loht      geson meahton

 

ever since when they the sun's light      could see;
oe npende      niht ofer ealle

 

and darkening      night all over,
scaduhelma gesceapu      scran cwman

 

shadow-helm's shapes      came slithering,
wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall rs

  651

black beneath the skies.      The troop all arose;
gegrtte guma      guman erne

 

greeted then the man      the other man,
Hrgr Bowulf      ond him hal bad

 

Hrothgar Beowulf,      and bid him health,
wnrnes geweald      ond t word cw:

 

the wine-hall's ruler,      and spoke these words:
'Nafre ic anegum men      ar lfde

 

'I never to any man      before entrusted,
sian ic hond ond rond      hebban mihte

  656

since I hand and shield      was able to raise,
rrn Dena      bton n

 

this strong-hall of the Danes,      save to thee now;
hafa n ond geheald      hsa slest

 

have now and hold      this best of houses,
gemyne maro      mgenellen c

 

focus on glory,      show great valour,
waca wi wrum      ne bi wilna gd

 

keep watch against the enemy;      there shall be no dearth of your desires
gif t ellenweorc      aldre gedgest.'

  661

if this courage-work you      survive with your life.'

X

 

him Hrgr gewt      mid his hlea gedryht   Then Hrothgar went      with his band of heroes,
eodur Scyldinga      t of healle   the protector of the Scyldings,      out of the hall;
wolde wgfruma      Wealho scan

 

he wished      to seek Wealhtheow,
cwn t gebeddan      hfde kyningwuldor

 

the queen as companion in bed;      the glory of kings had,
Grendle tganes      sw guman gefrungon

  666

against Grendel,      --so men heard--
seleweard seted:      sundornytte behold

 

the hall-guard posted:      special duty he held
ymb aldor Dena      eotonweard' bad.

 

for the chief of the Danes,      ogre-watch he kept.
Hru Gata lod      georne trwode

 

Indeed the prince of the Geats      keenly trusted
mdgan mgnes,      metodes hyldo

 

in his prodigious power,      his Maker's favour,
h him of dyde      sernbyrnan

  671

then he from himself took      iron-byrnie,
helm of hafelan      sealde his hyrsted sweord

 

helm from head,      gave his adorned sword,
rena cyst      ombihtegne

 

the choicest of irons,      to his retainer,
ond gehealdan ht      hildegeatwe

 

and commanded him ward      his battle-gear;
gesprc se gda      gylpworda sum

 

the good man spoke then      some promise-words,
Bowulf Gata      ar h on bed stige:

  676

Beowulf of the Geats,      before he stepped into bed:
'N ic m an herewsmun      hngran talige

 

'I myself in martial-stature do not      tally poorer
ggeweorca      onne Grendel hine

 

in works of war      then Grendel himself;
foran ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,

 

therefore him with my sword I      shall not slay,
aldre benotan      ah ic eal mge

 

deprive of life,      though I fully am able;
nt h ra gda      t h m ongan sl

  681

he knows not the finer skills      that he may strike me back,
rand gehawe      ah e h rf se

 

hew my rimmed-shield,      although he is renowned
ngeweorca      ac wit on niht sculon

 

for malicious works      but we at night must
secge ofersittan      gif h gescean dear

 

relinquish short sword      if he dares to seek
wg ofer wapen      ond sian wtig god

 

war without weapons,      and then wise God,
on sw hwere hond      hlig dryhten

  686

on whichever hand,      the holy Lord
maro dme      sw him gemet ince.'

 

will allot glory,      as seems fitting to Him.'
Hylde hine heaodor      --hlorbolster onfng

 

The war-bold one then bent himself down      --the cheek-bolster received
eorles andwlitan--      ond hine ymb monig

 

the earl's face--      and round him many
snellc sarinc      selereste gebah

 

brave seaman      sank down in hall-slumber;
nanig heora hte      t h anon scolde

  691

none of them thought      that he thence would
eft eardlufan      afre gescean

 

his dear home again      ever visit,
folc oe froburh      ar h fded ws

 

his folk or his noble citadel,      where he was nurtured
ac he hfdon gefrnen      t he ar t fela micles

 

for they had heard      that far too many of them already
in am wnsele      wlda fornam

 

in that wine-hall      slaughtering Death had carried off
Denigea lode.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf

  696

of the Danish people.      But to them the Lord granted
wgspda gewiofu       Wedera lodum

 

the woven-destiny of war-luck      to the Wederas' men,
frfor ond fultum      t he fond heora

 

solace and support,      that they their foe,
urh nes crft      ealle ofercmon

 

through the strength of one,      all overcame,
selfes mihtum      s is geced,

 

by his own might;      truth is known
t mihtig god      manna cynnes

  701

that mighty God      mankind
weold wdeferh.      Cm on wanre niht

 

has ruled forever.      In the colourless night came
scran sceadugenga      scotend swafon

 

slinking the shadow-wanderer;      the shooters slept,
t hornreced      healdan scoldon

 

they that the horned-house      were obliged to guard,
ealle bton num      --t ws yldum c

 

all but one      --it was known to men
t he ne mste      metod nolde

  706

that they could not,      when the Maker did not wish it,
se synscaa      under sceadu bregdan--

 

by the malefactor      be drawn under the shadows--
ac h wccende      wrum on andan

 

but he watching      in angry indignation
bd bolgenmd      beadwa geinges.

 

bided in rising rage      for the result of battle.

XI

 

cm of mre      under misthleoum

 

Then came from the moor      under the misty cliffs
Grendel gongan      godes yrre br

  711

Grendel walking,      God's wrath he bore;

mynte se mnscaa      manna cynnes

 

the vile ravager meant      from mankind
sumne besyrwan      in sele m han

 

a sample to snare      in the high hall;
wd under wolcnum      t s e h wnreced

 

he waded under the clouds      until he the wine-hall,
goldsele gumena      gearwost wisse

 

--the gold-hall of men--      mostly-certainly saw,
fattum fhne      ne ws t forma s

716

shining gold;      it was not the first time
t h Hrgres      hm geshte

 

that he Hrothgar's      home had sought;
nafre h on aldordagum      ar ne sian

 

he never in the days of his life,      ere nor after,
heardran hale      healegnas fand.

 

harder luck      or hall-thanes found.
  Cm to recede      rinc sian

 

  He came then to the hall      the fighter journeying,
dramum bedaled      duru sna onarn

  721

cut-off from merriment;      the door soon rushed open,
frbendum fst      syan h hire folmum thrn

 

firm with fire-forged bands,      when he tapped it with his hands
onbrad bealohdig      h gebolgen ws,

 

plotting evil then he tore open,      now that he was enraged,
recedes man      rae fter on

 

the mouth of the building;      straight after that
on fgne flr      fond treddode

 

on the tessellated floor      the fiend treaded,
ode yrremd      him of agum std

  726

advanced angrily;      from his eyes issued,
ligge gelcost      loht unfager

 

most like a flame,      a distorted light;
geseah h in recede      rinca manige

 

he saw in the hall      many warriors
swefan sibbegedriht      samod tgdere

 

a sleeping company of kinsmen      gathered together
magorinca hap.      his md hlg:

 

a great host of warriors.      Then his heart laughed:  
mynte t h gedalde      ar on dg cwme

  731

he intended to deprive,      ere the day came,
atol glaca      nra gehwylces

 

the cruel beast,      from each one
lf wi lce      him lumpen ws

 

life from body,      now had befallen him
wistfylle wn.      Ne ws t wyrd gn

 

a hope of a full feast.      It was not his fate again
t h m mste      manna cynnes

 

that he might more      of mankind
icgean ofer niht      rsw behold

  736

partake of after that night;      the mighty man beheld,
mag Higelces      h se mnscaa

 

the kinsman of Hygelac,      how the cruel killer
under fargripum      gefaran wolde.

 

by means of a sudden attack      wished to proceed.
N t se glaca      yldan hte

 

That the monster did not      think to delay,
ac h gefng hrae      forman se

 

but he quickly grasped,      at the first occasion,
slapendne rinc      slt unwearnum

  741

a sleeping warrior,      rended without restraint,
bt bnlocan      bld drum dranc

 

bit into the bone-locks,      from the veins drank blood,
synsnadum swealh      sna hfde

 

swallowed great chunks;      soon he had
unlyfigendes      ealgefeormod

 

the unliving one      all devoured,
ft ond folma      for nar tstp

 

feet and hands;      nearer he stepped forth,
nam mid handa      higehtigne

  746

taking then with his hands      a stout-hearted
rinc on rste      rahte ongan

 

warrior from his rest,      reached towards him
fond mid folme      h onfng hrae

 

the foe with his palm;      quickly he grasped
inwitancum      ond wi earm gest.

 

the malice thoughts      and clamped down on the arm.
Sna t onfunde      fyrena hyrde

 

At once he found,      the shepherd of atrocities,
t h ne mtte      middangeardes

  751

that he had not met      in middle-earth,
eoran scatta      on elran men

 

in the expanse of the world,      in another man
mundgripe mran      h on mde wear

 

a greater hand-grip;      he in his heart grew
forht on ferhe      n ar fram meahte

 

fearing for life;      none the sooner could he away;
hyge ws him hinfs      wolde on heolster flon,

 

eager-to-go-hence was the thought in him,      he wanted to flee into the darkness,
scan dofla gedrg      ne ws his drohto ar

  756

to seek the devils' concourse;      his situation there was not
swylce h on ealderdagum      ar gemtte.

 

like he in the days of his life      ever had met.

Gemunde se gda      mag Higelces

 

The good man then recalled,      the kinsman of Hygelac,
afensprace      uplang std

 

his evening-speech;      upright he stood
ond him fste wifng      fingras burston

 

and laid hold of him tight;      fingers burst;
eoten ws tweard      eorl furur stp.

  761

the troll was striving to move outward,      the earl stepped forward.
Mynte se mara      hwar h meahte sw

 

The infamous one meant,      anywhere he so was able,
wdre gewindan      ond on weg anon

 

farther escape      and away thence
flon on fenhopu     wiste his fingra geweald

 

flee to his secret places in the fen;      he knew his fingers' control
on grames grpum      t he ws gocors

 

in his enemy's grip,      that was a bitter journey he
t s hearmscaa      to Heorute tah.

  766

that the harm-warrior      had taken to Heorot.
Dryhtsele dynede      Denum eallum wear

 

The noble hall broke into a din;      the Danes all were,
ceasterbendum      cnra gehwylcum

 

--the citadel-dwellers--      each of the bold,
eorlum ealuscerwen      yrre waron bgen

 

earls in the flood of bitter drink;      enraged were both
re renweardas      reced hlynsode.

 

fierce hall-wards;      the hall resounded.
ws wundor micel      t se wnsele

  771

Then it was a great wonder      that the wine-hall
wihfde heaodorum      t h on hrsan ne fol

 

withstood the war-fighters,      that it did not fall to the ground,

fager foldbold      ac h s fste ws

 

the fair mansion      but it so firm was
innan ond tan      renbendum

 

inside and out      with iron-bands
searooncum besmiod      ar fram sylle bag

 

skilfully smithed;      there from the floor broke away
medubenc monig      mne gefrage

  776

many mead-benches,      I heard,
golde geregnad      ar graman wunnon

 

adorned with gold,      where the enemies struggled;
s ne wndon ar      witan Scyldinga

 

it was not thought before,      by the sages of the Scyldings,
t hit mid gemete      manna anig

 

that it ever by means      any men
betlc ond bnfg      tbrecan meahte,

 

splendid and bone-adorned,      could break it up,
listum tlcan      nyme lges fm

  781

cleverly cleave asunder,      not unless fire's embrace
swulge on swaule.      Swg up stg

 

swallowed it in inferno.      Sound ascended up,
nwe geneahhe      Nor-Denum std

 

new, nearby:      the North-Danes stood
atelc egesa      nra gehwylcum

 

in ghastly horror,      in each one of

ra e of wealle      wp gehrdon,

 

them who from the wall      weeping heard,
gryrelo galan      godes andsacan

  786

terrible screaming,      God's adversary,
sigelasne sang,      sr wnigean

 

a victoryless song,      bewailing his wound,
helle hfton      hold hine fste

 

Hel's prisoner;      he held him fast,
s e manna ws      mgene strengest

 

he who was of men      in might strongest
on am dge      ysses lfes.

 

on that day      in this life.

XII

 

sydaudio Nolde eorla hlo      anige inga

  791

The protector of earls had no wish      for any reason

one cwealmcuman      cwicne forlatan

 

the murderous guest      to release alive,
n his lfdagas      loda anigum

 

nor his life-days      to any people
nytte tealde.      r genehost brgd

 

counted as advantage.      There many brandished
eorl Bowulfes      ealde lfe

 

warriors of Beowulf,      old heirlooms,
wolde fradrihtnes      feorh ealgian

  796

they wished prince-lord's      life defend,
mares odnes      ar he meahton sw

 

the legendary leader's,      if they could do so;
he t ne wiston      he gewin drugon

 

they did not know that,      when they joined the fray,
heardhicgende      hildemecgas

 

the bold-minded      battle-men,
ond on healfa gehwone      hawan hton,

 

and on each side      thought to heaw,
swle scan:      one synscaan

  801

to seek the soul:      that the sin-scather
anig ofer eoran      renna cyst

 

any on earth,      of the choicest of irons,
gbilla nn      grtan nolde

 

of war-bills, none,      could not at all greet him
ac h sigewapnum      forsworen hfde

 

but he victory-weapons      had forsworn,
ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldorgedl

 

every blade-edge.      His life-severing was bound to
on am dge      ysses lfes

  806

on that day      in this life
earmlc wuran      ond se ellorgst

 

be wretched,      and the alien-spirit
on fonda geweald      feor sian

 

into the administration of fiends      would journey far away;
t onfunde      s e fela aror

 

then he found,      he who before many,
mdes myre      manna cynne

 

miseries in his mind,      on mankind
fyrene gefremede      --he, fg wi god--

  811

atrocities committed      --he, who fought with God--
t him se lchoma      lastan nolde

 

that him his body-shell      would not obey,
ac hine se mdega      mag Hygelces

 

but him the daring      kinsman of Hygelac
hfde be honda      ws gehwer rum

 

had by the hand;      each was by the other
lifigende l      lcsr gebd

 

loathed while living;      body-pain he felt,
atol aglaca      him on eaxle wear

  816

the awful ogre;      on his shoulder was
syndolh sweotol      seonowe onsprungon

 

a great wound apparent,      sinows sprang asunder,
burston bnlocan      Bowulfe wear

 

bone-locks burst;      to Beowulf was
ghr gyfee      scolde Grendel onan

 

war-glory given;      thence Grendel had to
feorhsoc fln      under fenhleou,

 

flee sick unto death      under the hills of the fen,
scean wynlas wc      wiste geornor

  821

to seek his joyless abode;      he knew it more surely
t his aldres ws      ende gegongen

 

that was his life's      end arrived,
dgera dgrm.      Denum eallum wear

 

the day-count of his days.      For the Danes were all,
fter m wlrase      willa gelumpen:

 

after that slaughter-storm,      wishes come to pass:
hfde gefalsod      s e ar feorran cm

 

he had then cleansed,      he who had before come from afar,
snotor ond swferh      sele Hrgres,

  826

shrewd and strong-minded,      the hall of Hrothgar,
genered wi ne      nihtweorce gefeh

 

rescued from ruin;      in his night's work he rejoiced,
ellenmarum      hfde ast-Denum

 

in valour from great deeds;      to the East-Danes had
Gatmecga lod      gilp gelsted

 

the Geatmen's leader,      his oath fulfilled;
swylce once      ealle gebtte

 

so too anguish      all remedied,
inwidsorge      he ar drugon

  831

grievous sorrow,      that they had ere endured,
ond for randum      olian scoldon

 

and in hard distress      had to suffer,
torn unltel      t ws tcen sweotol

 

no small misery;      that was a clear sign,
syan hildedor      hond legde

 

when the battle-bold one      the hand placed,
earm ond eaxle      --ar ws eal geador

 

arm and shoulder      --there was all together
Grendles grpe--      under gapne hrf.

  836

the grip of Grendel--      under the gaping roof.

XIII

 

ws on morgen      mne gefrage

 

Then was in the morning,      as I heard tell,
ymb gifhealle      grinc monig

 

about the gift-hall      many warriors,
frdon folctogan      feorran ond nn

 

folk-chiefs arrived      from far and near
geond wdwegas      wundor scawian

 

across wide regions      to behold the wonder,
les lstas      n his lfgedl

  841

the foe's foot-prints;      his parting from life did not
srlc hte      secga anegum

 

seem mournful      to any man
ra e trlases      trode scawode

 

of those who the gloryless foe's      track observed,
h h wrigmd      on weg anon

 

how he weary      away thence,
na ofercumen      on nicera mere

 

vanquished by violence,      to the nicors' mere
fage ond geflmed      feorhlstas br.

  846

doomed and driven back      left behind life-trails.
ar ws on blde      brim weallende,

 

There with blood was      the water seething,
atol a geswing      eal gemenged

 

terrible swirling of swells      all mingled
hton heolfre      heorodrore wol

 

with boiling gore,      with sword-blood it welled,
dafage dog      sian drama las

 

doomed to die he hid himself,      then, bereft of pleasure,
in fenfreoo      feorh legde

  851

in his fen-refuge      he laid down his life,
haene swle      ar him hel onfng. his heathen soul;      there Hel embraced him.
anon eft gewiton      ealdgesas

 

Thence returned      old companions,
swylce geong manig      of gomenwe

 

also many young,      from the sport-chase,
fram mere mdge      marum rdan

 

from the mere full-spirited,      riding horses,
beornas on blancum      ar ws Bowulfes

  856

warriors on fair steeds,      there was Beowulf's
maro maned      monig oft gecw

 

glory proclaimed;      many often said
tte s n nor      be sam twonum

 

that neither south nor north      between the seas
ofer eormengrund      er nanig

 

over the whole vast earth,      no other
under swegles begong      slra nare

 

under the sky's expanse      was ne're better
rondhbbendra,      rces wyrra

  861

shield-bearer,      of a worthier kingdom;
n he hru winedrihten      wiht ne lgon

 

nor, however, the friend and lord,      did they blame at all,
gldne Hrgr      ac t ws gd cyning.

 

gracious Hrothgar,      for he was a good king.
Hwlum heaorfe      hlapan lton

 

At times the brave warriors      let leap,
on geflit faran      fealwe maras

 

in a contest raced      fallow horses,
ar him foldwegas      fgere hton

  866

where to them the earth-roads      seemed suitable,
cystum ce.      Hwlum cyninges egn

 

and known to be the best.      At times the king's thane,
guma gilphlden      gidda gemyndig

 

a man laden with fine speech,      remembering songs,
s e ealfela      ealdgesegena

 

he who very many      of ancient traditions
worn gemunde      word er fand

 

recalled scores,      found new words
se gebunden      secg eft ongan

  871

bound in truth;      the man then began
s Bowulfes      snyttrum styrian

 

Beowulf's exploit      skilfully to recite,
ond on spd wrecan      spel gerde,

 

and artfully utter      an adept tale,
wordum wrixlan      wlhwylc gecw

 

varying his words;      he spoke of almost everything
t h fram Sigemunde      secgan hyrde

 

that he of Sigmund      had heard said,
ellendadum:      unces fela

  876

of his deeds of glory:      many uncanny things,
Wlsinges gewin      wde sas

 

the striving of Wael's son,      his great journeys;
ra e gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston

 

those things of which the childen of men      by no means knew,
fahe ond fyrena      bton Fitela mid hine,

 

feuds and feats of arms,      only Fitela with him,
onne h swulces hwt      secgan wolde

 

then he of such matters      was wont to speak of,
m his nefan      sw he waron

  881

uncle to his nephew,      as they always were
t na gehwm      ndgesteallan

 

in every conflict      comrades in need;
hfdon ealfela      eotena cynnes

 

they had a great many      of the giantkind
sweordum gesaged      Sigemunde gesprong

 

laid low with swords;      for Sigmund arose,
fter dadge      dm unltel

 

after the day of his death,      no little fame,
syan wges heard      wyrm cwealde

  886

since the fierce warrior      had quelled the great serpent,
hordes hyrde      h under hrne stn

 

the keeper of a hoard;      beneath the hoary grey stone he,
elinges bearn      na gende

 

the prince's son,      alone ventured
frcne dade      ne was him Fitela mid

 

a dangerous deed,      Fitela was not with him;
hwre him gesalde      t t swurd urhwd

 

however it was granted him      that the sword pierced
wratlcne wyrm      t hit on wealle tstd

  891

the wondrous wyrm,      so that it stood fixed in the wall,
dryhtlc ren      draca morre swealt

 

the noble iron;      the dragon perished in the slaughter;
hfde glaca      elne gegongen

 

the fearsome one had      ensured by courage
t h bahhordes      brcan mste

 

that he the ring-hoard      might possess
selfes dme      sabt gehlod

 

at his own chosing;      he loaded the sea-boat,
br on bearm scipes      beorhte frtwa

  896

bore in the bosom of his ship      the gleaming treasures,
Wlses eafera      --wyrm ht gemealt--

 

Wael's son      --the wyrm in its heat melted--
s ws wreccena      wde marost

 

he was of adventurers      the most widely famed
ofer werode      wgendra hlo

 

among nations,      the warriors' protector,
ellendadum      --h s ar onh--

 

for deeds of valour      --he had prospered by this--
sian Heremdes      hild swerode,

  901

since Heremod's      skirmishing had abated,
earfo ond ellen      he mid eotenum wear

 

affliction and spirit;      he among the Etins was
on fonda geweald      for forlcen

 

into enemy hands      given up,
snde forsended      hine sorhwylmas

 

quickly despatched;      the surgings of sorrow him
lemede t lange      h his lodum wear

 

hindered too long;      he to his people became,
eallum ellingum      t aldorceare

  906

to all of the nobels,      a great mortal sorrow;
swylce oft bemearn      arran malum

 

moreover they often mourned,      for in earlier times,
swferhes s      snotor ceorl monig

 

the departure of the stouted-hearted king,      many learnd sages
s e him bealwa      t bte gelfde

 

who to him for miseries'      remedy had trusted and believed
t t odnes bearn      geon scolde,

 

that that prince's son      must prosper,
fderelum onfn,      folc gehealdan

  911

take up his father's rank,      rule the folk,
hord ond hloburh      hlea rce

 

their treasury and citadel,      the heroes' kingdom,
el Scyldinga      h ar eallum wear

 

homeland of the Scyldings;      he by all became,
mag Higelces      manna cynne

 

the kinsman of Hygelac,      by mankind,
frondum gefgra      hine fyren onwd.

 

more esteemed;      wickedness undid him.
Hwlum fltende      fealwe strate

  916

Now and then racing,      dusky streets
marum maton.      was morgenloht

 

on their mounts they traversed.      Then was the morning light
scofen ond scynded      ode scealc monig

 

hurried and hastened;      many retainers went
swhicgende      t sele m han

 

determined      to the high hall
searowundor son      swylce self cyning

 

to see the strange wonder;      the king himself too
of brdbre      bahhorda weard

  921

from his wife's bower,      the ward of the ring-hoard,
tryddode trfst      getrume micle

 

stepped out splendid      with his great troop,
cystum geced      ond his cwn mid him

 

famed for his excellence,      and his queen with him,
medostigge mt      mga hse.

 

passed down the meadhall-path,      accompanied by maidens.

XIIII

 

Hrgr maelode      --h to halle gong

 

Hrothgar spoke      --he went to the hall,
std on stapole     geseah stapne hrf

  926

stood on the steps,      observed the steep roof
golde fhne      ond Grendles hond--:

 

adorned with gold      and Grendel's hand--:
'isse ansne      alwealdan anc

 

'For this sight      Thanks to the All-Ruler
lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic les gebd,

 

be swiftly forthcoming!      I have suffered many injuries,
grynna t Grendle      mg god wyrcan

 

griefs from Grendel;      God can always work
wunder fter wundre,      wuldres hyrde.

  931

wonder after wonder,      glory's Keeper.
at ws ungera      t ic anigra m

 

It was not long past      that I for me any
wana ne wnde      t wdan feore

 

for woes not hoped      for the bredth of my life,
bte gebdan      onne blde fh

 

to experience remedy      when adorned with blood
hsa slest      heorodrorig std:

 

the most splendid house      stood battle-gory:
wa wdscofen      witena gehwylcne

  936

woe widespread      for each of the sages
ra e ne wndon      t he wdeferh

 

those who did not hope      that in the span of their lives
loda landgeweorc      lum beweredon

 

the nation's fortress      from foes they could protect,
scuccum ond scinnum      n scealc hafa

 

from shucks and shines;      now a warrior has,
urh drihtnes miht      dad gefremede

 

through the Lord's power,      performed a deed
e w ealle      ar ne meahton

  941

which we all      before could not
snyttrum besyrwan      hwt, t secgan mg

 

with schemes contrive;      listen, that may say
efne sw hwylc mga      sw one magan cende

 

even so whichever woman      as that begot this man,
fter gumcynnum      gyf ho gt lyfa

 

among mankind,      if she yet lives,
t hyre ealdmetod      ste ware

 

that to her the Old Measurer of Fate      was gracious
bearngebyrdo.      N ic, Bowulf, ec,

  946

in child-bearing.      Now, I, Beowulf, you,
secg betosta,      m for sunu wylle

 

the best of men,      for me like a son would
frogan on ferhe      heald for tela

 

love in life;      keep well henceforth
nwe sibbe      ne bi anigre gd

 

this new kinship;      there will not be any want
worolde wilna      ic geweald hbbe

 

of worldly wishes      while I have power;
ful oft ic for lassan      lan teohhode

  951

full oft I for less      rewards have bestowed,
hordweorunge      hnhran rince

 

honouring with treasure      a humbler man,
samran t scce      self hafast

 

lesser at fighting;      you for yourself have
dadum gefremed      t n dm lyfa

 

by deeds ensured,      that your fame lives
wa t aldre      alwalda ec

 

for ever and ever;      may the All-Ruler you
gde forgylde      sw h n gt dyde!'

  956

reward with good,      as He has now yet done!'
Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:

 

Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'W t ellenweorc      stum miclum

 

'We the courage-works      with great pleasure,
feohtan fremedon      frcne gendon

 

endeavoured to fight,      boldly risked
eafo unces.      e ic swor

 

the strength of an unknown foe.      I would rather
t hine selfne      geson mste

  961

that you him himself      might have seen,
fond on frtewum      fylwrigne

 

the fiend in his full gear      wearied by death;
ic him hrdlce      heardan clammum

 

I him quickly      in hard clasp
on wlbedde      wran hte

 

on the bed of slaughter      thought to fetter,
t h for handgripe      mnum scolde

 

that he because of the hand-grip      of mine must
licgean lfbysig      btan his lc swice

  966

lie struggling for life,      lest his body slip away;
ic hine ne mihte      metod nolde

 

I him could not,      when the Measurer of Fate did not wish it,
ganges getwaman      n ic him s georne tfealh

 

hinder departing;      nor I so readily kept him close,
feorhgenlan      ws t foremihtig

 

that mortal foe;      he was too overpowering,
fond on fe      hwere, h his folme forlt

 

the fiend in departing;      however, he left his hand
t lfwrae      lst weardian,

  971

to save his life,      remaining behind,
earm ond eaxle      n ar anige sw ah

 

arm and shoulder;      not with it though any
fasceaft guma      frfre gebohte

 

the worthless creature,      relief purchased;
n leng leofa      lgetona

 

not the longer does he live,      the hateful spoiler,
synnum geswenced      ac hyne sr hafa

 

struck down by sins      but him the wound has
in ngripe      nearwe befongen

  976

with violent grip      narrowly enclosed
balwon bendum      ar bdan sceal

 

in baleful bonds,      there he must await,
maga mne fh      miclan dmes

 

the creature stained with crimes,      the great judgement,
h him scr metod      scrfan wille.'

 

how him the glorious Measure of Fate      wishes to decree.'
ws swgra secg      sunu Ecglfes

 

Then the man was more silent,      the son of Edgelaf,
on gylpsprace      ggeweorca

  981

in boast-speech      of war-works
sian elingas      eorles crfte

 

when the noble men,      by the strength of the prince
ofer hanne hrf      hand scawedon

 

over the high roof      saw the hand,
feondes fingras      foran aghwylc ws

 

the fiend's fingers;      on the front of each was,
steda ngla gehwylc      stle gelcost

 

in the place of each nail      very much like steel
haenes handsporu      hilderinces

 986

heathenish hand-spurs,      the war-creature's
egl unhoru      aghwylc gecw

 

ungentle talon;      everyone said
t him heardra nn      hrnan wolde

 

that him no hard weapon      would strike,
ren argd,      t s hlacan

 

pre-eminent iron,      that of them (none) the demon's
bldge beadufolme      onberan wolde.

 

bloody battle-hand      would injure.

XV

 

ws hten hree      Heort innanweard

  991

Then the order was promptly given      the interior of Heorot
folmum gefrtwod      fela ara ws

 

to furnish by hands;      many there were,
wera ond wfa      e t wnreced

 

of men and women,      who the wine-hall,
gestsele gyredon      goldfg scinon

 

the guest-hall prepared;      gold-glittering shone
web fter wgum      wundorsona fela

 

woven tapestries along the walls,      many wondrous sights
secga gehwylcum      ra e on swylc stara

  996

for each of the men,      who on such stared;

ws t beorhte bold      tbrocen swe

 

that bright building was      badly broken up
eal inneweard      renbendum fst,

 

all inside      secure with iron-bands,
heorras thlidene      hrf na gens

 

hinges sprung open;      the roof alone remained
ealles ansund      se glaca

 

entirely sound,      when the ogre,
fyrendadum fg      on flam gewand

  1001

guilty of wicked deeds      turned in flight,
aldres orwna.      N t e by

 

despairing of life.      That is not easy
to beflnne      --fremme s e wille--

 

to flee from      --try he who will--
ac gesacan sceal      swlberendra

 

but he must gain by strife,      those who have souls,
nde gendde,      nia bearna

 

compelled by necessity,      the mens' sons',
grundbendra      gearwe stwe

  1006

the ground-dwellers'      ready place,
ar his lchoma      legerbedde fst

 

there his body,      fast in his death-bed,
swefe fter symle.      ws sal ond mal

 

sleeps after feasting.      Then it was the time and occasion
t t healle gang      Healfdenes sunu

 

that to the hall went      Half-Dane's son;
wolde self cyning      symbel icgan

 

the king himself wished      to partake of the feast;
ne gefrgen ic mage      mran weorode

  1011

I have not heard when a tribe      in a greater force
ymb hyra sincgyfan      sl gebaran

 

around their treasure-giver      comported themselves better;
bugon t bence      bladgande

 

they then sank down on the bench,      the fame-bearers,
fylle gefagon      fgere geagon

 

rejoicing at the feast;      they graciously received
medoful manig      mgas ra

 

many full goblets of mead,      their kinsmen,
swhicgende      on sele m han

  1016

stout-hearted,      in the high hall
Hrgr ond Hrulf      Heorot innan ws

 

Hrothgar and Hrothulf      the interior of Heorot was
frondum fylled      nalles fcenstafas

 

filled with friends;      no treacherous-strokes
od-Scyldingas      enden fremedon.

 

the Folk-Scyldings      made as yet.
Forgeaf Bowulfe      brand Healfdenes

 

Then Beowulf was given      the brand of Half-Dane,
segen gyldenne      sigores t lane

  1021

the golden banner      in reward of victory,
hroden hiltecumbor,      helm ond byrnan

 

the adorned standard,      helm and byrnie;
mare mumsweord      manige geswon

 

the renowned treasure-sword      many saw
beforan beorn beran      Bowulf geah

 

brought before the hero;      Beowulf took
ful on flette      n h are feohgyfte

 

the full flagon from the floor;      of the reward-gift he did not,
for sctenum      scamigan orfte

  1026

as payment,      need to be ashamed;
ne gefrgn ic frondlcor      fower mdmas

 

I have not heard that more graciously      four treasures,
golde gegyrede      gummanna fela

 

adorned with gold,      many men
in ealobence      rum gesellan

 

on ale-bench      have given to others;
ymb s helmes hrf      hafodbeorge

 

around the helmet's roof      --the head-guard--
wrum bewunden      walan tan hold

  1031

was wound with wires      the re-inforced crest guarded from without,
t him fla lf      frcne ne meahton

 

that him what the files have left      could not savagely,
scrheard scean      onne scyldfreca

 

(could not) harm the wondrously-tempered (helm),      when the shield-fighter
ongan gramum      gangan scolde.

 

against enemies      had to go.
Heht eorla hlo       eahta maras

 

The defender of earls then ordered      eight horses,
fatedhlore      on flet tn

  1036

with decorated head-gear,      led onto the hall-floor
in under eoderas      ra num std

 

in under the ramparts;      one of them stood,
sadol searwum fh      since gewurad

 

saddle skilfully adorned,      ennobled with jewels;
t ws hildesetl      hahcyninges

 

that was the battle-seat      of the high king,
onne sweorda gelc      sunu Healfdenes

 

when in sword-play      the son of Half-Dane
efnan wolde      nafre on re lg

  1041

wished to engage;      in the vanguard it never failed
wdces wg      onne walu follon

 

his warskill well-known,      when the slain were falling;
ond Bowulfe      bga gehwres

 

and then to Beowulf      both of the treasures
eodor Ingwina      onweald getah

 

the protector of the Friends of Ing      bestowed possession,
wicga ond wapna      ht hine wl brcan

 

horses and weapons;      he ordered him to make good use of (them);
sw manlce      mare oden

  1046

so in a manly manner      the famed chieftain,
hordweard hlea      heaorasas geald

 

the hoard-ward of heroes,      paid for war-clashes
marum ond mdmum      sw h nafre man lyh

 

in horses and treasures;      thus, one can never find fault in them
s e secgan wile      s fter rihte.

 

he who wishes to tell      the truth according to what is right.

XVI

 

gt aghwylcum      eorla drihten

 

Then, furthermore, to each one      of the earl's company
ra e mid Bowulfe      brimlade teah

  1051

those with Beowulf      travelled the sea-path,
on re medubence      mum gesealde

 

on the mead-bench      he gave treasures,
yrfelfe      ond one anne heht

 

inherited relics,      and the one man decreed
golde forgyldan      one e Grendel ar

 

to requite in gold      whom Grendel first
mne cwealde      sw h hyra m wolde

 

in wickedness quelled,      as he would have more of them
nefne him wtig god      wyrd forstde

  1056

except for them wise God      that fate had prevented,
ond s mannes md.      Metod eallum wold

 

and this man's courage.      The Measure of Fate controlled all
gumena cynnes,      sw h n gt d

 

for mankind,      as he now still does;
foran bi andgit      aghwar slest

 

therefore understanding is      best everywhere,
ferhes foreanc      fela sceal gebdan

 

the forethought of mind;      he must abide much
lofes ond les      s e longe hr

  1061

love and much hate      he who long here
on yssum windagum      worolde brce.

 

in these days of strife      would enjoy the world.
ar ws sang ond swg      samod tgdere

 

There was song and sound      at the same time all together
fore Healfdenes      hildewsan,

 

before Half-Dane's      battle-plotter,
gomenwudu grted,      gid oft wrecen

 

the glee-wood plucked,      a lay often recited
onne healgamen      Hrgres scop

  1066

when a hall-performance      Hrothgar's bard
fter medobence      manan scolde:

 

before the mead-bench      was obliged to utter:
Finnes eaferum      he se far begeat

 

concerning Finn's heirs, with whom,      when disaster struck them,
hle Healfdena      Hnf Scyldinga

 

the hero of Half-Danes,      Hnaef the Scylding,
in Frswle      feallan scolde.

 

on the Frisian battle-field      was fated to fall.
N hru Hildeburh      herian orfte

  1071

Truly, Hildeburh did not      have need to praise
eotena trowe      unsynnum wear

 

the good faith of the Eotens;      she was guiltless,
beloren lofum      t m hildplegan

 

bereft of her dear ones:      --in the war-play--
bearnum ond brrum      he on gebyrd hruron

 

her son and brother;      they fell, in accorance with Fate,
gre wunde      t ws gemuru ides.

 

wounded by spear;      that was a mournful woman.
Nalles hlinga      Hces dohtor

  1076

Not without reason did      Hoc's daughter
meotodsceaft bemearn      syan morgen cm

 

grieve over Fate's decree,      when the morning came,
ho under swegle      geson meahte

 

then she under the sky      could see
mororbealo mga      ar h ar maste hold

 

the baleful slaughter of kinsmen,      where before he had held the most
worolde wynne      wg ealle fornam

 

joy in the world,      war took all
Finnes egnas      nemne faum num

  1081

of Finn's thanes,      except a few alone,
t h ne mehte      on am meelstede

 

so that he could not      in that meeting-place
wg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan

 

the clash with Hengest      conclude at all,
n walfe      wge forringan

 

nor the woeful remnant      by battle dislodge from their position,
odnes egne      ac hig him geingo budon:

 

the prince's thane,      so they offered them settlement:
t he him er flet      eal germdon

  1086

that they for them the other dwelling      would completely clear,
healle ond hahsetl      t he healfre geweald

 

hall and high seat,      that they would half of it control
wi eotena bearn      gan mston

 

with the Eotens' sons      might have,
ond t feohgyftum      Folcwaldan sunu

 

and at the giving of treasure      Folcwalden's son
dgra gehwylce      Dene weorode

 

each day      the Danes would honour,
Hengestes hap      hringum wenede

  1091

Hengest's company      would revere with rings,
efne sw swe      sincgestronum

 

with even as much      precious possesions
fattan goldes      sw h Frsena cyn

 

of ornate gold      exactly as he the Frisian kind
on borsele      byldan wolde.

 

in the beer-hall      would wish to embolden.
he getruwedon      on tw healfa

 

Then they pledged      on both sides
fste friouware      Fin Hengeste

  1096

firm compact of peace;      Finn to Hengest
elne unflitme      um benemde

 

with incontestable earnestness      proclaimed an oath
t h walfe      weotena dme

 

that he the woeful remnant,      by sages' judgement,
rum holde      t ar anig mon

 

would hold in honour,      that there any man
wordum n worcum      ware ne brace

 

by word nor by deed      would not break the treaty,
n urh inwitsearo      afre gemanden

  1101

nor in malicious artifice      ever complain,
ah he hira baggyfan      banan folgedon

 

though they their ring-giver's      killer followed,
odenlase,      him sw geearfod ws

 

leaderless,      and were thus forced by necessity;
gyf onne Frsna hwylc      frcnen sprace

 

if then any Frisian      by audacious speech
s mororhtes      myndgiend ware

 

the murderous feud      were to remind (them),
onne hit sweordes ecg      syan scolde.

  1106

then it by sword's edge      must be thereafter.
d ws gefned      ond incge gold

 

The funeral fire was prepared,      and Ingui's gold,
hfen of horde      Here-Scyldinga

 

raised from the hoard;      the War-Scyldings'
betst beadorinca      ws on bal gearu

 

best battle-man      was ready on the bier;
t am de ws      gesne

 

at the funeral-pyre was      easily seen
swtfh syrce      swn ealgylden

  1111

the blood-stained mail-shirt,      the swine all-golden,
eofer renheard      eling manig

 

the boar hard as iron,      the prince had many
wundum wyrded      sume on wle crungon

 

destroyed by wounds;      great men had fallen in slaughter;
ht Hildeburh      t Hnfes de

 

then Hildeburh ordered      at Hnaef's pier
hire selfre sunu      sweoloe befstan,

 

her own sun      committed to the fire,
bnfatu brnan      ond on bal dn

  1116

the body-vessel burned,      and put on the bier,
earme on eaxle      ides gnornode

 

the wretched woman at his shoulder,      the lady lamented,
gemrode giddum      grinc sth

 

sorrowed with songs;      the warrior was laid out,
wand t wolcnum      wlfra mast

 

spiralled into the clouds      the greatest fire of the slain
hlynode for hlwe      hafelan multon

 

roared before the mound;      heads melted,
bengeato burston      onne bld tspranc,

  1121

the wound-gates burst open,      then blood sprang out,
lbite lces      lg ealle forswealg,

 

from the hate-bites of the body;      the blaze swallowed all up,
gasta gfrost,      ra e ar g fornam

 

--the greediest guest--      those who there were taken by battle
bga folces      ws hira blad scacen.

 

from both peoples;      their vigour was dispersed.

XVII

 

Gewiton him wgend      wca nosian

 

The warriors returned then      to seek their houses,
frondum befeallen,      Frsland geson,

  1126

bereft of friends,      to see Frisia,
hmas ond haburh      Hengest gt

 

their homes and high fort;      yet Hengest
wlfgne winter      wunode mid Finn

 

the death-stained winter      spent with Finn,
eal unhlitine      eard gemunde

 

in a place with no fellowship at all;      he remembered his land,
ah e ne meahte      on mere drfan

 

though he could not      drive on the sea
hringedstefnan:      holm storme wol

  1131

the ring-prowed ship:      the sea welled in storm,
won wi winde      winter e belac

 

fought against the wind;      the winter locked the waves
sgebinde      o t er cm

 

in icy bonds,      until came another
gar in geardas      sw n gt d

 

year to the courtyards,      as it still does now,
e syngles      sle bewitia

 

those which continuously      carry out their seasons,
wuldortorhtan weder.      ws winter scacen,

  1136

gloriously bright weathers.      Then winter was gone,
fger foldan bearm      fundode wrecca

 

fair was the Earth's breast;      the exile was anxious to go,
gist of geardum      h t gyrnwrce

 

the guest of the dwellings;      he of vengeance for grief
swor hte      onne t salde

 

sooner thought      than of sea-path,
gif h torngemt      urhton mihte

 

and whether he a bitter encounter      could bring about,
t h eotena bearn      inne gemunde

  1141

for that he of the Eotens' sons      inwardly remembered;
sw h ne forwyrnde      woroldradenne

 

so he did not refuse      the worldly practice,
onne him Hnlfing,      hildeloman

 

when to him Hunlafing      the battle-light,
billa slest      on bearm dyde

 

the finest blade      he placed on (Hnaef's) lap;
s waron mid eotenum      ecge ce.

 

among the Eotens its      edges were known.
Swylce ferhfrecan      Fin eft begeat

  1146

So too his mortal enemy's      --Finn in turn received--
sweordbealo slen      t his selfes hm

 

dire sword-onslaught      in his own home,
sian grimne gripe      Glf ond slf

 

when concerning the fierce attack      Guthlaf and Oslaf,
fter sase      sorge mandon

 

following their sea-journey,      declared their grief,
twiton wana dal      ne meahte wafre md

 

blamed for their share of woes;      he could not his restless spirit
forhabban in hrere      ws heal hroden

  1151

contain in his breast;      then the hall were decorated
fonda forum      swilce Fin slgen

 

with the foes' lives,      so too Finn was slain,
cyning on corre      ond so cwn numen

 

the king amid his troop,      and the queen was seized;
scotend Scyldinga      t scypon feredon

 

Scylding shooters      ferried to the ships
eal ingesteald      eorcyninges

 

all of the house-goods      of the nation's king,
swylce he t Finnes hm      findan meahton

  1156

which they at Finn's estate      could find:
sigla searogimma      he on salde

 

shining jewels and well-cut gems;      they on the sea-path
drihtlce wf      t Denum feredon

 

the noble lady      ferried to the Danes,
laddon t lodum.      Lo ws sungen

 

led to the people.      The lay was sung,
glomannes gyd      gamen eft sth

 

the gleeman's tale;      joy again sprang up,
beorhtode bencswg      byrelas sealdon

  1161

music rang out from the bench,      cup-bearers served
wn of wunderfatum.      cwm Wealho for

 

wine from wondrous vessels.      Then Wealhtheow came forth,
gn under gyldnum bage      ar gdan twgen

 

walking in a golden neck-ring      to where the good pair
ston suhtergefderan      gt ws hiera sib tgdere,

 

sat, uncle and nephew;      then their kinship was still together,
aghwylc rum trwe     swylce ar Hunfer yle

 

each to the other true;      Unferth the yle was also there
t ftum st fran Scyldinga    gehwylc hiora his ferhe trowde

  1166

sitting at the feet of the Scylding lord;     each of them trusted his spirit,
t h hfde md micel      ah e h his mgum nare

 

and that he had great courage,      though he to his kin was not
rfst t ecga gelcum      sprc ides Scyldinga:

 

honourable in clash of blades;      the Scylding lady then spoke:
'Onfh issum fulle,      frodrihten mn,

 

'Receive this full cup,      my noble lord,
sinces brytta      on salum wes,

 

dispenser of treasure;      you--be joyful,
goldwine gumena,      ond t Gatum sprc

 

gold-friend of men,      and to the Geats speak
mildum wordum      sw sceal man dn

 

with gentle words      so ought a man to do;
bo wi Gatas gld,      geofena gemyndig

  1173

be gracious with the Geats,      mindful of gifts
nan ond feorran      n hafast

 

which from near and far      you now have;
m man sgde      t for sunu wolde

 

it has been said to me      that you wish for a son,
hereric habban      Heorot is gefalsod

 

to have this leader of armies;      Heorot is cleansed,
bahsele beorhta      brc enden mte

 

the bright ring-hall;      enjoy, while you may,
manigra mdo      ond num mgum laf

  1178

many rewards,      and leave to your kinsmen
folc ond rce      onne for scyle

 

folk and kingdom      when you must go forth
metodsceaft sn      ic mnne can

 

to meet what is fated;      I know my
gldne Hrulf      t h geogoe wile

 

gracious Hrothulf,      that he the youths wishes
rum healdan      gyf ar onne h,

 

to hold in honour,      if you earlier than he,
wine Scildinga,      worold oflatest

  1183

friend of the Scyldings,      leave behind the world,
wne ic t h mid gde      gyldan wille

 

I think that he with good      will repay
uncran eaferan      gif h t eal gemon

 

our children,      if he that at all remembers,
hwt wit t willan      ond t wormyndum

 

what we for his sake      and for his worldly renown,
umborwesendum ar      rna gefremedon.'

 

before, in his youth,      bestowed our favours.'
Hwearf b bence      ar hyre byre waron

  1188

She turned then by the bench,      where her boys were,
Hrrc ond Hrmund      ond hlea bearn   Hrethric and Hrothmund,      and heroes' sons,
giogo t gdere      ar se gda st

 

the young company all together;      there sat the good
Bowulf Gata      be am gebrrum twam.

 

Beowulf of the Geats      by the two brothers.

XVIII

 

Him ws ful boren      ond frondlau

 

The full cup was brought to him,      and a friendly invitation
wordum bewgned      ond wundengold

  1193

proffered in words,      and twisted gold
stum geawed:      earmrade tw

 

kindly offered:      two arm-ornaments,
hrgl ond hringas,      healsbaga mast

 

robe and rings,      the largest necklace
ra e ic on foldan      gefrgen hbbe

 

of those which I on earth      have heard of;
nanigne ic under swegle      slran hrde

 

none under the sky I      have heard of better
hordmdmum hlea      syan Hma twg

  1198

from hoard-treasures of heroes,      since Hama carried off
t herebyrhtan byrig      Brsinga mene

 

to the battle-bright stronghold      the Brosings' necklet,
sigle ond sincft      searonas fealh

 

jewel and precious setting;      he fled the cunning enmity
Eormenrces      gecas cne rad

 

of Eormenric,      chose eternal benefit;
one hring hfde      Higelc Gata

 

That ring had      Hygelac of the Geats,
nefa Swertinges      nhstan se

  1203

grandson of Swerting,      on his last adventure,
sian h under segne      sinc ealgode

 

when under the banner he      defended riches,
wlraf werede      hyne wyrd fornam

 

warded slaughter-spoils;      him Fate took away,
syan h for wlenco      wan hsode

 

after he from pride      sought misery,
fahe t Frsum      h frtwe wg

 

feud with the Frisians;      he then wore the ornament,
eorclanstnas      ofer a ful

  1208

the mysterious stone      over the waves' cup,
rce oden      h under rande gecranc.

 

the mighty prince;      he fell under the rimmed-shield.
Gehwearf in Francna fm      feorh cyninges

 

Passed then into the Franks' grasp      the body of the king,
brostgewadu      ond se bah somod

 

mail-coat      and the ring together;
wyrsan wgfrecan      wl rafeden

 

lesser warrior      rifled the corpses
fter gsceare      Gata lode

  1213

after the slaughter of battle;      the people of the Geats
hrawc holdon.      Heal swge onfng

 

filled the field of corpses.      The hall resounded with noise;
Wealho maelode      ho fore am werede sprc:

 

Wealhtheow spoke;      she spoke before the retinue:
'Brc isses bages,      Bowulf lofa

 

'Make use of this ring,      belovd Beowulf,
hyse, mid hale      ond isses hrgles not

 

young man, with good fortune,      and take benefit from this corslet,
od gestreona      ond geoh tela

  1218

the wealth of a nation,      and prosper well,
cen ec mid crfte      ond yssum cnyhtum wes

 

prove yourself with strength,      and to these lads be
lra le      ic s lan geman

 

gentle in teaching;      I shall remember you for this requital;
hafast gefred      t feor ond nah

 

you have brought it about      that you far and near
ealne wdeferh      weras ehtiga

 

always and forever      men will praise,
efne sw sde      sw sa bebge,

  1223

even as widely      as the sea surrounds
windgeard, weallas      wes enden lifige,

 

the home of the wind, walls;      be while you live,
eling, adig      ic an tela

 

prince, happy;      I wish thee well,
sincgestrona      bo suna mnum

 

and rich in treasure;      be you to my sons
dadum gedfe,      dramhealdende

 

indulgent in deeds,      possessing joy;
hr is aghwylc eorl      rum getrwe

  1228

here is each of the men      true to the others
mdes milde      mandrihtne hlo

 

generous in mind,      in the protetion of their liege-lord;
egnas syndon geware      od ealgearo

 

the thanes are united,      the people alert,
druncne dryhtguman      d sw ic bidde.'

 

the warrior-retinue cheered by drink      do as I bid.'
ode t setle      ar ws symbla cyst

 

She went then to her seat;      there was the finest feast,
druncon wn weras      wyrd ne con

  1233

the men drank wine;      they did not know their fate,
gesceaft grimme      sw hit gangen wear

 

horrific destiny,      as it had happened
eorla manegum      syan afen cwm

 

to many heroes,      after evening came,
ond him Hrgr gewt      t hofe snum

 

and Hrothgar went      to his quarters,
rce t rste      reced weardode

 

the ruler to rest,      the hall guarded
unrm eorla      sw he oft ar dydon

  1238

countless earls,      as they often had done before,
bencelu beredon      hit geondbraded wear

 

they cleared away the benches from the floor;      over it was spread
beddum ond bolstrum      borscealca sum

 

bedding and bolsters;      one of the beer-drinkers,
fs ond fage      fletrste gebag

 

eager and doomed,      lay down in his hall-couch;
setton him t hafdon      hilderandas

 

they set at their heads      battle-bossed shields,
bordwudu beorhtan      ar on bence ws

  1243

bright linden-wood;      there on the bench was
ofer elinge      gesne

 

over each nobleman      easily seen
heaostapa helm      hringed byrne

 

a battle-steep helm,      ringed byrnie,
recwudu rymlc      ws aw hyra

 

(and) glorious mighty shaft;      their custom was
t he oft waron      an wg gearwe

 

that they were often      ready for a battle
g t hm g on herge      g gehwer ra

  1248

both at home and out harrying,      and either of these,
efne swylce mala      swylce hira mandryhtne

 

for just such times      as for their liege-lord
earf gesalde      ws so od tilu.

 

the need arose;      they were a good platoon.

XVIIII

 

Sigon t slape      sum sre angeald 

 

They sank then into sleep;      one paid sorely
fenrste      sw him ful oft gelamp

 

for his evening rest,      as had quite often happened,
sian goldsele      Grendel warode

  1253

when the gold-hall      Grendel warded,
unriht fnde      o t ende becwm,

 

inflict wrong      until the end came,
swylt fter synnum.      t gesne wear

 

death for crimes.      That became manifest,
wdc werum      tte wrecend gt

 

widely known by men,      that an avenger still
lifde fter lum      lange rge

 

lived after the misfortunes,      for a long time
fter gceare      Grendles mdor

  1258

after the war-trouble,      Grendel's mother,
ides glacwf      yrme gemunde

 

lady troll-wife,      remembered misery,
s e wteregesan      wunian scolde

 

she who the dreadful water      had to inhabit,
cealde stramas     sian camp him wear

 

the cold currents,      after strife arose through him,
t ecgbanan      ngan brer

 

a sword-slayer to      an only brother,
fderenmage      h fg gewt

  1263

father's kin;      he went then stained,
morre gemearcod      mandram fln

 

marked by the murder,      fled human pleasures,
wsten warode.      anon wc fela

 

lived in the wilds.      Then awoke many
gesceaftgsta      ws ara Grendel sum,

 

fated spirits;      Grendel was one of these,
heorowearh hetelc      s t Heorote fand

 

the hateful sword-outlaw,      who found at Heorot
wccendne wer      wges bidan

  1268

a watching man      biding for battle;
ar him glaca      tgrepe wear

 

there with him the troll      came at close grips;
hwre h gemunde      mgenes strenge

 

yet he remembered      the great strength,
gimfste gife      e him god sealde

 

generous gift,      which God gave him,
ond him t anwaldan      re gelfde

 

and he on the One-Ruler's      favour relied,
frfre ond fultum      h one fond ofercwm

  1273

comfort and support;      by this he overcame the fiend,
gehnagde helle gst      h han gewt

 

subdued the spirit of hell;      then wretched he went,
drame bedaled      dawc sn,

 

deprived of joy,      to see his place of death,
mancynnes fond.      Ond his mdor gt

 

that foe of mankind.      And his mother even now,
gfre ond galgmd      gegn wolde

 

greedy and gloomy-hearted      wished to go forth,
sorhfulne s,      sunu do wrecan

  1278

a sorrowful journey,      to avenge her son's death;
cm to Heorote      ar Hring-Dene

 

she came then to Heorot,      where the Ring-Danes
geond t sld swafun      ar sna wear

 

slept throught the hall;      then there at once came about
edhwyrft eorlum      sian inne fealh

 

the earl's reversal of fortune,      when inside passed
Grendles mdor      ws se gryre lassa

 

Grendel's mother;      the horror was less
efne sw micle      sw bi mga crft

  1283

by even so much,      as is maid's strength,
wggryre wfes      bewapned men

 

--the war-violence of woman--      from an armed man,
onne heoru bunden      hamere geuren

 

when adorned blade,      by hammer forged,
sweord swte fh      swn ofer helme

 

--sword stained with blood--      the boar-crest
ecgum dyhttig      andweard scire.

 

by edges firm,      the opposing (helmet) is sheared.
ws on healle      heardecg togen

  1288

Then in the hall was drawn a hard-edged
sweord ofer setlum,      sdrand manig

 

sword above the seats,      many a broad bossed-shield
hafen handa fst      helm ne gemunde

 

held fast in hand;      helmet was not heeded,
byrnan sde      hine se brga angeat

 

(nor) broad byrnie,      when the horror perceived him;
ho ws on ofste      wolde t anon,

 

she was in haste,      wanted out of there,
fore beorgan      ho onfunden ws

  1293

to protect her life,      when she was discovered;
hrae ho elinga      nne hfde

 

quickly she a noble      one had
fste befangen      ho t fenne gang

 

seized tightly,      then she went to the fen;
s ws Hrgre      hlea lofost

 

he was to Hrothgar      the best-loved hero
on geses hd      be sam twonum

 

in the retinue's rank      between the two seas
rce randwiga      one e ho on rste brat

  1298

mighty shield-warrior,      whom she ripped from his rest,
bladfstne beorn      --ns Bowulf ar

 

the glorious man      --Beowulf was not there,
ac ws er in      ar geteohhod

 

but was in the other lodging      assigned earlier
fter mumgife      marum Gate--

 

after the treasure-giving      to the mighty Geat--
hram wear in Heorote      ho under heolfre genam

 

a cry was in Heorot;      she took from its gore
ce folme      cearu ws genwod,

  1303

a well-known arm;      sorrow was renewed,
geworden in wcun      ne ws t gewrixle til

 

it returned to their dwellings;      that exchange was not good,
t he on b healfa      bicgan scoldon

 

which they on both sides      were obliged to pay for
fronda forum      ws frd cyning

 

with the lives of friends;      then was the wise king,
hr hilderinc      on hronmde

 

the grey battle-man,      in a troubled spirit,
syan h aldoregn      unlyfigendne

  1308

when he the lordly thane      unliving,
one dorestan      dadne wisse.

 

the dearest one,      knew was dead.
Hrae ws t bre      Bowulf fetod

 

Quickly to the bower was      Beowulf fetched
sigoradig secg      samod ardge

 

the victorious warrior;      at day-break
ode eorla sum      ele cempa

 

the notable earl went      --noble champion--
self mid gesum      ar se snotera bd

  1313

himself with his companions      where the wise one awaited
hwre him Alfwalda      afre wille

 

whether for him the Ruler of Elves      ever would wish,
fter waspelle      wyrpe gefremman

 

after the news of woe,      to bring about a change for the better;
gang fter flre      fyrdwyre man

 

then over the floor went      the war-worthy man
mid his handscale      --healwudu dynede--

 

with his crowd of companions      --the wood of the hall resounded--
t h one wsan      wordum hngde

  1318

he the wise (king)      humbled with words:
fran Ingwina      frgn gif him ware

 

--the lord of the Ingwins--      asked if it had been for him,
fter nodlau      niht getase.

 

according to his hopes,      a pleasing night.

XX

 

Hrgr maelode      helm Scyldinga:

 

Hrothgar spoke,      the Helm of the Scyldings:
'Ne frn fter salum      sorh is genwod

 

'Do not you ask after pleasures;      sorrow is renewed
Denigea lodum      dad is schere

  1323

for the Danish nation;      schere is dead,
Yrmenlfes      yldra bror

 

Yrmenlaf's      elder brother,
mn rnwita      ond mn radbora

 

my confident      and my chief counsellor,
eaxlgestealla      onne w on orlege

 

shoulder-companion,      when we in war
hafelan weredon      onne hniton fan

 

protected the head,      when clashed with foot-soldiers,
eoferas cnysedan      swylc eorl scolde

  1328

dashed boars (atop helmets);      so ought a man
wesan argd      swylc schere ws.

 

be experienced and noble,      as schere was.
Wear him on Heorote      t handbanan

 

In Heorot for him was      a hand-slayer,
wlgast wafre      ic ne wt hwer

 

restless death-spirit;      I know not whether,
atol ase wlanc      eftsas tah

 

glorying in the carcass,      she undertook a return journey,
fylle gefragnod      ho fahe wrc

  1333

contented by her feast;      she avenged the feud
e gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest

 

in which you yester-night      Grendel quelled
urh hastne hd      heardum clammum

 

through violent means      in harsh embrace,
foran h t lange      lode mne

 

because he for too long      my people
wanode ond wyrde      h t wge gecrang

 

diminished and destroyed,      he fell in the fight,
ealdres scyldig      ond n er cwm

  1338

having forfeited his life,      and now the other has come,
mihtig mnscaa      wolde hyre mag wrecan

 

the mighty crime-wreaker,      she wants to avenge her kinsman,
g feor hafa      fahe gestaled

 

and has very far      carried her feud,
s e incean mg      egne monegum

 

as it must seem      to many a thane,
s e fter sincgyfan      on sefan grote:

 

who for the treasure-giver      weeps in his heart:
hreerbealo hearde      n so hand lige

  1343

hard mind-grief!      now the hand has fallen away,
s e ow wlhwylcra      wilna dohte.

 

which in all of you      had sustained wishes.
Ic t londbend      lode mne

 

I it, land-dwellers,      my people,
seleradende      secgan hrde

 

hall-counsellors      have heard tell
t he geswon      swylce twgen

 

that they saw      two such
micle mearcstapan      mras healdan,

  1348

massive marchers of no-man's land      haunting the moors,
ellorgastas      ara er ws

 

alien spirits;      one of them was,
s e he gewislcost      gewitan meahton

 

as they most certainly      were able to discern,
idese onlcns      er earmsceapen

 

of the likeness of a woman;      the other one wretchedly shaped
on weres wstmum      wraclstas trd

 

in the form of a man      trod in the tracks of an exile,
nfne h ws mra      onne anig man er

  1353

except he was larger      than any other man;
one on gardagum      Grendel nemdon

 

in days of yore him      'Grendel' named
foldbende      n he fder cunnon

 

the earth-dwellers;      they did not know of his father,
hwer him anig ws      ar cenned

 

whether of them any were      born previously
dyrnra gsta.      He dgel lond

 

of obscure spirits.      They a secret land
warigea wulfhleou      windige nssas

  1358

inhabited, wolf-slopes,      windy water-capes,
frcne fengeld      ar fyrgenstram

 

a dangerous passage over the fen-waters,      where mountain-stream
under nssa genipu      nier gewte

 

under the darkness of the headlands      descended downward,
fld under foldan      nis t feor heonon

 

the flood under the earth;      it is not that far hence
mlgemearces      t se mere stande

 

in mile-marks,      that the mere stands;
ofer am hongia      hrmge bearwas

  1363

over it hangs      frost-covered groves,
wudu wyrtum fst      wter oferhelma

 

tree held fast by its roots      overshadows the water;
ar mg nihta gehwam      nwundor son

 

there one may every night      a horrible marvel see:
fr on flde      n s frd leofa

 

fire on the water;      not even the wise of them lives,
gumena bearna      t one grund wite.

 

of men's sons,      that knows the bottom.
ah e hastapa      hundum geswenced

  1368

Though the heath-stepper      harrassed by hounds,
heorot hornum trum      holtwudu sce

 

the hart with strong horns,      seeks the forest,
feorran geflmed      ar h feorh sele

 

put to flight from far,      first he will give up his life,
aldor on fre      ar h in wille

 

existence on the shore,      before he will (leap) in
hafelan helan      nis t horu stw

 

to hide his head;      it is not a pleasant place;
onon geblond      p stge

  1373

thence a maelstrm of the waves      rises up,
won t wolcnum      onne wind styre

 

dark to the clouds,      when the wind stirs
l gewidru      o t lyft drysma

 

grievous storms,      until the air grows dark,
roderas rota.      N is se rad gelang

 

the skies weep.      Now is the remedy dependent upon
eft t num      eard gt ne const

 

you alone once again;      you do not know the region yet,
frcne stwe      ar findan miht

  1378

terrible place      where you might find
felasinnigne secg      sc gif dyrre

 

the much-sinning creature;      seek if you dare;
ic fahe      fo lanige

 

for the feud you I      would reward with wealth,
ealdgestronum      sw ic ar dyde,

 

with old treasures,      as I did before,
wundungolde      gyf on weg cymest.'

 

with twisted-gold,      if you come away.'

XXI

 

Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:

  1383

Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Ne sorga, snotor guma      slre bi aghwam

 

'Do not sorrow, wise man      it is better for everyone
t h his frond wrece      onne h fela murne

 

that he his friend avenge,      than he mourn over-much;
re aghwylc sceal      ende gebdan

 

each of us must      await the end
worolde lfes:      wyrce s e mte

 

in the world of life:      gain he who may
dmes ar dae      t bi drihtguman,

  1388

glory before death;      that is for the warrior,
unlifgendum      fter slest.

 

unliving,      afterwards the best.
rs, rces weard,      uton hrae fran

 

Arise, O guardian of the kingdom,      let us go quickly,
Grendles mgan      gang scawigan

 

Grendel's kin's      trail survey;
ic hit gehte:      n h on helm losa

 

I swear it to thee:      she will not be lost in the cover,
n on foldan fm      n on fyrgenholt

  1393

nor in the embrace of the earth,      nor in the mountain wood,
n on gyfenes grund      g ar h wille

 

nor in the ocean's depth,      go where she will;
s dgor      geyld hafa

 

this day you      must have patience
wana gehwylces      sw ic wne t.'

 

in each of the woes,      as I expect you to.'
hlop se gomela,      gode ancode

 

The agd one leapt up,      thanked God,
mihtigan drihtne      s se man gesprc

  1398

mighty Lord,      for what the man spoke;
ws Hrgre      hors gebated

 

then was for Hrothgar      a horse was bridled,
wicg wundenfeax      wsa fengel

 

a mount with braided mane;      the wise ruler
geatolc gende      gumfa stp

 

rode well-equipped;      the foot-soldiers marched
lindhbbendra      lstas waron

 

linden-wood bearers;      tracks were
fter waldswaum      wde gesne,

  1403

along the forest-track      widely seen,
gang ofer grundas      gegnum for

 

the trail over the grounds,      went straight-forward
ofer myrcan mr      magoegna br

 

over the murky moor,      she carried of the kin-thanes
one slestan      swollasne

 

the finest      --without his soul--
ra e mid Hrgre        hm eahtode.

 

of those who with Hrothgar      had defended their home.
Oferode      elinga bearn

  1408

Traversed then      the nobles' son
stap stnhlio      stge nearwe

 

the steep stone slopes,      the narrow ways,
enge npaas      unc geld

 

the tight single-file paths,      the unknown, uncertain water-crossings,
neowle nssas      nicorhsa fela

 

the precipitous headlands,      the many homes of nicors;
h fara sum      beforan gengde

 

he with a few      went ahead
wsra monna      wong scawian

  1413

wise men      surveying the field,
o t h faringa      fyrgenbamas

 

until he by chance      mountain-trees
ofer hrne stn      hleonian funde

 

over a silvery-grey stone      found hanging,
wynlasne wudu      wter under std

 

the joyless forest;      water stood below,
drorig ond gedrfed      Denum eallum ws

 

bloody and stirred-up;      for all of the Danes was,
winum Scyldinga      wrce on mde

  1418

for the friends of the Scyldings,     suffering in the heart
t geolianne,      egne monegum

 

to endure,      for many thanes,
onc eorla gehwam      syan scheres

 

awakening grief in each of the nobles,      when schere's
on m holmclife      hafelan mtton.

 

--on the sea-cliff--      head encountered.
Fld blde wol      --folc t sagon--

 

The flood welled bloody      --the folk stared at it--
htan heolfre      horn stundum song

  1423

with flaming gore;      rapidly the horn sang,
fslc forlo      fa eal gest

 

urgent song of departure;      the troop all sat down;
geswon fter wtere      wyrmcynnes fela

 

they saw then through the water      many of the race of serpents,
sellice sadracan      sund cunnian,

 

strange sea-dragon      exploring the lake,
swylce on nshleoum      nicras licgean

 

also on the cape-slopes      were lounging nicors,
on undernmal      oft bewitiga

  1428

they in mid-morning      often carry out
sorhfulne s      on seglrde,

 

grievous sorties      on the sail-road,
wyrmas ond wildor      he on weg hruron

 

serpents and wild beasts;      they rushed away
bitere ond gebolgne      bearhtm ongaton

 

bitter and swollen with rage;      they perceived the clear note,
ghorn galan      sumne Gata lod

 

war-horn wailing;      one of the Geats' men
of flnbogan      fores getwafde

  1433

with a shaft and bow      separated it from life,
gewinnes      t him on aldre std

 

of wave-struggle      that in its heart stood,
herestral hearda      h on holme ws

 

a strong war-arrow;      it in the water was
sundes sanra      hyne swylt fornam

 

swimming the slower,      when Death seized it;
hre wear on um      mid eofersprotum

 

fast it was in the waves      against boar-pikes
heorohcyhtum      hearde genearwod,

  1438

savagely-hooked      hard pressed,
na genaged      ond on ns togen

 

viciously attacked,      and from the cape dragged out,
wundorlc wagbora      weras scawedon

 

wondrous spawn of the waves;      men stared at
gryrelcne gist.      Gyrede hine Bowulf

 

the gruesome guest.      Beowulf armed himself
eorlgewadum      nalles for ealdre mearn

 

in noble garments,      feared not at all for his life;
scolde herebyrne      hondum gebrden

  1443

it was necessary that his army-byrnie,      braided by hands,
sd ond searofh      sund cunnian

 

broad and cunningly adorned,      explore the lake,
so e bncofan      beorgan ce

 

it the bone-chamber      could protect,
t him hildegrp      hrere ne mihte

 

that him the battle-grip      could not his heart,     
eorres inwitfeng      aldre gescean

 

nor angry grasp of malice      his life scathe,
ac se hwta helm      hafelan werede

  1448

moreover the shining helm      warded his head,
s e meregrundas      mengan scolde,

 

that which the mere-depths      must stir up,
scan sundgebland      since geweorad

 

seek the mingling of waters      adorned with riches,
befongen frawrsnum      sw hine fyrndagum

 

encircled with lordly-bands      as in far-days it
worhte wapna smi      wundrum tode

 

was wrought by weapons' smith,      wonderfully lengthened,
besette swnlcum      t hine syan n

  1453

beset with swine-forms,      so that it then no
brond n beadomcas      btan ne meahton.

 

brond-blade nor battle-maiches      to bite were not able.
Ns t onne matost      mgenfultuma

 

Not the least then of      his mighty supports,
t him on earfe lh      yle Hrgres

 

that him in need lent      Hrothgar's yle
--ws am hftmce      Hrunting nama--

 

--was the long-hilted maiche-sword's      name Hrunting--
t ws n foran      ealdgestrona

  1458

it was one above      of ancient treasures;
ecg ws ren      tertnum fh

 

edge was iron,      with poison-twigs patterned,
hyrded heaoswte      nafre hit t hilde ne swc

 

hardened with battle-blood;      never had it in a fight failed
manna angum      ra e hit mid mundum bewand

 

any man,      who it in hands brandished,
s e gryresas      gegn dorste

 

he who terrifying journeys      dared to enter upon,
folcstede fra      ns t forma s

  1463

the domain of foes;      it was not the first time
t hit ellenweorc      fnan scolde.

 

that it courage-work      had been obliged to perform.
Hru ne gemunde      mago Ecglfes

 

Indeed he could not have recalled,      the kin of Ecgelaf,
eafoes crftig      t h ar gesprc

 

mighty in strength,      that which he had said before,
wne druncen      h s wapnes onlh

 

drunk on wine,      when he lent that the weapon
slran sweordfrecan      selfa ne dorste

  1468

to a better swordsman,      he himself did not dare
under a gewin      aldre genan,

 

under the waves' turmoil      to risk his life,
drihtscype drogan      ar h dme forlas

 

to carry out bravery;      there he forfeited glory,
ellenmarum      ne ws am rum sw     

 

fame from valour;      it was not so for the other,
syan h hine t ge      gegyred hfde.

 

when he himself for war      had equipped.

XXII

 

Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:

  1473

Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Geenc n, se mara      maga Healfdenes

 

'Think now, glorious      kinsman of Half-Dane,
snottra fengel      n ic eom ses fs

 

wise chieftain,      now I am eager for the adventure,
goldwine gumena,      hwt wit go spracon:

 

gold-friend of man,      what we spoke of earlier:
gif ic t earfe      nre scolde

 

if I in employment      of yours should
aldre linnan      t m ware

  1478

be parted from life,      that you for me ever would be,
forgewitenum      on fder stale

 

having passed on,      in the place of a father;
wes mundbora mnum      magoegnum

 

be you hand-bearer to my      young retainers,
hondgesellum      gif mec hild nime

 

hand-companions,      if battle takes me,
swylce mdmas,      m sealdest,

 

so too you the treasures,      those which you gave me,
Hrgr lofa,      Higelce onsend

  1483

beloved Hrothgar,      send on to Hygelac;
mg onne on am golde ongitan      Gata dryhten,

 

he then will able to in the gold observe,      the lord of the Geats,
geson sunu Hradles      onne h on t sinc stara

 

to perceive, the son of Hrethel,      when he on that treasures stares,
t ic gumcystum      gdne funde

 

that I one of noble virtues,      a good king, had found,
baga bryttan      brac onne mste.

 

dispenser of rings,      enjoyed while I could.
Ond Hunfer lat      ealde lfe

  1488

And let Unferth      the old heirloom,
wratlc wagsweord      wdcne man

 

the glorious wave-sword,      (let) the widely-known man
heardecg habban      ic m mid Hruntinge

 

have that hard-edged (sword);      I for myself with Hrunting
dm gewyrce      oe mec da nime.'

 

will gain glory,      unless Death takes me.'
fter am wordum      Weder-Gata lod

 

After these words      the man of the Weder-Geats
efste mid elne      nalas andsware

  1493

hastened with courage;      not in the least for a reply
bdan wolde      brimwylm onfeng

 

did he wish to await;      the surging-lake enfolded
hilderince.      ws hwl dges,

 

the battle-warrior.      Then it was a long part of a day,
ar h one grundwong      ongytan mehte

 

ere he the bottom      could perceive,
sna t onfunde      s e flda begong

 

at once she found it out,      --she who the floods' expanse,
heorogfre behold      hund missra

  1498

fiercely-ravenous, held      a hundred half-years,
grim ond gradig      t ar gumena sum

 

wrathful and greedy--      that there one of the humans
lwihta eard      ufan cunnode

 

the realm of strange being      explored from above;
grp tganes      grinc gefng

 

then she groped towards,      seized the warrior
atolan clommum      n ar in gescd

 

in terrible clasps;      Not the sooner she crushed inside
hlan lce      hring tan ymbbearh

  1503

his hale body;      the ring-mail gave him protection from without,
t ho one fyrdhom      urhfn ne mihte

 

that she the soldier-garment      could not penetrate,
locene leoosyrcan      lan fingrum.

 

the interlocked limb-coat,      with her loathsome fingers.
Br so brimwylf      ho t botme cm

 

Then the sea-wolf bore,      when she had come to the bottom,
hringa engel      t hofe snum

 

the lord of those rings      to her court,
sw h ne mihte      --n h s mdig ws--

  1508

so he could not      --no matter how brave he was--
wapna gewealdan      ac hine wundra s fela

 

wield his weapon,      but him so many bizarre things
swecte on sunde      sador monig

 

smelled in the deep,      many sea-beasts
hildetxum      heresyrcan brc

 

with battle-tusks      tore at his army-mail,
hton glacan.      se eorl ongeat

 

the horrors attacked.      Then the earl saw
t h nsele      nthwylcum ws

  1513

that he in a hall of hatred      --I know not which-- was,
ar him nanig wter      wihte ne sceede

 

where not any water him      oppressed at all,
n him for hrfsele      hrnan ne mehte

 

nor him, due to the the hall's roof,      was not able to reach
fargripe fldes      frloht geseah,

 

the sudden onrush of the flood;      he saw firelight,
blcne loman      beorhte scnan

 

a pale light      shining vividly;
ongeat se gda      grundwyrgenne

  1518

then the good man saw      the accursd one of the deep,
merewf mihtig      mgenras forgeaf

 

the mighty mere-wife;      he gave a powerful thrust
hildebille      hondswenge ne oftah

 

to the battle-bill,      did not withhold the swing of his hand,
t hire on hafelan      hringmal gl

 

so that on her head      the ring-marked sang out
gradig glo      se gist onfand

 

a greedy war-song;      then the guest discovered
t se beadoloma      btan nolde,

  1523

that the battle-brand      did not wish to bite,
aldre scean      ac so ecg geswc

 

to crush life,      rather the edge failed
odne t earfe      olode ar fela

 

the noble in his need;      it had endured already many
hondgemta      helm oft gescr

 

hand-to-hand encounters,      often split helm,
fages fyrdhrgl      ws forma s

 

the war-garments of the doomed;      this was the first time
dorum mdme      t his dm lg.

  1528

for the precious treasure      that its glory failed.
Eft ws anrad,      nalas elnes lt

 

Again was resolute,      not at all slackening in courage,
mara gemyndig      mag Hglces

 

mindful of fame      the kinsman of Hygelac
wearp wundenmal      wrattum gebunden

 

then he threw aside the twisting pattern (sword),      adorned with ornaments,
yrre retta      t hit on eoran lg

 

the angry warrior,      so that it lay on the earth,
st ond stlecg      strenge getrwode,

  1533

firm and steel-edged;      he trusted to strength,
mundgripe mgenes      sw sceal man don

 

his hand-grip of might;      so must a man do,
onne h t ge      gegn ence

 

when he in war      intends to gain
longsumne lof      n ymb his lf ceara.

 

long-lasting praise;      he cares not for his life.
sydaudioGefng be eaxle      --nalas for fahe mearn--

 

Grabbed her then by the shoulder      --not in the least regretting the feud--
G-Gata lod,      Grendles mdor

  1538

the prince of the War-Geats,      Grendel's mother;
brgd beadwe heard      h gebolgen ws

 

the hard man of conflict then heaved,      now that he was enraged,
feorhgenlan      t ho on flet gebah

 

the deadly foe,      so that she fell to the floor;
ho him eft hrae      handlean forgeald

 

she again him quickly      gave hand-reward
grimman grpum      ond him tganes fng

 

with wrathful grips      and clutched him against herself;
oferwearp wrigmd      wigena strengest

  1543

then, weary in spirit, he stumbled,      the strongest man,
fecempa      t h on fylle wear

 

warrior on foot,      so that he was in a fall;
ofst one selegyst      ond hyre seax getah

 

then she bestrode the guest in her hall,      and drew her seax,
brd ond brnecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan

 

broad and bright-edged;      she wished to avenge her son,
ngan eaferan      him on eaxle lg

 

only offspring;      on his shoulder lay
brostnet brden;      t gebearh fore

  1548

woven breast-net;      it protected life,
wi ord ond wi ecge      ingang forstd.

 

against point and against edge      it withstood entry.
Hfde forsod      sunu Ecgowes

 

Then he would have perished,      the son of Edgetheow,
under gynne grund      Gata cempa

 

under the yawning ground,      the champion of the Geats,
nemne him heaobyrne      helpe gefremede

 

except that him the war-byrnie      provided help,
herenet hearde--      ond hlig god

  1553

firm army-net--      and holy God
gewold wgsigor      wtig drihten

 

controlled the war-victory;      the wise Lord,
rodera radend      hit on ryht gescd

 

the Ruler of the heavens,      decided it rightly,
elce      syan h eft std.

 

easily,      thereupon he stood up again.

XXIII

 

Geseah on searwum     sigeadig bil

 

He saw then among the arms     a victory-blessed bill,
ealdsweord eotenisc    ecgum htig

  1558

an old giantish sword    with firm edges,
wigena weormynd    t ws wapna cyst

 

an honour of warriors,    it was the choicest weapon,
bton hit ws mre    onne anig mon er

 

but it was more    than any other man
t beadulce    tberan meahte

 

to battle-play    could carry,
gd ond geatolc    gganta geweorc

 

good and stately,    the work of giants;
h gefng fetelhilt    freca Scyldinga

  1563

he seized then the ring-hilt,    champion of the Scyldings
hroh ond heorogrim    hringmal gebrgd

 

wild and furiously battle-fierce,    he drew the ring-marked (sword)
aldres orwna    yrringa slh

 

without hope of life,    angrily struck,
t hire wi halse    heard grpode

 

so that through her neck    it clutched hard,
bnhringas brc    bil eal urhwd

 

broke bone-rings;     the bill passed entirely through
fagne flaschoman    ho on flet gecrong

  1568

the doomed cloak of flesh;    she fell on the floor;
sweord ws swtig    secg weorce gefeh.

 

the sword was bloody,    the warrior rejoiced in his work.
Lxte se loma    loht inne std

 

The gleam flashed,     the light stood within,
efne sw of hefene    hdre scne

 

even as from heaven    shines brightly
rodores candel    h fter recede wlt

 

the sky's candle;    he looked about the hall;
hwearf be wealle    wapen hafenade

  1573

moved along the wall,    weapon raised
heard be hiltum    Higelces egn

 

fierce with hilts,    Hygelac's thane,
yrre ond anrad    ns so ecg fracod

 

angry and single-minded;    nor was that edge useless
hilderince    ac h hrae wolde

 

to the battle-man,    but he quickly wished
Grendle forgyldan    grasa fela

 

to repay Grendel    for the many war-raids
ra e h geworhte    t West-Denum

  1578

which he had carried out    on the West-Danes
oftor micle     onne on anne s

 

much more often    than on a single venture,
onne h Hrgres     heorgenatas

 

when he Hrothgar's    hearth-companions
slh on sweofote    slapende frat

 

slaughter in their slumber,    devoured in their sleep,
folces Denigea    fftne men

 

of the folk of the Danes    fifteen men,
ond er swylc    t offerede

  1583

and other such    had he carried out and off
llicu lc sydaudio     h him s lan forgeald

 

hideous haul;    he paid him the reward of that,
re cempa    t s e h on rste geseah

 

the fierce fighter,    in that he saw in repose
gwrigne     Grendel licgan

 

war-weary    Grendel lying,
aldorlasne    sw him ar gescd

 

lifeless,     as he had injured him earlier
hild t Heorote    --hr wde sprong

  1588

in the conflict at Heorot    --the corpse burst wide open,
syan h fter dae     drepe rwade

 

when it after death    suffered a blow,
heorosweng heardne--    ond hine hafde becearf.

 

a hard sword-stroke--    and then its head he cut off.
Sna t geswon     snottre ceorlas

 

Suddenly that saw     the wise fellows,
e mid Hrgre    on holm wliton

 

who with Hrothgar    looked at the lake,
t ws geblond    eal gemenged

 

that was turmoil of waves    all stirred up
brim blde fh    blondenfeaxe

  1593

the water coloured with blood;    with blended-hair,
gomele ymb gdne    ongeador spracon

 

aged, about the good man,    together they spoke,
t hig s elinges     eft ne wndon

 

that they that noble one    did not expect again
t h sigehrig     scean cme

 

that he, triumphing in victory,    would come to seek
marne oden     s monige gewear

  1598

the glorious ruler;    then it many agreed,
t hine so brimwylf    breoten hfde.

 

that the sea-wolf him    had destroyed.
cm nn dges    ns ofgafon

 

Then came then ninth hour of the day;    they abandoned the cape,
hwate Scyldingas    gewt him hm onon

 

the brave Scyldings;    he went home hence,
goldwine gumena    gistas scan

 

the gold-friend of men;    the guests looked about
mdes soce    ond on mere staredon

  1603

sick at heart,    and stared into the mere,
wston, ond ne wndon    t he heora winedrihten

 

wished, and did not expect,    that they their lord and friend
selfne geswon.     t sweord ongan

 

himself would see.    Then that sword began
fter heaoswte    hildegicelum

 

caused by the gore of battle    in icycles of battle,
wgbil wanian    t ws wundra sum

 

the war-bill to wane;    that was a great wonder
t hit eal gemealt    se gelcost

  1608

that it all melted,    so like ice,
onne forstes bend    fder onlate

 

when frost's bond    the Father loosens,
onwinde walrpas    s geweald hafa

 

unwinds water-ropes,    who has control
sala ond mala    t is s metod.

 

of times and seaons;    that is the true Creator.
Ne nm h in am wcum     Weder-Gata lod

 

He did not take into those dwelling,    the leader of the Weder-Geats,
mmahta m    h h ar monige geseah

  1613

more treasures,    though he there saw a great number,
bton one hafelan    ond hilt somod

 

but that head    and the hilt as well
since fge    sweord ar gemealt

 

shining with ornament;    the sword had already melted,
forbarn brdenmal    ws t bld t s ht,

 

burned up the wavy-patterned (blade);     that blood was so hot,
ttren ellorgast    s ar inne swealt.

 

the venomous foreign spirit    who had perished there inside.
Sna ws on sunde    s e ar t scce gebd

  1618

Straightaway he was in the water,    he who survived in strife,
wghryre wrra    wter p urhdaf

 

the enemies' fall in war;    he dove up through the water,
waron gebland    eal gefalsod

 

the turmoil of waves was    all cleared,
acne eardas     se ellorgst

 

the vast regions,    where the alien ghosts
oflt lfdagas    ond s lanan gesceaft

 

gave up their life-days    and this borrowed world;
cm to lande    lidmanna helm

  1623

he came then to the land,    the seafarer's leader,
swmd swymman    salce gefeah

 

swimming stout-hearted;    he rejoiced in the sea-loot,
mgenbyrenne,     ra e h him mid hfde.

 

the great burden,    which he had with him.
odon him tganes    gode ancodon

 

They went towards him,    thanked God,
rlc egna hap     odnes gefgon

 

the mighty band of thanes,    they rejoiced for their lord,
s e h hyne gesundne     geson mston

  1628

that they him sound    were able to see;
ws of am hrran    helm ond byrne

 

then the vigorous man was from    helm and byrnie
lungre lsed    --lagu drsade,

 

quickly loosened    --the water grew still,
wter under wolcnum    wldrore fg--

 

the lake under the clouds,    stained with the gore of death--
frdon for onon     felstum

 

they fared forth thence     along foot-paths
ferhum fgne    foldweg maton

  1633

happy in their hearts,    traversed the trail over the earth,
ce strate    cyningbalde men

 

the familiar streets;    the men, bold as kings,
from am holmclife    hafelan baron

 

from that lake-cliff    bore the head
earfolce    heora aghwrum

 

arduously,    for all of them,
felamdigra     --fower scoldon

 

full of spirit    --four had to
on am wlstenge    wrcum geferian

  1638

on the pole of the slain    to carry with difficulty
t am goldsele    Grendles hafod--

 

to the gold-hall    Grendel's head--
o t semninga    t sele cmon

 

until presently    they came to the hall,
frome fyrdhwate    fowertne

 

brave army-keen    fourteen
Gata gongan    gumdryhten mid

 

of the Geats moving,    with their lord of men,
mdig on gemonge    meodowongas trd.

  1643

proud in the throng,    trod on the plain near the mead-hall.
cm in gan    ealdor egna

 

Then came in marching     the lord of the thanes,
dadcne mon    dme gewurad

 

the deed-bold man    exalted by glory,
hle hildedor    Hrgr grtan

 

the battle-brave hero,    to greet Hrothgar;
ws be feaxe    on flet boren

 

then it was by the hair    borne to the floor
Grendles hafod    ar guman druncon,

  1648

the head of Grendel,    where men were drinking,
egeslc for eorlum    ond are idese mid,

 

dreadful for the earls,    and the ladies with them,
wliteson wratlc    weras onswon.

 

a wondrous spectacle;    the men stared.

XXV

 

Bowulf maelode    bearn Ecgowes:

 

Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
'Hwt, w s salc,    sunu Healfdenes

 

'Listen, we you these sea-spoils,    son of Half-Dane,
lod Scyldinga,    lustum brhton

  1653

lord of the Scyldings,    gladly brought
tres t tcne     hr t lcast.

 

as token of glory,    which you look at here.
Ic t unsfte    ealdre gedgde

 

I it not easily    survived with my life,
wigge under wtere    weorc gende

 

war under water,    work risked
earfolce     trihte ws

 

with trouble;    at once was
g getwafed    nyme mec god scylde

  1658

the warfare at an end,    unless God shielded me;
ne meahte ic t hilde    mid Hruntinge

 

I could not in the battle    with Hrunting
wiht gewyrcan    ah t wapen duge

 

bring about anything,    though that weapon is excellent
ac m gee    ylda waldend

 

but to me granted    men's Ruler
t ic on wge geseah    wlitig hangian

 

that I saw on the wall    hanging fair
ealdsweord acen    --oftost wsode

  1663

a mighty ancient sword    --most often He has guided
winigea lasum--    t ic wapne gebrad

 

the one deprived of friend--    that I the weapon drew,
ofslh t are scce     m sal ageald

 

slew then in the strife,    when an opportunity was yielded to me,
hses hyrdas     t hildebil

 

the house's guardians;    then that battle-bill
forbarn brogdenmal    sw t bld gesprang

 

burned up, wavy-patterned,     as the blood leapt out,
htost heaoswta    ic t hilt anan

  1668

the hottest sweat of war;    I that hilt thence
fondum tferede    fyrendada wrc

 

carried back from the fiends,    foul-deeds avenged,
dacwealm Denigea    sw hit gedfe ws.

 

deadly slaughter of Danes,    as it was fitting.
Ic hit onne gehte    t on Heorote mst

 

I promise it to you then,    that you in Heorot may
sorhlas swefan    mid nra secga gedryht

 

sleep without sorrow    with your company of soldiers,
ond egna gehwylc    nra loda

  1673

and each thane    of your nation,
dugue ond iogoe      t him ondradan ne earft,

 

veterans and youths,    that you for them need not dread,
oden Scyldinga,    on healfe

 

chieftain of the Scyldings,    on that side,
aldorbealu eorlum    sw ar dydest.'

 

life-bale for earls,    as you did before.'
ws gyldenhilt    gamelum rince

 

Then was the golden hilt    to the old king
hrum hildfruman    on hand gyfen

  1678

to the grey battle-leader,    given into his hand,
enta argeweorc    hit on aht gehwearf

 

the ancient work of giants;    it had passed into the possession
fter dofla hryre    Denigea frn

 

after the devils' fall    of the lord of the Danes,
wundorsmia geweorc    ond s worold ofgeaf

 

the work of wondersmiths,    and then this world gave up
gromheort guma    godes andsaca

 

the angry-hearted creature,    God's adversary
morres scyldig    ond his mdor ac

  1683

guilty of murder,    and his mother also;
on geweald gehwearf    woroldcyninga

 

it passed into the power    of the earthly kings
am slestan       be sam twonum

 

the finest ones    between the two seas,
ra e on Scedenigge    sceattas dalde.

 

of those who in Scandinavia     dealt out riches.
Hrgr maelode    hylt scawode

 

Hrothgor spoke;    he examined the hilt,
ealde lafe    on am ws r writen

  1688

the old heirloom,    on which was engraved the origin
fyrngewinnes    syan fld ofslh

 

of ancient strife,    when the flood slew
gifen gotende    gganta cyn--

 

the pouring ocean,    the race of giants--
frcne gefrdon    t ws fremde od

 

they fared terribly;    that was a tribe foreign
cean dryhtne    him s endelan

 

to the eternal Lord;    them the end-reward
urh wteres wylm    waldend sealde--

  1693

through the surging of waters    the Ruler granted--
sw ws on am scennum    scran goldes

 

also was on the sword-hilt    of shining gold
urh rnstafas    rihte gemearcod

 

in rune-staves    rightly marked,
geseted ond gesad    hwm t sweord geworht

 

it was set down and said,    for whom the sword wrought,
rena cyst    arest ware

 

--choicest of irons--     had been first,
wreoenhilt ond wyrmfh     se wsa sprc

  1698

with a twisted-hilt and serpent-patterned;    then the wise man spoke,
sunu Healfdenes     swgedon ealle:

 

the son of Half-Dane     all fell silent:
't, l, mg secgan     s e s ond riht

 

'That, indeed, may say    he who truth and right
freme on folce    feor eal gemon,

 

performs among the folk,    remembers all from far-back,
eald el weard    t es eorl ware

 

old warden of the homeland;    that this hero was
geboren betera    blad is rared

  1703

born a greater man;    the fame is established
geond wdwegas,    wine mn Bowulf,

 

throughout the distant regions,    Beowulf my friend,
n ofer oda gehwylce    eal hit geyldum healdest,

 

over each of the nations, of you;    all you it with patience hold,
mgen mid mdes snyttrum      ic sceal mne gelastan

 

strength with the wisdom of the heart;    to you I shall continue to give my
froe sw wit furum spracon     scealt t frfre weoran

  1707

protection, as we spoke of before;    you must be as a comfort
eal langtwdig    lodum num

 

all long-lasting    to your people,
hleum t helpe.    Ne wear Heremd sw

 

to heroes a support.    Heremod was not so
eaforum Ecgwelan    r-Scyldingum

 

to the sons of Edgewela,    to the Honour-Scyldings;
ne gewox h him t willan    ac t wlfealle

 

he grew not to their pleasure,    but for slaughter
ond t dacwalum    Deniga lodum

  1712

and for annihilation    of the people of the Danes;
brat bolgenmd    bodgenatas

 

he felled in a furious spirit    his companions at table,
eaxlgesteallan    o t h na hwearf

 

shoulder-comrades,    until he alone passed,
mare oden    mondramum from

 

famous king,    from the joys of man
ah e hine mihtig god    mgenes wynnum

 

though him mighty God    with joys of strength
eafeum stpte    ofer ealle men

  1717

powerfully exalted    over all men,
for gefremede    hwere him on ferhe grow

 

further advanced    yet in his heart grew to him
brosthord bldrow    nallas bagas geaf

 

the treasure of the breast eager for blood;     not at all did he give rings
Denum fter dme    dramlas gebd

 

to Danes for glory;    he lived joylessly,
t h s gewinnes    wrc rwade

 

so that he the strife's    pain suffered,
lodbealo longsum.     lar be on

  1722

a great evil to the people for a long time.    You learn by this,
gumcyste ongit    ic is gid be

 

understand human virtue;    I this tale for you
wrc wintrum frd.    Wundor is t secganne

 

recited, old and wise in winters.    Wonder is to say
h mihtig god    manna cynne

 

how mighty God    to mankind
urh sdne sefan    snyttru brytta

 

according to deep understanding     dispenses wisdom,
eard ond eorlscipe    h h ealra geweald   1727 land and noble qualities;    he has control of all;
hwlum h on lufan    late hworfan

 

at times He in delight    lets go
monnes mdgeonc    maran cynnes

 

the heart's thought of some man    of glorious kin
sele him on le    eoran wynne

 

gives to him in his own homeland    earthly bliss
t healdanne    hloburh wera

 

to command    a stronghold of men,
ged him sw gewealdene     worolde dalas

  1732

makes subject to him    from the world's portions,
sde rce    t h his selfa ne mg

 

a wide kingdom,    that he himself can not
for his unsnyttrum    ende geencean

 

in his ignorance    conceive the end (of his rule);
wuna h on wiste    n hine wiht dwele

 

he lives on in abundance;    they hinder him not a bit,
dl n yldo    n him inwitsorh

 

sickness nor age,    nor him evil sorrow
on sefan sweorce    n gesacu hwar

  1737

darkens in his soul,    nor strife anywhere
ecghete owe    ac him eal worold

 

sharp-hate appears,    but to him all the world
wende on willan    h t wyrse ne con.

 

turns on his pleasure;    he does not know it worse.

XXVI

 

O t him on innan    oferhygda dal

 

Until within him    pride's portion
weaxe ond wrda    onne se weard swefe

 

grows and flourishes    then the warder sleeps,
swele hyrde    bi se slap t fst,

  1742

the soul's keeper;    the sleep is too sound,
bisgum gebunden,    bona swe nah

 

bound with troubles,    the killer is very near,
s e of flnbogan    fyrenum scote

 

he who from his shaft-bow    foully fires;
onne bi on hrere    under helm drepen

 

then it is in the heart    struck beneath the helm
biteran strale    --him bebeorgan ne con--

 

by the bitter dart    --he cannot protect himself--
wm wundorbebodum    wergan gstes

  1747

from the perversity of strange biddings    of the wicked spirit;
ince him t ltel     t h t lange hold

 

it seems to him too little    what he rules too long;
gtsa gromhdig    nallas on gylp sele

 

cruel-mindedly covets,    he in arrogance never gives
fadde bagas    ond h forgesceaft

 

golden rings,    and he then the future
forgyte ond forgme    s e him ar god sealde,

 

forgets and disregards,    that which God gave him before,
wuldres waldend,    weormynda dal

  1752

glory's Ruler,    a share of honour
hit on endestf    eft gelimpe

 

it in the end    finally comes to pass
t se lchoma    lane gedrose

 

that the body,    lent, fails;
fage gefealle    fh er t

 

fated to death, it falls;    another body takes up,
s e unmurnlce    mdmas dale

 

who without regret    shares out treasure,
eorles argestron    egesan ne gme.

  1757

the earl's ancient wealth,    and he heeds not fear.
Bebeorh one bealon,    Beowulf lofa

 

Guard yourself against this wicked strife,    beloved Beowulf,
secg betosta,    ond t slre gecos

 

finest man,    and for yourself choose the better,
ce radas    oferhda ne gm,

 

the eternal gains;    do not pay heed to pride,
mare cempa    n is nes mgnes blad

 

renowned champion;    now is the glory of your strength
ne hwle    eft sna bi

  1762

for a while;    presently in turn will be
t ec dl oe ecg     eafoes getwafe

 

that you sickness or edge    will part from strength,
oe fres feng    oe fldes wylm

 

or grasp of fire,    or surge of flood,
oe gripe mces    oe gres fliht

 

or bite of blade,    or flight of spear,
oe atol yldo    oe agena bearhtm

 

or repulsive old-age;    or the brightness of the eyes
forsite ond forsworce    semninga bi

  1767

weakens and dims;    very soon will be
t ec, dryhtguma,    da oferswe.

 

that you, warrior,    Death overpowers.
Sw ic Hring-Dena    hund missra

 

So I the Ring-Danes     a hundred seasons
wold under wolcnum    ond hig wigge belac

 

have ruled under the skies    and in war sheltered them,
manigum maga    geond ysne middangeard

 

from many tribes     throughout this middle-earth,
scum ond ecgum    t ic m anigne

  1772

from ash-shafts and sword-edges,    so that I for myself any,
under swegles begong    gesacan ne tealde.

 

under the expanse of the heavens,    adversary I did not account.
Hwt, m s on le    edwendan cwm,

 

Listen, to me in the homeland for that    a reversal came,
gyrn fter gomene    seoan Grendel wear

 

sorrow after joy,    since Grendel became
ealdgewinna    ingenga min

 

an old contender,    invader of mine,
ic are scne     singles wg

  1777

I from that persecution    endured continually
mdceare micle    s sig metode anc

 

great sorrow of spirit;    thanks be for that to the Measurer of Fate,
cean dryhtne    s e ic on aldre gebd

 

eternal Lord,    from that I survived alive,
t ic on one hafelan     heorodrorigne

 

so that I on the head    sword-bloodied
ofer eald gewin    agum starige!

 

after ancient strife     could gaze with my eyes!
G n t setle     symbelwynne droh

  1782

Go now to the bench,    join in the pleasure-banquet,
wggeweorad    unc sceal worn fela

 

honoured by your battle;    we must very many
mma gemanra    sian morgen bi.'

 

treasures share between us    when it is morning.'
Gat ws gldmd     gong sna t

 

The Geat was glad-hearted,    went straightaway to
setles nosan    sw se snottra heht

 

seek the bench,    as the wise one had commanded;
ws eft sw ar     ellenrfum

  1787

then it was again as before    for bold warriors,
fletsittendum    fgere gereorded

 

for those sitting in the hall    they prepared a fine feast
nowan stefne    nihthelm geswearc

 

once again;    the helm of night darkened,
deorc ofer dryhtgumum    dugu eal rs

 

dark over the company of warriors;    the veterans all arose;
wolde blondenfeax    beddes nosan,

 

the blended-haired one wishes    to seek his bed,
gamela Scylding    Gat unigmetes wl

  1792

the aged Scylding;    the Geat exceedingly much,
rfne randwigan    restan lyste

 

valiant shield-warrior,    desired rest;
sna him seleegn    ses wrgum

 

at once him the hall-thane    the weary journeyer
feorrancundum    or wsade

 

from afar    guided forth,
s for andrysnum    ealle beweotede

 

who for courtesy    looked after everything
egnes earfe    swylce dgore

  1797

of the hero's needs,    such as in those days
heaolende    habban scoldon

 

warrior-sailors    were obliged to have;
reste hine rmheort     reced hluade

 

rested him then, the large-hearted man;    the hall towered
gap ond goldfh    gst inne swf

 

vaulted and gold-adorned;    the guest slept inside
o t hrefn blaca    heofones wynne

 

until the black raven,    the joy of the sky
blheort bodode.     cm beorht scacan

  1802

declared glad-heartedly.    Then came bright hurrying,
scaan netton

 

fighters hastening;
waron elingas    eft t lodum

 

the nobles were    back to their people
fse t farenne    wolde feor anon

 

eager to fare;    he wished far thence,
cuma collenferh    coles nosan.

 

the high-spirited visitor,    to seek his ship.
Heht se hearda    Hrunting beran

  1807

He then directed the tough man    to wear Hrunting
sunu Ecglfes    heht his sweord niman

 

the son of Edgelaf,    bid him take his sword,
loflc ren    sgde him s lanes anc

 

beloved iron;    said thanks to him for the loan,
cw: h one gwine     gdne tealde

 

quoth: he the war-friend    marked well,
wgcrftigne     nales wordum lg

 

skilled in war;    he did not in words blame
mces ecge    t ws mdig secg.

  1812

the maiche's edge;    he was a proud man.
Ond sfrome,    searwum gearwe

 

And then, eager to be going,    ready in arms,
wgend waron    ode weor Denum

 

were the warriors,     the one honoured by the Danes went,
eling t yppan    ar se er ws

 

noble to the high seat,    where the other was,
hle hildedor    Hrgr grtte.

 

the battle-bold hero    greeted Hrothgar.

XXVII

 

Bowulf maelode    bearn Ecgowes:

  1817

Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
'N w salend       secgan wylla

 

'Now we sea-farers     wish to say
feorran cumene    t w fundia

 

having come from afar,    that we are anxious
Higelc scan    waron hr tela

 

to seek Hygelac;    we here were well
willum bewenede     s wl dohtest.

 

entertained in our desires;    you have treated us well.
Gif ic onne on eoran    wihte mg

  1822

If then on earth I    can (do) anything
nre mdlufan    mran tilian,

 

of your affections    earn more,
gumena dryhten,    onne ic gt dyde,

 

lord of men,    than I have done yet,
ggeweorca    ic bo gearo sna

 

with feats of arms,    I am ready at once,
gif ic t gefricge    ofer flda begang

 

if I find it out    over the flood's expanse,
t ec ymbsittend    egesan wa

  1827

that you neighbouring-tribes    oppress with terror,
sw ec hetende    hwlum dydon

 

as enemies to you    sometimes did,
ic senda    egna bringe

 

I to you a thousand    thanes will bring,
hlea t helpe.    Ic on Higelce wt,

 

heroes as help.    I know of Hygelac,
Gata dryhten    ah e h geong sy

 

the lord of the Geats,    though he is young,
folces hyrde    t h mec fremman wile

  1832

the keeper of the folk,    that he would support me
weordum ond worcum    t ic wl herige

 

with words and with deeds,    so that I might honour you rightly
ond t goce    grholt bere

 

and to you in aid     bring a forest of spears,
mgenes fultum    ar bi manna earf.

 

the support of strength,    where you be needful of men.
Gif him onne Hrrnc    t hofum Gata

 

If him, on the other hand, Hrethric    to the Geatish court
geinge odnes bearn    h mg ar fela

  1837

decides (to go), chieftain's son,    he shall there be able many
fronda findan    feorce bo

 

friends to find;    distant lands are
slran geshte    am e him selfa dah.'

 

better sought    by one who is powerful himself.'
Hrgr maelode    him on andsware:

 

Hrothgar spoke     to him in reply:
' wordcwydas     wigtig drihten

 

'To you these sayings of words    the wise Lord
on sefan sende    ne hrde ic snotorlcor

  1842

has sent into mind;    I have not heard more intelligently
on sw geongum feore    guman ingian

 

at such young age    man make a speech;
eart mgenes strang    ond on mde frd

 

you are strong in power    and wise in your heart,
ws wordcwida    wn ic talige

 

judicious word-speaker;    I consider it likely
gif t gegange    t e gr nyme

 

if it happens,    that from you the spear takes,
hild heorugrimme    Hrles eaferan,

  1847

a horrendous battle    Hrethel's heir,
dl oe ren    ealdor nne

 

sickness or iron    your ruler,
folces hyrde    ond n feorh hafast

 

the guardian of the folk,    and you have your life,
t e Sa-Gatas     slran nbben

 

that the Sea-Geats    could not have better
t gecosenne    cyning anigne

 

by choosing    any other king,
hordweard hlea    gyf healdan wylt

  1852

hoard-ward of heroes,    if you wish to rule
mga rce    m n mdsefa

 

your kinsman's kingdom.    Your spirit and heart me
lca leng sw wl,     lofa Bowulf

 

pleases so well the longer (I know them),    dear Beowulf;
hafast gefred     t m folcum sceal

 

you have achieved     that for the folk shall
Gata lodum    ond Gr-Denum

 

the people of the Geats    and the Spear-Danes
sib gemanum    ond sacu restan,

  1857

in mutual peace,    and strife subside,
inwitnas,     he ar drugon,

 

hostilities,     which they endured before;
wesan enden ic wealde    wdan rces

 

shall be, while I rule    the wide kingdom,
mmas gemane,    manig erne

 

wealth in common,    many an other
gdum gegrttan    ofer ganotes b

 

with good things will greet    over the gannet's bath;
sceal hringnaca    ofer heu bringan

  1862

the ring-prowed ship shall    bring over the high seas
lc ond luftcen    ic lode wt

 

offerings and tokens of friendship;    I know these nations
g wi fond g wi frond     fste geworhte

 

both towards foe and towards friend    firmly disposed,
aghws untale    ealde wsan.'

 

blameless in everything,    in the ancient manner.'
gt him eorla hlo     hine gesealde

 

Then again to him the protector of earls    gave to him,
mago Healfdenes    mmas twelf

  1867

the son of Half-Dane,    twelve treasures;
ht inne mid am lcum    lode swase

 

he commanded him with these gifts    his own dear nation
scean on gesyntum,    snde eft cuman

 

to seek in safety,    to return quickly;
gecyste     cyning elum gd,

 

kissed then,    the king the upright noble,
oden Scyldinga    egn betostan

 

the chieftain of the Scyldings,    the best thane
ond be healse genam    hruron him taras

  1872

and took him by the neck;    tears fell from him,
blondenfeaxum    him ws bga wn

 

from the silver and gold whiskers;    in him were both thoughts
      **1873-80**
ealdum infrdum,    res swor

 

old and deeply wise,    the second stronger,
t he seoan     geson mston

 

that they afterwards    might meet,
mdige on mele    ws him se man t on lof

 

brave in a formal summit;    the man was so dear to him
t h one brostwylm     forberan ne mehte

  1877

that he the welling of his breast    could not hold back
ac him on hrere    hygebendum fst

 

but him in his heart    in firm bounds of thought
fter dorum men    dyrne langa

 

for the dear man    a remote longing
beorn wi blde.    Him Bowulf anan

 

burned in his blood.    Him Beowulf thence,
grinc goldwlanc    grsmoldan trd

 

warrior proud with gold,    trod the grass-mound,
since hrmig    sagenga bd

  1882

triumphing in treasure.    The sea-goer awaited
gedfrn     s e on ancre rd

 

its lord and owner,    which rode at its anchor;
ws on gange     gifu Hrgres

 

later on the journey was    the gift of Hrothgar
oft gehted    t ws n cyning,

 

often praised;    that was one king,
aghws orleahtre    o t hine yldo benam

 

in everything blameless,    until age deprived him
mgenes wynnum    s e oft manegum scd.

  1887

of strength's delights,    a thing which continually harms many.

XXVIII

 

Cwm t flde    fela mdigra

 

They came than to the flood    full of spirit
hgstealdra    hringnet baron

 

of the young warriors;    ring-mail they wore
locene leoosyrcan    landweard onfand

 

interlocked limb-shirts;    the land-guard perceived
efts eorla,    sw h ar dyde

 

the return of heroes,    as he did before;
n h mid hearme    of hlies nsan

  1892

he did not with insult    from the cliff's promontory
gstas grtte    ac him tganes rd

 

greet the guests,    but rode towards them,
cw t wilcuman    Wedera lodum

 

said that welcome     to the people of the Wederas
scaan scrhame    t scipe fron

 

the fighters with bright covering    he went to the ship;
ws on sande    sagap naca

 

then was on sand    the sea-curved boat
hladen herewadum    hringedstefna

  1897

laden with war-garments    the ringed-prow
marum ond mmum    mst hlfade

 

with horses and treasure;    the mast towered
ofer Hrgres    hordgestronum

 

over Hrothgar's    hoard-wealth;
h am btwearde     bunden golde

 

he to the boat-guard     a bound gold
swurd gesealde    t h syan ws

 

sword gave,    so that he afterwards was
on meodubence    mma weorre

  1902

on the mead-bench    by the treasure the worthier,
yrfelfe.    Gewt him on nacan

 

by the inherited relic.    Departed him on the ship
drfan dop wter    Dena land ofgeaf

 

to trouble deep water;    he left the Danes' land;
ws be mste     merehrgla sum

 

then was by the mast    a mighty sea-garment,
segl sle fst    sundwudu unede

 

sail fastened by rope;    the sea-beam thundered;
n ar wgflotan    wind ofer um

  1907

there the wave-floater was not     (by) wind over the waves
ses getwafde    sagenga fr

 

hindered in its venture;    the sea-goers went,
flat fmigheals    for ofer e

 

the foamy-necked floated    forth over the waves,
bundenstefna    ofer brimstramas

 

bound prow    over the ocean-streams,
t he Gata clifu    ongitan meahton

 

until they the Geatish cliffs    could perceive,
ce nssas    col p gerang

  1912

the well-known headlands;    the keel rushed up
lyftgeswenced    on lande std.

 

weather-beaten,    rested on the land.
Hrae ws t holme     hweard geara

 

Quickly was at the water    the ready harbour-guard,
s e ar lange td    lofra manna

 

he who already for a long time    for the beloved men
fs t faroe    feor wltode

 

eager at the current    gazed far;
salde t sande    sdfme scip

  1917

moored in the sand    the broad-bosomed ship
oncearbendum fst     las hym a rym

 

firm with anchor-bounds,    lest the force of the waves
wudu wynsuman    forwrecan meahte

 

the winsome timbers    might carry away;
ht p beran    elinga gestron

 

he ordered then to carry up    the nobles' treasure,
frtwe ond fatgold    ns him feor anon

 

trappings and gold ornaments;    it was not far thence for them
t gescanne    sinces bryttan

  1922

to seek    the giver of treasures
Higelc Hrling    ar t hm wuna

 

Hygelac son of Hrethel,    where he dwelt at home
selfa mid gesum    sawealle nah.

 

himself with his companions    near the sea-wall.
Bold ws betlc,    bregorf cyning

 

The building was splendid,    the king of princely valour,
hhealle,    Hygd swe geong

 

the high hall,    Hygd very young,
ws wlungen    ah e wintra lt

  1927

wise, well-thriving,    through few winters
under burhlocan    gebiden hbbe

 

in the walled town    had lived,
Hrees dohtor     ns ho hnh sw ah

 

Haereth's daughter    was not mean though
n t gna gifa    Gata lodum

 

nor too grudging of gifts    to the people of the Geats,
mmgestrona.    Md ro wg

 

of treasure-wealth.    She showed violent arrogance,
fremu folces cwn,    firen' ondrysne

  1932

the lusty queen of the folk,    terrible crimes;
nanig t dorste    dor genan

 

dared not any of    the bold to risk,
swasra gesa,    nefne sinfr

 

of the dear companions,    except her great lord,
t hire an dges    agum starede

 

that on her by day    stared with his eyes
ac him wlbende    weotode tealde

 

but for him slaughter-bonds    he might consider prescribed,
handgewriene     hrae seoan ws

  1937

woven by hands;    quickly then was
fter mundgripe    mce geinged

 

after seizure    a maiche was appointed,
t hit scedenmal     scran  mste,

 

that it, shadow-marked,    was obliged to settle,
cwealmbealu can    ne bi swylc cwnlic aw

 

make known the evil of the death;    such queenly manner is not
idese t efnanne    ah e ho anlicu s

 

for a lady to perform,    though she be matchless,
tte freouwebbe    fores onsace

  1942

that peace-weaver    deprives life,
fter ligetorne    lofne mannan.

 

owing to a false injury,    of beloved man.
Hru t on hh snod     Hemninges mag

 

However, it was cut off at the heel     by Hemming's kinsman;
ealodrincende    er sadan

 

the ale-drinkers    further told
t ho lodbealewa     las gefremede

 

that evil for the people she    practised less,
inwitna     syan arest wear

  1947

malice and enmity,    since she first was
gyfen goldhroden    geongum cempan

 

given, gold-adorned,    to the young champion,
elum dore    syan ho Offan flet

 

of noble ancestry,    when she to Offa's hall
ofer fealone fld    be fder lre

 

over the dusky flood    by her father's wisdom
se geshte    ar ho syan well

 

sought in her journey    where she afterwards fully
in gumstle    gde mare

  1952

on the throne,    for goodness famed,
lfgesceafta    lifigende brac

 

the fated span of her life    her living she used well,
hold hahlufan    wi hlea brego,

 

held high-love    for the heroes' lord,
ealles moncynnes    mne gefrage

 

of all mankind,    I have heard,
s slestan    b sam twonum

 

the finest    between the seas,
eormencynnes     Form Offa ws

  1957

of the mighty race.    Because Offa was
geofum ond gum    grcne man

 

in gifts and in war,    a spear-keen man;
wde geweorod    wsdme hold

 

widely honoured,    ruled in wisdom
el snne    onon ongomor wc

 

his homeland;    then, exceedingly sad, he arose
hleum t helpe    Heminges mag

 

a help to heroes,    the kinsman of Hemming,
nefa Grmundes    na crftig.

  1962

grandson of Garmund,     powerful over strife.

XXVIIII

 

Gewt him se hearda    mid his hondscole

 

Then the hardy man went    with his hand-picked retinue
sylf fter sande    sawong tredan

 

himself along the sand    treading the sea-plain,
wde waroas    woruldcandel scn

 

the wide strand;    the world-candle shone,
sigel san fs    h s drugon

 

the sun eagerly from the south;    they had survived the journey,
elne geodon,    t s e eorla hlo

  1967

strode quickly,    to where the Shield of Heroes,
bonan Ongenoes    burgum in innan,

 

--the bane of Ongentheow--      inside his citadel,
geongne gcyning    gdne gefrnon

 

the young war-king,    they heard (that there) the good man
hringas dalan.    Higelce ws

 

alloted rings.    To Hygelac was
s Bowulfes    snde geced

 

Beowulf's journey    promptly reported,
t ar on worig     wgendra hlo

  1972

that there in enclosed homestead,    the defender of warriors,
lindgestealla    lifigende cwm

 

shield-companion    (still) living came,
heaolces hl    t hofe gongan

 

from the war-play unharmed    going to to the court;
hrae ws germed    sw se rca bebad

 

quickly was cleared,    as the king bade,
fegestum    flet innanweard

 

for the visitors on foot    the floor within;
gest wi sylfne     s scce gens,

  1977

then he sat down with the same man,    he who had survived the fight,
mag wi mage    syan mandryhten

 

kinsman with kinsman,    after the liege-lord
urh hloorcwyde    holdne gegrtte

 

through ceremonious speech    his loyal subject had greeted,
maglum wordum    meoduscencum

 

in emphatic words,    mead-draughts
hwearf geond t sde reced    Hrees dohtor

 

passed round through that spacious room    Haereth's daughter,
lufode lode    liwage br

  1982

--she loved the people--    bore goblets
haum t handa.    Higelc ongan

 

to the hands of the illustrious ones.    Hygelac began
snne geseldan    in sele m han

 

his hall-companion     in that high hall
fgre fricgcean    hyne fyrwet brc

 

to question courteously,    his curiosity burst forth,
hwylce Sa-Gata    sas waron:

 

whatever the Sea-Geats'    adventures were:
'H lomp ow on lde,     lofa Bowulf,

  1987

'How fared you on the way,    dear Beowulf,
faringa    feorr gehogodest

 

when you suddenly    resolved far away
scce scean    ofer sealt wter

 

to seek conflict    over the salt water,
hilde t Hiorote?    Ac Hrgre

 

combat in Heorot?    Moreover, did you Hrothgar's
wdcne wan    wihte gebttest

 

widely known woes    at all ameliorate,
marum odne?    Ic s mdceare

  1992

for the famed chieftain?    I of this with anxious care of the heart
sorhwylmum sa    se ne trwode

 

seethed with wellings of sorrow,    I did not trust the venture
lofes mannes    ic lange bd

 

of my dear man;    I begged you at length,
t one wlgast    wihte ne grtte

 

that you the slaughter-ghast    would not challenge at all,
lte S-Dene    sylfe geweoran

 

let the South-Danes    settle themselves
ge wi Grendel    gode ic anc secge

  1997

the war with Grendel;    to God I speak thanks,
s e ic gesundne     geson mste.'

 

for that I you sound    am permitted to see.'
Bowulf maelode    bearn Ecgoes:

 

Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
't is undyrne,    dryhten Higelc,

 

'It is not secret,    lord Hygelac,
micel gemting    monegum fra

 

that great meeting,    to many men,
hwylc orleghwl    uncer Grendles

  2002

what a time of struggle    between the two of us, me and Grendel,
wear on m wange    ar h worna fela

 

occurred in that place    where he great multitudes
Sige-Scyldingum    sorge gefremede

 

for the Victory-Scyldings    brought about sorrows,
yrme t aldre    ic t eall gewrc

 

lifelong misery;    I avenged it all,
sw begylpan earf    Grendeles mga

 

thus there is need to boast    --of Grendel's kinsmen,
yfel ofer eoran    hthlem one

  2007

evil upon the earth--    of that clash at dawn,
s e lengest leofa    lan cynnes

 

he who lives the longest    of that hateful race,
fecne bifongen.    Ic ar furum cwm

 

enveloped in malice.    I first came there
t m hringsele    Hrgr grtan

 

to that ring-hall    to greet Hrothgar;
sna m se mara    mago Healfdenes

 

straightaway to me the famed    kinsman of Half-Dane,
syan h mdsefan    mnne ce

  2012

after he the purpose of the heart    of mine knew,
wi his sylfes sunu    setl getahte

 

with his own sons    he appointed a seat;
weorod ws on wynne    ne seah ic wdan feorh

 

The troop was joyful;    I have not seen in my whole life
under heofones hwealf    healsittendra

 

under heaven's vault    a hall-sitters'
medudram mran.    Hwlum maru cwn

 

mead-revelry greater.    At times the renowned queen,
friusibb folca    flet eall geondhwearf

  2017

the peace-pledge of peoples,    passed over all of the floor,
bdde byre geonge    oft ho bahwrian

 

urged on the young boys;    often twisted-rings she
secge sealde    ar he t setle gong

 

gave to the warriors,    before she went to her seat;
hwlum for dugue    dohtor Hrgres

 

from time to time before the band of experienced warriors     Hrothgar's daughter
eorlum on ende    ealuwage br

 

to nobles continuously to the end    bore the ale-flagon,
ic Fraware    fletsittende

  2022

those I Freawaru    the ones on the floor
nemnan hrde    ar ho ngled sinc

 

I heard name her,    when she the studded cup
hleum sealde    So gehten is

 

gave to heroes,    she is promised,
geong goldhroden,    gladum suna Frdan

 

young, gold-adorned,    to gracious son of Froda;
hafa s geworden    wine Scyldinga

 

this has arranged    the Friend of the Scyldings,
rces hyrde    ond t rad tala

  2027

the kingdom's shepherd,    and counsel reckons it
t h mid wfe     wlfaha dal

 

that he with this woman    a great part of the slaughter-feuds,
scca gesette.    Oft seldan hwar

 

conflicts will settle.    Very seldom anywhere
fter lodhryre    ltle hwle

 

after the fall of a leader    (even) a little while
bongr bge    ah so brd duge.

 

the murderous spear bends down,    though the bride be good.
Mg s onne ofyncan    oden Heao-Beardna

  2032

This then may displease     the chief of the Heatho-Bards'
ond egna gehwm    ra loda

 

and every thane    of that people,
onne h mid famnan    on flett ga:

 

when he with the maiden    walks on the floor:
dryhtbearn Dena    dugua biwenede,

 

that the noble sons of the Danes,    her veteran troop, are entertained,
on him gladia    gomelra lfe

 

on them glisten    ancient heirlooms,
heard ond hringmal    Heaa-Bearna gestron

  2037

hard and ring-adorned,    the Heatho-Bards' treasure,
enden he m wapnum    wealdan mston.

 

so long as they those weapons    were able to wield.

[XXX]

 

O t he forladdan    t m lindplegan

 

Until they had led to disaster    in the shield-play
swase gesas    ond hyra sylfra feorh.

 

their dear companions    and their own lives.
onne cwi t bore     s e bahgesyh

 

Then speaks at the beer-drinking,    he who sees a ring-precious object,
eald scwiga    s e eall geman

  2042

the old ash-warrior,    he who remembers all
grcwealm gumena    --him bi grim sefa--

 

the spear-death of men    --in him is a fierce heart--
onginne gomormd    geongum cempan

 

he begins sad-spirited    in a young champion,
urh hrera gehygd    higes cunnian,

 

by the musing of his heart,    to tempt his mind,
wgbealu weccean    ond t word cwy:

 

to awaken war-horror,    and speaks these words:
"Meaht , mn wine,     mce gecnwan

  2047

"Can you, my friend,     recognise that maiche,
one n fder    t gefeohte br

 

which your father    bore into the fight,
under heregrman    hindeman se,

 

under his army-mask    on the last campaign,
dre ren,    ar hyne Dene slgon

 

precious iron,    there the Danes slew him,
woldon wlstwe    syan wiergyld lg

 

controlled the slaying-field,    when retribution failed,
fter hlea hryre    hwate Scyldungas?

  2052

after the heroes' fall,    the fierce Scyldings?
N hr ra banena    byre nthwylces

 

Now here of those slayers    the son of one or other of them,
frtwum hrmig    on flet ga

 

exultant in trappings,    goes across the floor,
morres gylpe    ond one mum byre

 

boasts of murder,    and wears the treasure
one e mid rihte    radan sceoldest."

 

which you by right    ought to possess."
Mana sw ond myndga     mala gehwylce

  2057

Thus he incites and reminds     every time
srum wordum    o t sal cyme

 

with grievous words,    until that time comes
t se famnan egn    fore fder dadum

 

that the woman's thane    for his father's deeds
fter billes bite    bldfg swefe

 

from the bite of a bill-blade    sleeps, stained in blood,
ealdres scyldig    him se er onan

 

having forfeited life;    him the other thence
losa lifigende    con him land geare.

  2062

escapes alive,    the land is readily known to him.
onne bo brocene    on b healfe

 

Then are broken    on both sides
sweor eorla    syan Ingelde

 

the sworn oaths of earls;    then in Ingeld
wealla wlnas    ond him wflufan

 

murderous hate will well up     and in him the love of woman
fter cearwlmum    clran weora

 

surges of grief    will become cooler;
ic Heao-Beardna    hyldo ne telge

  2067

Therefore I the Heathobards'    loyalty do not consider,
dryhtsibbe dal    Denum unfacne,

 

the alliance's portion,    for the Danes untreacherous,
frondscipe fstne.    Ic sceal for sprecan

 

enduring friendship.    I ought speak further
gn ymbe Grendel    t geare cunne,

 

again about Grendel,    that you may readily know,
sinces brytta,    t hwan syan wear

 

giver of treasure,    what then happened,
hondras hlea    syan heofones gim

  2072

the hand-fight of heroes    when heaven's gem
gld ofer grundas    gast yrre cwm

 

had glided over the earth,    the ireful guest came,
eatol afengrom    ser nosan

 

terrible, fierce in the evening    to visit us,
ar w gesunde    sl weardodon

 

where we, unharmed,    warded the hall,
ar ws Hondsci    hilde onsage

 

where was for Hondscio    a sinking battle
feorhbealu fagum    h fyrmest lg

  2077

deadly evil for the doomed man;    he fell first,
gyrded cempa    him Grendel wear

 

the girded champion;    for him Grendel was,
marum maguegne    t mbonan

 

the famed thane of distinction,    a slayer by mouth,
lofes mannes    lc eall forswealg

 

the belovd man's     body swallowed up completely;
n ar t gn    delhende

 

not the sooner out yet    empty-handed,
bona bldigt    bealewa gemyndig

  2082

the slayer bloody-toothed,    wickedness in mind,
of m goldsele    gongan wolde

 

from the gold-hall    did he wish to go
ac h mgnes rf    mn costode

 

but he, famed for his strength,    tested me,
grpode gearofolm     glf hangode

 

gripped with an eager hand;    a pouch hung down
sd ond syllc    searobendum fst

 

spacious and strange,    with cleverly-wrought clasps held fast,
so ws oroncum    eall gegyrwed

  2087

it was cunningly    all devised
dofles crftum    ond dracan fellum

 

with devil's crafts    and dragon's skins;
h mec ar on innan    unsynnigne

 

he me there inside,    guiltless,
dor dadfruma    gedn wolde

 

the daring instigator    wished to stuff,
manigra sumne    hyt ne mihte sw

 

as one of many;    he could not do so,
syan ic on yrre    upprihte std.

  2092

since I in anger    stood erect.
T lang ys t reccenne    h ic m lodsceaan

 

It is too long to recount    how I the scourge of the people
yfla gehwylces    hondlan forgeald

 

for each of his evils    paid in hand-requital
ar ic, oden mn,     ne lode

 

where I, my lord,    your people
weorode weorcum    he on weg losade

 

honoured by acts;    he escaped away
ltle hwle    lfwynna brac

  2097

for a little while,    enjoyed the joy of life;
hwre him so swre     swae weardade

 

yet from him the right,    a vestige, remainded behind
hand on Hiorte    ond h han onan

 

hand in Heorot,    and he wretched thence,
mdes gemor    meregrund gefoll.

 

gloomy in his heart,    sank into the depths of the mere.
M one wlras    wine Scildunga

 

To me for the bloody battle     the Friend of the Scyldings
fattan golde    fela lanode

  2102

with objects of plated gold    in plenty rewarded,
manegum mmum    syan mergen cm

 

many treasures,    when morning came,
ond w t symble    geseten hfdon

 

and we to the feast    had sat down
ar ws gidd ond glo:    gomela Scilding

 

where was song and glee:    old Scylding
felafricgende    feorran rehte

 

who has heard tell of many things,    from long ago narrated;
hwlum hildedor    hearpan wynne

  2107

at times this battle-daring one    the harp for pleasure
gomelwudu grtte    hwlum gyd wrc

 

the old-wood played;    sometimes recited a song,
s ond srlc    hwlum syllc spell

 

true and tragic;     sometimes strange tales
rehte fter rihte    rmheort cyning

 

he related rightly,    the open-hearted king;
hwlum eft ongan    eldo gebunden

 

at times he began again,    bound in his age,
gomel gwiga    giogue cwan

  2112

the ancient war-soldier,    to mourn for his youth,
hildestrengo    hreer inne woll

 

his battle-strength;    his heart welled inside,
onne h wintrum frd,    worn gemunde.

 

when he, wise in winter,     recalled many things.
Sw w ar inne     andlangne dg

 

So we there inside     a whole long day
node nman    o t niht becwm

 

took pleasure,    until came night
er t yldum     ws eft hrae

  2117

another to men;    then was again swiftly
gearo gyrnwrce    Grendeles mdor

 

ready for grief-revenge     Grendel's mother,
sode sorhfull    sunu da fornam,

 

she journeyed full of sorrow;    Death had taken her son,
wghete Wedra    wf unhre

 

the war-hate of the Wederas;    the horrible woman
hyre bearn gewrc    beorn cwealde

 

avenged her child,    killed a warrior
ellenlce     ar ws schere

  2122

savagely;     there was from schere,
frdan fyrnwitan    feorh genge.

 

the old, wise lore-counsellor,    life departed.
Ner h hine ne mston     syan mergen cwm

 

Nor could they him,    when morning came,
dawrigne     Denia lode

 

weary of death    the Danish people
bronde forbrnan    n on bal hladan

 

cremate in fire,    nor lay on the funeral bale,
lofne mannan    ho t lc tbr

  2127

the beloved man;    she had carried off the corpse
fondes fme    under firgenstram

 

in fiend's embrace    beneath the mountain stream;
t ws Hrgre     hrowa tornost

 

that was for Hrothgar    the most bitter grief
ra e lodfruman    lange begate.

 

which the ruler of the people    long had received.
se oden mec     ne lfe

 

Then me the chieftain,    by your life,
healsode hrohmd    t ic on holma gering

  2132

implored with troubled mind,    that I in the waters' tumult
eorlscipe efnde    ealdre gende

 

perform a noble act,    risk life,
maro fremede    h m mde geht.

 

accomplish glory;    he promised me rewards.
Ic s wlmes     is wde c

 

Then I the welling waters',    as is widely known,
grimme gryrelcne    grundhyrde fond

 

wrathful ghastly    guard of the deep found;
ar unc hwle ws    hand gemane

  2137

there a while we were    sharing a hand;
holm heolfre woll    ond ic hafde becearf

 

the water welled with gore,    and I cut off the head
in m grundsele    Grendeles mdor

 

in that deep-hall    of Grendel's mother
acnum ecgum    unsfte onan

 

with mighty edges,    not easily thence
feorh oferede    ns ic fage gt

 

I carried off my life;    I was not doomed yet
ac m eorla hlo    eft gesealde

  2142

but to me the protector of heroes    again gave
mma menigeo    maga Healfdenes.'

 

many treasures,    the kinsman of Half-Dane.'

XXXI

 

Sw se odkyning    awum lyfde

 

So the king of the people    lived according to proper custom;
nealles ic m lanum    forloren hfde

 

I by no means the gifts     had lost,
mgnes mde    ac h m mama geaf

 

strength's reward,     but he gave me treasures,
sunu Healfdenes    on mnne sylfes dm

  2147

the son of Half-Dane,    according to my own glory,
ic , beorncyning,    bringan wylle,

 

these I to thee, warrior-king,    wish to bring,
stum gewan    gn is eall t

 

graciously to offer;    still is all in thee
lissa gelong    ic lt hafo

 

dependent upon your favour;    I have few
hafodmga     nefne, Hygelc, ec.'

 

near kinsmen    except you Hygelac.'
Ht in beran    eafor hafodsegn

  2152

Then he commanded to be brought in    the boar-crested standard,
heaostapne helm    hre byrnan

 

the battle-steep helm,    hoar-silver byrnie,
gsweord geatolc    gyd fter wrc:

 

the beautiful war-sword;    the tale thereafter uttered:
'M is hildesceorp     Hrgr sealde

 

'To me this battle-equipment    Hrothgar gave,
snotra fengel    sume worde ht

 

the clever ruler;    with some words he ordered,
t ic his arest      st gesgde

  2157

that I first you its    legacy relate;
cw t hyt hfde     Hiorogr cyning

 

he said it owned    King Heorogar,
lod Scyldunga    lange hwle

 

the leader of the Scyldings    a long time;
n ar suna snum    syllan wolde

 

no sooner for that to his son    did he wish to give,
hwatum Heorowearde    ah h him hold ware

 

to bold Heoroweard,    though he was loyal to him,
brostgewadu.     Brc ealles well.'

  2162

the breast-armour.    Use it all well.'
Hrde ic t m frtwum    fower maras

 

I heard that with the treasure    four mares
lungre gelce    lst weardode

 

swift, all alike,    followed behind,
ppelfealuwe    h him st getah

 

apple-yellow;     he to him offered the gifts,
mara ond mma.    Sw sceal mag dn:

 

horses and riches.    So should a kinsman act:
nealles inwitnet    rum bregdon

  2167

not at all malice-nets    weave for others,
dyrnum crfte    da rnian

 

with hidden arts    contrive death
hondgesteallan.     Hygelce ws

 

of hand-companions.    To Hygelac was
na heardum    nefa swe hold

 

in fierce strife    his nephew very loyal,
ond gehwer rum    hrra gemyndig

 

and each the other's    benefit remembered;
hrde ic t h one healsbah    Hygde gesealde

  2172

I heard that he the neck-ring    gave to Hygd,
wratlicne wundurmum    one e him Wealho geaf

 

the exquisite marvel-jewel,    which Wealhtheow gave him,
odnes dohtor    ro wicg somod

 

chieftain's daughter,    three horses also
swancor ond sadolbeorht    hyre syan ws

 

supple and bright with saddles;    then was her,
fter bahege    brost geweorod.

 

after receiving the ring,    breast adorned.
Sw bealdode    bearn Ecgowes

  2177

Thus he was bold,    the son of Edgetheow,
guma gum c    gdum dadum

 

man famed in war,    for good deeds;
drah fter dme    nealles druncne slg

 

he led his life for glory,    never, having drunk, slew
heorgenatas     ns him hroh sefa

 

his hearth-companions;    a troubled heart was not in him,
ac h mancynnes    maste crfte

 

but he mankind's    greatest strength,
ginfstan gife     him god sealde

  2182

--that ample gift,    which God gave him--
hold hildedor.    Han ws lange

 

he held, battle-daring.    Long had he been abject
sw hyne Gata bearn    gdne ne tealdon

 

so the sons of the Geats    did not reckon him good,
n hyne on medobence    micles wyrne

 

nor to him on the mead-bench    much honour
drihten wereda    gedn wolde

 

the commander of the troops    would grant;
swe sgdon    t h slac ware

  2187

they especially said,    that he was slack,
eling unfrom    edwenden cwm

 

no bold noble;    a turn-around came
tradigum menn    torna gehwylces.

 

to the glory-blessed man    for each of these miseries.
Ht eorla hlo    in gefetian,

 

Then the protector of heroes ordered    to be fetched in,
heaorf cyning,    Hrles lfe

 

the war-noble king,    Hrethel's heirloom,
golde gegyrede    ns mid Gatum

  2192

fitted out in gold;    there was not among the Geats then
sincmum slra    on sweordes hd

 

a better precious treasure    in the manner of a sword;
t h on Bowulfes    bearm legde

 

that he in Beowulf's    lap layed,
ond him gesealde    seofan sendo,

 

and gave him    seven thousand hides of land,
bold ond bregostl.    Him ws bm samod

 

residence and ruler's seat.    Theirs was both together
on m lodscipe    lond gecynde

  2197

in that nation    inherited land,
eard elriht,    rum swor

 

earth by ancestral privelege,    to the second more
sde rce    m ar slra ws.

 

of that broad kingdom    to him who was higher.
Eft t geode    ufaran dgrum

 

After that it came to pass    in later days
hildehlmmum     syan Hygelc lg

 

in battle-clashes,    when Hygelac lay dead,
ond Heardrde    hildemceas

  2202

and for Heardred     battle-maiches,
under bordhroan    t bonan wurdon

 

under the cover of his shield,    became the instruments of his death,
hyne geshtan    on sigeode

 

when they sought him out    in the victory-tribe,
hearde hildefrecan    Heao-Scilfingas

 

the fierce battle-ready warriors,    the Battle-Scilfings,
na genagdan    nefan Hererces

 

with enmity they attacked    the nephew of Hereric;
syan Bowulfe    brade rce

  2207

thereupon to Beowulf    the broad kingdom
on hand gehwearf    h gehold tela

 

passed into his hands;    he ruled well
fiftig wintra    --ws frd cyning

 

for fifty winters    --then he was a wise king,
eald elweard--    o t n ongan

 

an old warden of the fatherland--    until one began
deorcum nihtum    draca rcsian

 

in the dark nights,    a dragon to rule,
s e on haum hofe    hord beweotode

  2212

he who in a high house    watched over a hoard,
stnbeorh starcne    stg under lg

 

a stark stone barrow;    the path below lay
eldum unc.    ar on innan gong

 

unknown to men.    There went inside
nia nthwylc    ond nah gefng

 

a man, I know not which,    and he groped near
hanum horde    hond gewrenne

 

the heathen hoard,    his hands wrapped round
since fhne    h t syan beget

  2217

an ornamented bauble,    he got that afterwards;
ah e h slapende     besyred hfde

 

though he who sleeping    had been tricked
ofes crfte    t se od onfand

 

by thief's cunning;    the people discovered that,
bfolc beorna    t h gebolgen ws.

 

the neighbouring folk of men,    that he was enraged.

XXXII

 

Nealles ns geweoldum    wyrmhordan crft

 

He was not at all in control     of the skill of the worm-hoard,
sylfes willum    s e him sre gesced

  2222

of his own desire,    he who sorely injured him,
ac for randlan    of nthwylces

 

because of dire-distress    a thief of I know not which
hlea bearna    heteswengeas floh

 

sons of men     fled hostile blows,
rnesearfe    ond ar inne weall

 

in need of a hall    and there within raged,
secg synbysig    sna onwacade

 

a man haunted by guilt,    immediately watched over;
t gan m gyste    gryrebrga std

  2227

then against the stranger    stood horror and terror;
hwre fyrensceapen    

 

nevertheless upon the wicked one    

 

                                 se far begeat

  2230

                                 poured peril.
sincft shte    ar ws swylcra fela

 

He sought treasure-gold,    there was many such,
in m eorsele     argestrona

 

in that earth-hall,    ancient treasures,
sw h on gardagum    gumena nthwylc

 

as they in former days    some man,
eormenlfe     elan cynnes

  2234

this great legacy    of a noble kind,
anchycgende     ar gehdde

 

full of thought,    had hid there
dore mmas    ealle he da fornam

 

these dear treasures;    all of them Death took
arran malum    ond s n gn

 

in earlier times,    and then were yet one
loda dugue    s ar lengest hwearf

 

of the old warriors of that people,    the one who moved about there longest,
weard winegemor    wnde s yldan

  2239

the friend-grieving warden,    he hoped to delay that much,
t h ltel fc     longgestrona

 

so that he for a little while     the long-kept treasure
brcan mste.    Beorh eallgearo

 

would be able to enjoy.    The barrow all-ready
wunode on wonge    wterum nah

 

occupied the plain    near the water-waves,
nwe be nsse    nearocrftum fst

 

new on the headland,    made secure by difficult-craft;
ar on innan br     eorlgestrona

  2244

there inside bore    of the treasure of earls
hringa hyrde       handwyrne dal

 

a hoard of rings    a hand-fashioned share
fattan goldes    fa worda cw:

 

of plated gold;    some words he spoke:
'Heald n, hrse,    n hle ne mstan

 

'Now hold you, Earth,    now the heroes cannot
eorla ahte.    Hwt, hyt ar on earls' possessions.    Listen, it formerly from you
gde begaton    gda fornam

  2249

was obtained by good men;    war-death has taken away,
feorhbeale frcne    fyrena gehwylcne

 

terrible murder of life,    of crimes each one,
loda mnra     m e is ofgeaf:

 

my belovd people,    they gave this up to me:
geswon seledram    h nh hw sweord wege

 

they had seen joy in the hall;    he I have not, who might wield sword
oe fgrie    fated wage

 

or make beautiful    this gilded flagon,
dryncft dore    dugu ellor soc

  2254

this precious drinking vessel;    the veteran warriors are ill elsewhere;
sceal se hearda helm    hyrstedgolde

 

must the stern helmet    adorned with gold
fatum befeallen    feormynd swefa

 

stripped of its ornaments;    the burnishers slumbers,
e beadogrman    bwan sceoldon

 

they who war-masks    ought to brighten;
g swylce so herepd    so t hilde gebd

 

also so the army's coats of mail,    which in battle endured
ofer borda gebrc    bite rena

  2259

over the shattering of shield-boards    the bite of iron,
brosna fter beorne    ne mg byrnan hring

 

decays along with the men;    byrnie's ring may not
fter wgfruman    wde fran

 

with war-fighter    fare widely,
hleum be healfe    ns hearpan wyn

 

alongside heroes;    there was not harp's joy,
gomen globames    n gd hafoc

 

delight of glee-wood,    nor good hawk
geond sl swinge    n se swifta mearh

  2264

soaring through the hall,    nor swift horse
burhstede bate    bealocwealm hafa

 

trampling the courtyard;    baleful death has
fela feorhcynna    for onsended.'

 

many of my living kin    sent forth.'
Sw gimormd    gioho mande

 

Thus sad at heart    in grief he bemoaned
n fter eallum    unblie hwearf

 

one after all,    unhappily passed
dges ond nihtes    o t daes wylm

  2269

days and nights,    until the flood of Death
hrn t heortan.    Hordwynne fond

 

reached to his heart.    Hoard-joy he found,
eald htsceaa    opene standan

 

the old twilight-scather,    standing open,
s e byrnende    biorgas sce

 

he who, burning,    seeks barrows,
nacod ndraca    nihtes floge

 

the naked malevolent dragon;    he flies by night,
fre befangen    hyne foldbend

  2274

encircled in fire;    him earth-dwellers
: : : : : : : : : : : :nan.    H gescean sceall

 

    He has to seek
hearm on hrsan    ar h haen gold

 

harm in the ground,    where he heathen gold
wara wintrum frd    ne by him wihte sl.

 

guards, wise in winters;    he is not a bit better for that.
Sw se odsceaa    ro hund wintra

 

So the people-scather    three hundred winters
hold on hrsan    hordrna sum

  2279

ruled in the earth    of one of the hoard-halls,
acencrftig     o t hyne n bealch

 

vastly powerful,    until one angered him,
mon on mde:    mandryhtne br

 

a man in pride:    he bore to his liege-lord
fated wage    friooware bd

 

the gold-adorned cup,    begged peace-truce
hlford snne     ws hord rsod,

 

from his lord;    then was the hoard ransacked,
onboren baga hord,    bne getad

  2284

rings' hoard borne off,    a boon was granted
fasceaftum men    fra scawode

 

to the wretched man;    a lord examined
fra fyrngeweorc    forman se.

 

the ancient work of men    for the first time.
se wyrm onwc    --wrht ws genwad--

 

then the worm awoke,    --quarrel was renewed--
stonc fter stne    stearcheort onfand

 

he sniffed along the stone,    the harsh-hearted one found
fondes ftlst    h t for gestp

  2289

the foot-print of his foe;     he too far forward had stepped
dyrnan crfte    dracan hafde nah.

 

in his stealthy craft    near the dragon's head.
Sw mg unfage    ae gedgan   Provided that, one not doomed may    easily survive
wan ond wracs    s e waldendes

 

woe and hardship,    he who the Ruler's
hyldo gehealde.    Hordweard shte

 

grace protects.    The hoard-ward sought
georne fter grunde    wolde guman findan

  2294

eagerly along the ground,    he wished to find the man,
one e him on sweofote    sre getode

 

the one who him in his slumber    had sorely harmed;
ht ond hrohmd    hlawum oft ymbehwearf

 

hot and fierce-minded,    he often circled among the mounds
ealne tanweardne    --n ar anig mon

 

all round the outside    --not any man there
on m wstenne    hwre hilde gefeh

 

in that wilderness,    but he rejoiced in battle,
beadu weorces    --hwlum on beorh thwearf

  2299

of battle-work    --sometimes he turned back to the barrow,
sincft shte    h at sna onfand

 

sought the treasure-cup;    he suddenly discovered,
t hfde gumena sum    goldes gefandod

 

that a certain man had     distrubed the gold,
hahgestrona    hordweard onbd

 

the high treasures;    the hoard-ward waited
earfolce    o t afen cwm

 

with great difficulty,    until evening came;
ws gebolgen      beorges hyrde

  2304

then was enraged    the keeper of the barrow,
wolde se la    lge forgyldan

 

he wished the injury    to repay with flame,
drincft dre.     ws dg sceacen

 

the dear drinking-vessel.    Then the day was departed
wyrme on willan    n on wealle lg

 

to the joy of the wyrm;    he did not lie within the wall,
bdan wolde    ac mid bale fr

 

(nor) wished to wait,    but with bale-fire set forth,
fre gefsed    ws se fruma egeslc

  2309

infused with flame;    this beginning was terrible
lodum on lande    sw hyt lungre wear

 

for the people in the land,    as it soon was
on hyra sincgifan    sre geendod.

 

upon their treasure-giver     painfully ended.

XXXIII

 

se gst ongan    gldum spwan,

 

Then the demon began    to spew flames,
beorht hofu brnan    bryneloma std

 

to burn bright houses;    the gleam of fire rose
eldum on andan    n ar ht cwices

  2314

to the horror of the men;    nor there anything alive
l lyftfloga    lafan wolde

 

the hateful air-flier    wished to leave;
ws s wyrmes wg    wde gesne

 

the war-strength of that wyrm was     widely seen,
nearofges n    nan ond feorran

 

the malice of the darkly cunning one    near and far,
h se gsceaa    Gata lode

 

how the war-scather    the people of the Geats
hatode ond hnde    hord eft gescat

  2319

hated and humiliated;    back to his hoard he shot,
dryhtsele dyrnne    ar dges hwle

 

the hidden lord-hall    ere the time of day;
hfde landwara    lge befangen

 

the inhabitants of the land had been     seized by flame,
bale ond bronde    beorges getrwode

 

in blaze and in fire;    his barrow he trusted,
wges ond wealles    him so wn gelah.

 

his war-skill and his walls;    him this belief deceived.
ws Bowulfe    brga geced

  2324

Then was to Beowulf    the danger made known
snde t se    t his sylfes hm

 

quickly in truth,    that his own home,
bolda slest    brynewylmum mealt

 

the finest of dwellings,    in waves of heat melted,
gifstl Gata    t m gdan ws

 

the throne of the Geats;    that was to the good man
hrow on hrere    hygesorga mast

 

a grief in his heart,    of the mind-sorrows the greatest;
wnde se wsa    t h wealdende

  2329

the wise man thought    that he the Ruler
ofer ealde riht    cean dryhtne

 

against ancient law    eternal Lord
bitre gebulge    brost innan woll

 

had bitterly angered;     inside his breast welled
ostrum geoncum    sw him gewe ne ws.

 

with thoughts of gloom,    such was not usual for him.
Hfde lgdraca    loda fsten

 

The fire-drake had    the fortress of the people,
alond tan    eorweard one

  2334

by the coast-land,    the stronghold
gldum forgrunden    him s gkyning

 

ground down with flames;    him for that the war-king,
Wedera oden    wrce leornode

 

the chief of the Wederas,    studied vengeance;
heht him gewyrcean,    wgendra hlo

 

then he ordered to be made for him,    a warriors' protector,
eallrenne,    eorla dryhten,

 

all of iron,    the lord of earls,
wgbord wratlc    wisse h gearwe

  2339

a wonderous war-board;    he readily knew,
t him holtwudu    helpan ne meahte

 

that him tree-wood    could not help,
lind wi lge.     Sceolde lenddaga

 

linden-wood against fire.    He had to his seafaring-days,
eling argd    ende gebdan

 

the old, good noble,    abide the end
worulde lfes    ond se wyrm somod

 

of life in the world,    and the wyrm together,
ah e hordwelan    holde lange.

  2344

though the hoard-wealth    he had held long.
Oferhogode     hringa fengel

 

Then he scorned,    the rings' lord,
t h one wdflogan     weorode geshte

 

that he the wide-flier    would seek out with a troop,
sdan herge    n h him m scce ondrd

 

a large army;    he did not the strife dread for himself,
n him s wyrmes wg    for wiht dyde

 

nor him the wyrm's fire     esteem a bit,
eafo ond ellen    foron h ar fela

  2349

power and courage,    for that he before many,
nearo nende    na gedgde

 

narrowly risking,    hostilities survived,
hildehlemma    syan h Hrgres

 

battle-clashes,    since he Hrothgar's,
sigoradig secg    sele falsode

 

--victory-favoured man--    hall cleansed,
ond t ge forgrp    Grendeles magum

 

and in war overwhelmed    Grendel's race,
lan cynnes.    N t lasest ws

  2354

hateful kind.    Not the least was
hondgemta     ar mon Hygelc slh

 

the hand-to-hand encounter,    where one slew Hygelac,
syan Gata cyning    ge rasum

 

after the Geats' king,    in war's rushes,
frawine folca    Frslondum on

 

the lord and friend of the folk,    in Frisia,
Hrles eafora    hiorodryncum swealt

 

Hrethel's heir,    died in the drink of sword,
bille gebaten    onan Bowulf cm

  2359

beaten down by bill-blades.     Then Beowulf came
sylfes crfte    sundnytte drah

 

by his own strength,    he made use of the sea;
hfde him on earme    eorla rtig

 

he had in his arms     thirty warriors'
hildegeatwa     h t holme stg

 

battle-gear,    when he mounted the ocean;
nealles Hetware    hrmge orfton

 

not at all did the Hetwares    had need to be exaulting
fewges     him foran ongan

  2364

over the fighting on foot,    who forth against him
linde baron    lt eft becwm

 

bore linden-wood shields;    few came back
fram m hildfrecan    hmes nosan.

 

from that warrior    to visit their homes.
Oferswam siolea bigong    sunu Ecgowes

 

He crossed over then the flowing expanse of waters,     the son of of Edgetheow,
earm nhaga    eft t lodum

 

wretched and solitary,    back to the people,
ar him Hygd gebad    hord ond rce

  2369

there Hygd bade him    hoard and kingdom,
bagas ond bregostl:    bearne ne trwode

 

rings and throne:    in her son she did not trust
t h wi lfylcum     elstlas

 

that he against foreign peoples    the ancestral throne
healdan ce     ws Hygelc dad

 

had the power to hold    when Hygelac was dead;
n ar fasceafte    findan meahton

 

not the sooner the destitute ones    could find
t m elinge    anige inga

  2374

in the noble one     by any means,
t h Heardrde     hlford ware

 

that he to Heardred    would be a lord,
oe one cynedm    cosan wolde

 

or the kingdom    wished to accept;
hwre h him on folce     frondlrum hold

 

yet he to him among the folk    upheld with the counsels of a friend,
stum mid re    o t h yldra wear   graciously in honour,    until he grew older,
Weder-Gatum wold.    Hyne wrcmcgas

  2379

ruled the Weder-Geats.    Him banished men
ofer sa shtan,    suna hteres

 

from across the sea sought,    sons of Ohthere;
hfdon h forhealden    helm Scylfinga

 

they had rebelled against    the Helm of the Scylfings,
one slestan    sacyninga

 

the finest    of sea-kings
ra e in Sworce    sinc brytnade,

 

who there in Sweden    dispensed treasure,
marne oden    him t t mearce wear

  2384

famed chieftain;    to him it became the end;
h ar for feorme    feorhwunde hlat

 

there he for his hospitality    received a mortal-wound,
sweordes swengum    sunu Hygelces

 

from sword's swing,    the son of Hygelac;
ond him eft gewt    Ongenioes bearn

 

and he went back,    Ongentheow's son
hmes nosan    syan Heardrd lg

 

to seek his home,    after Heardred lay dead;
lt one bregostl    Bowulf healdan,

  2389

the throne he let    Beowulf hold,
Gatum wealdan    t ws gd cyning.

 

to rule the Geats;    that was a good king.

XXXIIII

 

S s lodhryres    lan gemunde

 

He for the prince's fall    requital remembered
uferan dgrum    adgilse wear

 

in later days,    to Eadgils he became
fasceaftum frond    folce gestpte

 

a friend in his plight;    with men he supported
ofer sa sde    sunu hteres

  2394

over the wide sea    the son of Ohtere,
wigum ond wapnum    h gewrc syan

 

with warriors and weapons;    he had vengeance then
cealdum cearsium    cyning ealdre binat:

 

in cold grief-bringing ventures,    he deprived the king of his life:
sw h na gehwane    genesen hfde

 

so he each of the enmities    had survived,
slra geslyhta,    sunu Ecgowes,

 

dire conflicts,    the son of Ecgetheow,
ellenweorca    o one nne dg

  2399

deeds of courage,    until the one day,
h wi m wyrme     gewegan sceolde.

 

when he with the serpent    must struggle.
Gewt twelfa sum    torne gebolgen

 

Then he went,    one of twelve, swollen with anger,
dryhten Gata,    dracan scawian

 

the lord of the Geats,    to behold the dragon;
hfde gefrnen    hwanan so fah rs

 

he had heard then    whence this feud arose,
bealon biorna:    him t bearme cwm

  2404

wicked hostility for men:    to his bosom came
mumft mare,     urh s meldan hond

 

the precious vessel,    through the informer's hand;
s ws on m rate     reottoa secg

 

he was in that     group    the thirteenth men,
s s orleges    r onstealde

 

he who this strife's    origin brought about,
hft hygegimor    sceolde han onon

 

the gloomy-minded captive;     he was obliged, humbly, thence
wong wsian    h ofer willan gong

  2409

to lead the way to the place;    he went against his will
t s e h eorsele    nne wisse

 

to where the earth-hall he    alone knew,
hlaw under hrsan    holmwylme nh

 

the cairn under the ground    near the surging of the sea,
gewinne     s ws innan full

 

the struggle of the waves;    it was full inside
wratta ond wra    weard unhore

 

of jewels and intricate metal-work;    an unpleasant guard,
gearo gfreca    goldmmas hold

  2414

ready, eager war-fighter    held golden treasures
eald under eoran    ns t e cap

 

old under the earth;    that was not an easy bargain,
t gegangenne    gumena anigum.

 

to obtain    for any man.
Gest on nsse    nheard cyning

 

Then on the headland sat    the violence-hard king,
enden halo bad     heorgenatum

 

while prosperity bid    to his hearth-companions,
goldwine Gata    him ws gemor sefa

  2419

the gold-friend of the Geats;    in him his heart was sad,
wafre ond wlfs,    wyrd ungemete nah

 

restless and slaughter-eager,    fate all too near
s one gomelan    grtan sceolde,

 

which the old man    must greet,
scean swle hord,    sundur gedalan

 

seeking the treasure of his soul,    sever asunder
lf wi lce    n on lange ws

 

life from limb;    it was not for long then
feorh elinges    flasce bewunden.

  2424

the nobleman's life    would be wound in his flesh.
Bowulf maelade    bearn Ecgowes:

 

Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
'Fela ic on giogoe    grasa gens

 

'In youth I many    war-storms survived,
orleghwla    ic t eall gemon

 

in battle-times;    I remember all of that;
ic ws syfanwintre     mec sinca baldor

 

I was seven-winters (old)    when me the lord of treasure,
frawine folca    t mnum fder genam

  2429

the lord and friend of the folk,    took from my father;
hold mec ond hfde    Hrel cyning

 

held and had me    King Hrethel,
geaf m sinc ond symbel    sibbe gemunde

 

gave me treasure and feast,    recalled kinship;
ns ic him t life    lra wihte

 

I was not by him in life    less in aught,
beorn in burgum    onne his bearna hwylc

 

a man in citadel,    than each of his own sons,
Herebeald ond Hcyn    oe Hygelc mn.

  2434

Herebeald and Haethcyn    or my Hygelac.
Ws m yldestan    ungedfelice

 

For the eldest was,    unfittingly,
mages dadum    mororbed strd

 

by a kinsman's deeds    a death-bed strewed,
syan hyne Hcyn    of hornbogan

 

when him Haethcyn    from a horn-bow
his frawine    flne geswencte

 

his friend and lord    struck down with an arrow,
miste mercelses    ond his mag ofsct

  2439

missed his mark    and his kinsman shot dead,
bror erne    bldigan gre

 

the one brother the other    with a bloody bolt;
t ws feohlas gefeoht     fyrenum gesyngad,

 

that was an irreparable fight,    grieviously wronged,
hrere hygeme    sceolde hwre sw ah

 

heart-wearying in the breast;    yet must though
eling unwrecen    ealdres linnan.

 

the noble unavenged    be parted from life.
Sw bi gemorlc    gomelum ceorle

  2444

In the same way it is tragic    for an old  man
t gebdanne    t his byre rde

 

to abide    that his son rides
giong on galgan:    onne h gyd wrece,

 

young on the gallows:    then he utters a dirge,
srigne sang    onne his sunu hanga

 

a sorrowing song,    that his son hangs
hrefne t hrre    ond h him helpan ne mg

 

for the pleasure of the raven,    and he can not him help,
eald ond infrd    anige gefremman

  2449

old and experienced,    any provide;
symble bi gemyndgad    morna gehwylce

 

ever is reminded    each morning,
eaforan ellors     res ne gme

 

of the other-world journey of his son;    another he heeds not
t gebdanne    burgum in innan

 

to wait for    within the strongholds,
yrfeweardas    onne se n hafa

 

guardian of inheritance,    when the one he has
urh daes nd    dada gefondad

  2454

through Death's compulsion    experienced deeds;
gesyh sorhcearig    on his suna bre

 

he sees, sad and sorrowful,    in his son's dwelling
wnsele wstne    windge reste

 

a wine-hall wasted,    a wind-swept resting place
rote berofene    rdend swefa

 

bereft of joy;    the riders sleep,
hle in homan    nis ar hearpan swg

 

heroes hidden in graves;    there is not sound of harp,
gomen in geardum    swylce ar i waron.

  2459

revelry in the courts,    such as long ago there was.

XXXV

 

Gewte onne on sealman    sorhlo gle

 

He goes then to his bed,    sings a song of sorrow,
n fter num    hte him eall t rm

 

one man on account of one man;    it seemed to him all too roomy,
wongas ond wcstede.    Sw Wedra helm

 

the fields and the dwelling-place.    Thus the Helm of the Wederas
fter Herebealde    heortan sorge

 

on account of Herebeald    heart's sorrow,
weallinde, wg:    wihte ne meahte

  2464

welling, endured:    not a whit could he
on m feorhbonan    faghe gebtan

 

on that life-slayer    settle a feud;
n ar h one heaorinc     hatian ne meahte

 

nor the more for that warrior    could he show hatred
lum dadum    ah him lof ne ws

 

with hostile acts,    though he by him was not loved;
h mid are sorhge     him so sr belamp

 

he then with that sorrow,    which on him that sorely befell,
gumdram ofgeaf    godes loht gecas

  2469

he gave over human joys,    choose God's light;
eaferum lafde    sw d adig mon

 

to his heirs he left,    as does a fortunate man,
lond ond lodbyrig     h of lfe gewt.

 

the land and the folk-citadel,    when he departed from life.
ws synn ond sacu     Swona ond Gata

 

Then was injury and strife    of the Swedes and the Geats
ofer wd wter    wrht gemane

 

over the wide water    a quarrel shared,
heren hearda    syan Hrel swealt

  2474

hard military-spite,    after Hrethel died,
oe him Ongenowes    eaferan waran

 

and to him Ongentheow's    heirs were
frome fyrdhwate    frode ne woldon

 

vigorous and martial;    they did not wish friendship
ofer heafo healdan    ac ymb Hrosnabeorh

 

to hold across the ocean,    but around Hreosnabeorh
eatolne inwitscear    oft gefremedon

 

horrible, malicious raiding    often committed
t magwine    mne gewracan,

  2479

that kin-friends    of mine avenged,
fahe ond fyrene    sw hyt gefrage ws

 

feud and crime,    as it was famous,
ah e er his    ealdre gebohte

 

though one of the two with his    life paid,
heardan cape    Hcynne wear

 

a hard bargain;    for Hathcyn was,
Gata dryhtne    g onsage.

 

the Geats' lord,    war impending.
ic on morgne gefrgn    mag erne

  2484

Then I heard in the morning    that one kinsman the other
billes ecgum    on bonan stalan

 

with bill's edges    took vengeance on the slayer,
ar Ongenow    Eofores nosa

 

there Ongentheow    is attacked by Eofor;
ghelm tgld    gomela Scylfing

 

the war-helm slipped asunder,    the agd Scylfing
hras heaoblc    hond gemunde

 

fell battle-pale.     The hand remembered
faho genge    feorhsweng ne oftah.

  2489

feuds a-plenty,    did not withhold life-blow.
Ic him mmas     h m sealde

 

I to him the treasures,    which he had given me,
geald t ge    sw m gifee ws

 

repaid in war,    as was granted to me,
lohtan sweorde    h m lond forgeaf

 

with flashing sword;    he gave me land,
eard elwyn    ns him anig earf

 

earth, the joy of homeland;    there was not for him any need,
t h t Gifum     oe t Gr-Denum

  2494

that he among the Gifthas    or the Spear-Danes
oe in Sworce    scean urfe

 

or in the Swedish Kingdom    needed to seek
wyrsan wgfrecan,    weore gecpan:

 

a worse war-eager fighter,     to buy with wealth:
symle ic him on fan    beforan wolde

 

always, in the foot-troop, I him    wished to go before,
na on orde    ond sw t aldre sceall

 

alone in the vanguard,    and thus must I always
scce fremman    enden is sweord ola

  2499

act in battle,    while this sword endures
t mec ar ond s    oft gelaste

 

that which me, early and later,    has often served,
syan ic for dugeum    Dghrefne wear

 

since I, in front of the legions,    of Daeghrefn was
t handbonan,    Hga cempan

 

his slayer by hand,    the champion of the Hugas;
nalles h frtwe     Frscyninge

 

in no way the precious ornaments    to the Frisian king,
brostweorunge     bringan mste

  2504

breast-adorning,     was he able to bring,
ac in cempan gecrong    cumbles hyrde

 

but rather with his contingent fell    the banner's keeper,
eling on elne    ne ws ecg bona

 

the noble in courage;    blade's edge was not the killer
ac him hildegrp    heortan wylmas

 

but my battle-grip on him    his heart's beats,
bnhs gebrc.    N sceall billes ecg

 

his bone-house, broke.     Now I must with bill's edge,
hond ond heard sweord    ymb hord wgan.'

  2509

hand and hard sword    fight for the hoard.'
Bowulf maelode    botwordum sprc

 

Beowulf declared,     spoke vow-words
nehstan se:    'Ic gende fela

 

for the last time:    'I have risked many
ga on geogoe    gt ic wylle

 

wars in my youth;    yet I wish,
frd folces weard    fahe scan,

 

old, wise warden of the folk,    to seek vendetta,
marum fremman    gif mec se mnsceaa

  2514

to earn renown,    if me that wreaker of evil
of eorsele    t gesce.'

 

from his earth-hall    ventures out to greet.' 
Gegrtte     gumena gehwylcne

 

He then saluted    each of the men,
hwate helmberend    hindeman se

 

bold helm-bearers     for the final time,
swase gesas:    'Nolde ic sweord beran

 

dear companions:    'I would not bear a sword,
wapen t wyrme    gif ic wiste h

  2519

a weapon against the wyrm,    if I knew how
wi m glacean    elles meahte

 

against the monster    else I might
gylpe wigrpan    sw ic gi wi Grendle dyde

 

grapple for glory,    as I did before with Grendel
ac ic ar heaufres    htes wne

 

but I there furious fire's    heat expect,
res ond hattres    foron ic m on hafu

 

fierce and poisonous;    therefore I have on me
bord ond byrnan    nelle ic beorges weard

  2524

shield-board and byrnie;    nor will I from the barrow's guard
oferfln ftes trem    ac unc sceal

 

flee a foot    but for us it must
weoran t wealle    sw unc wyrd geto

 

happen at the wall    as Fate allots us,
metod manna gehws    ic eom on mde from

 

the Creator of all men;    I am bold in spirit
t ic wi one gflogan     gylp ofersitte.

 

that I against the war-flier    forbear from boast.
Gebde g on beorge    byrnum werede

  2529

You, await here on the barrow,    clad in byrnies,
secgas on searwum    hwer sl mge

 

warriors in war-gear,    which better can
fter wlrase    wunde gedgan

 

during the slaughter-clash    survive wound
uncer twga    nis t ower s

 

of the two of us;    it is not your adventure,
n gemet mannes    nefne mn nes

 

nor in the power of men,    save mine alone.'
Wt he w glacean    eofoo dale

  2534

He knew that against the beast    he would deal out his strength,
eorlscype efne    'Ic mid elne sceall

 

achieve noble rank;    'I must with courage
gold gegangan    oe g nime

 

gain the gold,    or war takes,
feorhbealu frcne    fran owerne.'

 

terrible deadly wound,    your lord.'
rs b ronde     rf retta

 

Then he arose by means of his shield,    the bold warrior,
heard under helme    hiorosercean br

  2539

severe under his helm,    he wore sword-shirt
under stncleofu    strengo getrwode

 

under stone cliffs,    trusted in the strength
nes mannes    ne bi swylc earges s.

 

of a single man;    such is not the coward's way.
Geseah be wealle    s e worna fela

 

He saw then by the wall,    he who a great number,
gumcystum gd    ga gedgde

 

nobly good,    wars survived,
hildehlemma    onne hnitan fan

  2544

battle-clashes,    when armies collided;
stdan stnbogan,     stram t onan

 

it stood by the stone-arch,     a stream out from there
brecan of beorge    ws are burnan wlm

 

breaking out of the barrow;    there was the brook's surge
heaofrum ht    ne meahte horde nah

 

hot with deadly fire,    he could not near the hoard
unbyrnende    anige hwle

 

without burning    for any space of time
dop gedgan    for dracan lge.

  2549

endure the depths    on account of the dragon's fire.
Lt of brostum     h gebolgen ws

 

Then he let from his breast,    when he was angered,
Weder-Gata lod    word t faran

 

the Weder-Geat's leader,    a word burst out,
stearcheort styrmde    stefn in becm

 

the staunch-hearted one roared;    his voice came in,
heaotorht hlynnan    under hrne stn

 

ringing battle-clear    beneath the hoary grey stone;
hete ws onhrred    hordweard oncnow

  2554

hate was aroused,    the hoard-guard knew
mannes reorde    ns ar mra fyrst

 

man's voice;    there was not more time
frode t friclan    from arest cwm

 

to ask for peace;    first came forth
oru glacean    t of stne

 

the monster's breath    out of the stone,
ht hildeswt    hrse dynede

 

hot battle-vapour;    the earth thundered;
biorn under beorge    bordrand onswf

  2559

the warrior below the barrow    swung his shield-boss
wi m gryregieste    Gata dryhten

 

against the terror-guest,    the Geats' lord;
ws hringbogan    heorte gefsed

 

then was the ring-coiled one's    heart incited
scce t sceanne    sweord ar gebrad

 

to seek strife;    his sword before drew
gd gcyning    gomele lfe

 

the good war-king,    ancient heirloom,
ecgum unglaw    aghwrum ws

  2564

imprudent with sword-edges;    was in each
bealohycgendra    brga fram rum

 

of the harm-intending ones    terror of the other;
stmd gestd    wi stapne rond

 

firm-spirited stood    with his steep bossed-shield
winia bealdor     se wyrm gebah

 

the brave leader of the friends,    while the serpent coiled
snde tsomne    h on searwum bd

 

together swiftly;    He in war-gear waited;
gewt byrnende    gebogen scran,

  2569

went then burning     gliding coiled,
t gescipe scyndan    scyld wl gebearg

 

hastening to his destiny;    the shield defended well
lfe ond lce    lassan hwle

 

life and body    for a lesser time
marum odne    onne his myne shte

 

the famed chieftain,    then his mind desired,
ar h fyrste    forman dgore

 

where he that time    for the first day
wealdan mste    sw him wyrd ne gescrf

  2574

had to wield it,    as Fate had not decreed for him
hr t hilde:    hond p brad

 

glory in battle:    he raised up his hand,
Gata dryhten    gryrefhne slh

 

the Geatish lord;    the ghastly-hued one he struck
incgelfe     t so ecg gewc

 

with his ancestoral sword,    so that the edge weakened
brn on bne    bt unswor

 

bright on bone,    bit less fiercely
onne his odcyning    earfe hfde

  2579

than its tribe-king    had need
bysigum gebaded.     ws beorges weard

 

driven in distress.    Then the barrow's ward was
fter heauswenge    on hroum mde

 

after the war-blow    in a fierce spirit;
wearp wlfre    wde sprungon

 

he spewed slaughter-fire;    widely spread
hildeloman.     Hrsigora ne gealp

 

battle-light.    Of war-victory did not boast
goldwine Gata    gbill geswc

  2584

the gold-friend of the Geats;    his war-bill failed,
nacod t ne    sw hyt n sceolde

 

naked in the violence,    as it should not have,
ren argd    ne ws t e s

 

the excellent old iron;    that was not an easy accomplishment,
t se mara    maga Ecgowes

 

that the famed    son of Edgetheow
grundwong one    ofgyfan wolde

 

this earth    should be willing to give up;
sceolde willan    wc eardian

  2589

he was obliged to be about to    inhabit a dwelling
elles hwergen    sw sceal aghwylc mon

 

elsewhere,    as must every man
latan landagas.    Ns long t on

 

abandon loaned-days.    It was not long to when
t glacean     h eft gemtton:

 

that the fierce enemies    again met each other:
hyrte hyne hordweard    hreer ame woll

 

the hoard-guardian heartened himself,     his breast swelled with breath,
nwan stefne    nearo rwode

  2594

another time;    cruelly suffered,
fre befongen    s e ar folce wold.

 

encircled in fire,    he who had once ruled a nation.
Nealles him on hape     handgesteallan

 

Not at all him in a troop     the hand-companions,
elinga bearn    ymbe gestdon

 

nobles' sons,    around him stood
hildecystum    ac h on holt bugon

 

with valour in battle,    but they sunk to the forest,
ealdre burgan    hiora in num woll

  2599

to protect life;    in one of them surged
sefa wi sorgum    sibb' afre ne mg

 

his heart with sorrows;    kinship can never
wiht onwendan    m e wl ence.

 

aught be altered,    in him who thinks properly.

XXXVI

 

Wglf ws hten     Woxstnes sunu

 

Wiglaf he was called,    son of Weohstan,
loflc lindwiga    lod Scylfinga

 

noble shield-fighter,    man of the Scylfings,
mag lfheres    geseah his mondryhten

  2604

kinsman of lfhere;    he saw his liege-lord
under heregrman    ht rwian

 

under the war-mask    suffering heat;
gemunde re    h him ar forgeaf

 

he remembered then the honour    that he had given him before,
wcstede weligne    Wagmundinga,

 

lush dwelling-place    of the Waegmundings,
folcrihta gehwylc    sw his fder hte

 

to each folk-rights,    as his father had owned;
ne mihte forhabban    hond rond gefng

  2609

then he could not hold back,    his hand seized his round shield,
geolwe linde    gomelswyrd getah

 

yellow lindenwood,    he drew his ancient sword;
t ws mid eldum    anmundes lf

 

it was among men    the legacy of Eanmund,
suna htere    m t scce wear

 

son of Ohthere;    of him in battle was,
wrcca winelasum    Wohstnes bana

 

of the friendless exile,    Weohstan his slayer
mces ecgum    ond his mgum tbr

  2614

by maiche's edges,    and to his kinsman he brought back
brnfgne helm    hringde byrnan

 

bright-gleaming helm,    ringed byrnie,
ealdsweord etonisc    t him Onela forgeaf

 

an old ogrish sword;    that to him Onela returned,
his gdelinges    ggewadu

 

his kinsman's    war-garment,
fyrdsearo fslc    n ymbe fahe sprc

 

war-devised clothing;    he did not speak of the feud,
ah e h his bror bearn    bredwade

  2619

though he his brother's son    had slain;
h frtwe gehold    fela missra

 

he held the treasures    for many seasons,
bill ond byrnan    o t his byre mihte

 

bill and byrnie,    until his son could
eorlscipe efnan    sw his arfder

 

accomplish noble deeds    like his old father;
geaf him mid Gatum     ggewada

 

then, among the Geats, he gave him     war-clothing,
aghws unrm     h of ealdre gewt

  2624

of all kinds, in countless number,    then he went from life,
frd on forweg.     ws forma s

 

wise, on the way forth.    Then was the first time
geongan cempan     t h ge ras

 

for the young champion,    that he the rush of war
mid his frodryhtne    fremman sceolde

 

with his noble lord    had to perform;
ne gemealt him se mdsefa    n his mgenes lf

 

his spirited heart in him did not melt away,    nor the remainder of his strength
gewc t wge    a se wyrm onfand

  2629

fail in the fight;    then the wyrm had discovered,
syan he tgdre     gegn hfdon.

 

when they together    had come.
Wglf maelode    wordrihta fela

 

Wiglaf spoke,    many proper words
sgde gesum    --him ws sefa gemor--:

 

he said to his companions    --his heart was sad in him--:
'Ic t mal geman     ar w medu gun

 

'I recall that time,     where we partook of mead,
onne w gehton    ssum hlforde

  2634

when we promised    to our lord
in borsele     s s bagas geaf

 

in the beer-hall,    he who gave us rings,
t w him ggetawa    gyldan woldon

 

that we to him for the war-gear    wished to repay,
gif him yslicu    earf gelumpe,

 

if for him such    a need arose,
helmas ond heard sweord.     h sic on herge gecas

 

with helmets and hard swords.    Because of that he chose us from the army
t yssum sfate    sylfes willum

  2639

for this adventure    of his own desire;
onmunde sic mara    ond m s mmas geaf

 

he deemed us worthy of renown,    and gave me these treasures,
h sic grwgend    gde tealde

 

because he us spear-warriors    considered excellent,
hwate helmberend    ah e hlford s

 

bold helm-bearers,    though the lord for us
is ellenweorc    n hte

 

this valiant work    intended alone
t gefremmanne,    folces hyrde,

  2644

to perform,    the keeper of the folk,
forn h manna mast     mara gefremede

 

because he of men the most    glories has achieved,
dada dollcra.    N is s dg cumen

 

the most audacious deeds.    Now is the day come
t re mandryhten    mgenes behfa

 

that our liege-lord    has need of strength
gdra grinca    wutun gongan t

 

of good war-men;    let us go to,
helpan hildfruman    enden hyt s

  2649

aid the battle-leader,    while the heat lasts,
gldegesa grim.    God wt on mec

 

the fierce fire-terror.    God knows of me
t m is micle lofre     t mnne lchaman

 

that to me it is much more agreeable,    that my body
mid mnne goldgyfan    gld fmie

 

with my gold-giver    the fire embraces;
ne ynce m gerysne    t w rondas beren

 

it does not seem proper to me,    that we bear shields
eft t earde    nemne we aror mgen

  2654

back to our land,    unless we first can
fne gefyllan,    feorh ealgian

 

fell the foe,    defend the life
Wedra odnes    ic wt geare

 

of the chief of the Wederas;    I know well,
t naron ealdgewyrht     t h na scyle

 

that his deeds of old are not such,    that he alone should
Gata dugue    gnorn rwian,

 

of the Geats' retinue    sorrow suffer,
gesgan t scce    rum sceal sweord ond helm

  2659

to sink in strife;    for the two of us must sword and helm,
byrne ond byrduscrd    bm gemane.'

 

byrnie and rich shroud    both share.'
Wd urh one wlrc    wgheafolan br

 

Then he waded through the smoke of slaughter,     bore his war-head
fran on fultum    fa worda cw:

 

to the support of his lord;    a few words he spoke:
'Lofa Bowulf,    last eall tela

 

'Dear Beowulf,    carry out all well,
sw on geogufore    gera gecwade

  2664

as you in youth-life    long ago said,
t ne late    be lifigendum

 

that you would not allow,    with you still living,
dm gedrosan    scealt n dadum rf,

 

glory to fail;    you must now in bold deeds,
eling anhdig,    ealle mgene

 

a noble firm in mind,    with all of your strength,
feorh ealgian    ic fullastu.'

 

defend your life;     I shall support you.'
fter m wordum    wyrm yrre cwm

  2669

After those words    the wrathful wyrm came,
atol inwitgst    re se

 

awful cruel visitor    a second time,
frwylmum fh    fonda nosian

 

with hostile, gleaming flood of fire    to seek his foes
lra mannasydaudio    lg um for

 

the hated humans;    the flame came forth in waves,
born bord wi rond    byrne ne meahte

 

burned shield to the boss;    the byrnie could not
geongum grwigan    goce gefremman

  2674

to the young spear-fighter    lend support
ac se maga geonga    under his mages scyld

 

but the young man,    under his kinsman's shield
elne geode     his gen ws

 

courageously advanced,    when his own was
gldum forgrunden.     gn gcyning

 

consumed by fire.    Then again the war-king
miht gemunde    mgenstrengo slh

 

remembered his strength,    with mighty force struck
hildebille    t hyt on heafolan std

  2679

with his battle-bill,    so that it stood in (the serpent's) head
ne gended    Ngling forbrst

 

driven by violence;    Naegling burst asunder,
geswc t scce    sweord Bowulfes

 

failed in the fight    Beowulf's sword
gomol ond gragmal    him t gifee ne ws

 

ancient and silver-streaked;    it was not granted to him,
t him renna    ecge mihton

 

that for him irons'    edges could
helpan t hilde:    ws so hond t strong

  2684