Notes

black text = note on Old English text
red text = gloss of kennings

blue text = explanatory commentary on a section


[1] MS wurman (='by a serpent, dragon'); em. to wurma ('by serpents/dragons') mine. Malone retains MS wurman (lit. serpent), but suggests that it refers to a sword with a serpentine pattern (i.e. a pattern-welded sword (see Beowulf l.1461, 1700); Grein emends to wimman or wifman (i.e. 'by a woman, Weland was exiled'), which could refer to Beadohild (see l. 8 below); Rieger erads be wornum , Sedgefield be wearnum, both interpretating 'in abundance, to the full'; Koegel proposed be wurnan (from a noun weorne 'pain, sorrow'); Klaeber be wynnum ('Weladn tested misery by joy')

[1]Weland is a famous Germanic maker of weapons, mentioned in Beowulf at l. 454, Waldere A at l.2. His capture and mutilation by Nithhad is mentioned here at l. 5 and also in Waldere B at l.8. Weland's revenge against Nithhad's daughter, Beadohild, is mentioned here at l. 8. This story of Weland is told in much greater detail in the Old Norse Völundarkviša in the Elder Edda.
Weland is depicted on the famed Franks Casket [click here for photo] [click here for more information on the Franks Casket]

[5] Nithhad captures Weland and hamstrings him in order to retain Weland's services as a wonderous smith

[8] Beadohild (ON. Böšvildr) is Nithhad's daughter. In revenge for his hamstringing and captivity, Weland kills her brothers and ravishes her

[14] I read Męšhilde as a single name, following Ettmüller, Thorpe; Grein reads męš Hilde ('violation of [a woman named] Hild'); Holthausen reads męšel Hilde ('the affair of Hild'). on monge ('many'), Klaeber emends to man or mon ; Malone suggests that monge is the dat. sg. of a noun mong 'company, commerce, intercourse'

[14-15] This reference remains rather obscure, apparently it concerns a story of a man named Geat who desires a woman named Męšhild (or maybe just Hild) - see introduction and also Malone (1961), North (pp. 153-71) for further speculation

[16] MS hi ; em. from Grein

[18] Possible Theodric, king of the Ostrogoths, 454-526 (see introduction and also Waldere B l.4-10)

[21] Eormanric, powerful king of the East Goths, portrayed as a tyrant in heroic poetry - see further Beowulf n. 1203.

[36] Heoden, lord of the Heodenings, appears in Old Norse as Hešinn in the Prose Edda, Skįldskaparmįl, ch. 50 and as Hetele in the Middle High German Kudrun.

[37] a pun - the narrator's name is Deor (lit. 'wild animal'), but in l. 37a he says he was dryhtne dyre('dear to (my) lord').

[39] Heorrenda appears as Hjarrandi in the Old Norse Skįldskaparmįl , ch. 50, of the Prose Edda and Hōrant in the Middle High German Kudrun