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habban, w3., (3) have, hold; 446, 462 (keep), 1176, 1490, 1798, 2740 (geféan ~), 3017; pres. 1 sg. (wén) hæbbe, 383 (geweald) ~, 950; hafu 2523, hafo 2150, ([wén]) ~, 3000; 2 sg. hafast, 1174, 1849; 3 sg. (geweald) hafað, 1610; 1 pl. habbað, 270; opt. 3 sg. hæbbe, 381; 3 pl negat. næbben, 1850; imp. sg. hafa, 1395, ~ (...ond geheald), 658; [pl. habbað, F. 11]; pret. 3 sg. hæfde, 79 (geweald...~), 518, 554, 814, 1167, 1202, 1625, 2158, 2361, 2430 (héold...ond ~), 2579; 1 pl. hæfdon, 539; 3 pl. (geféan) hæfdon, 562. (2) used as auxiliary, have, w/ inflected pp.: pres. 1 sg. hafað, 474, 595, 975, 1340, 2026, 2265, 2453; opt. 3 sg. hæbbe, 1928; pret. 1 sg. hæfde, 2143; 3 sg. ~, 106, 220, 665, 743, 804, 825, 828(w/ infl. pp. as well(?)), 893, 1294, 1472, 1599 (opt.?), [2218], 2301, 2321, 2333, 2397, 2403, 2726, 2844, 2952, 3046, 3074, 3147; 1 pl. hæfdon, 2104; 3 pl. ~, 117 (opt.?), 694, 883, 2381, 2630, 2707, 3165; opt. 3 sg. hæfde, 1550. [Go. haban, OFris. habba, hebba, OS. hebbean, OHG. habén, Ger. haben] --Cpds.: for-, wið-habben; bord-, lind-, rond-, searo-hæbbend(e).

hád, m., manner, state, position, form; as., 1297 (see: on), 2193; þurh haéstne hád, in a violent manner, 1335. [-hood; Go. haidus]

hádor(*), adj., bright, clear-voiced; 497. [Ger. heiter]

hádor, n.(**), brightness; as., 414.

hádre*, adv., clearly, brightly; 1571.

hafa, see habban.

hafela*, wk.m., head; gs. heafolan, 2697; ds. hafelan, 672, 1372, 1521, heafolan 2679; as. hafelan, 1327, 1421, 1448, 1614, 1635, 1780, hafalan 446; np. hafelan, 1120. --Cpd.: wíg-.

hafenian*, w2., raise, lift up; pret. 3 sg. hafenade, 1573. [hebban]

hafo, hafu, see habban.

hafoc, m., hawk; 2263.

haga(**)+, wk.m., enclosure, entrenchment; ds. hagan, 2892, 2960. [haw, Ger. Hag] see hægsteald; án-haga.

hál, adj., whole, hale, sound, unhurt; 300, 1974, wes þú...hál (hail, cp. wassail ), 407; dsn. wk. hálan, 1503. [Go. hails, OFris. hál, hél, OS. hél, OHG. heil, Ger. heil]

Hálga, wk.m., Danish prince, younger brother of Hróðgár; Hálga til, 61. [ON. Helgi, from ON. heilagr, OE. hálig, i.e. 'consecrated', 'inviolable', 'holy']

hálig, adj., holy, (orig., 'whole -ness', possibly ref. to 'charisma' [see Russell]); hálig (god), 381, 1553, ~ (dryhten) 686. [hál; OS. hélag, Ger. heilig; cp. OE. wíh 'idol', Go. weihs 'holy', OS. wíh 'temple', OHG. wíh 'holy'; Lat. sanctus, sacer]

hals, see heals.

hám, home, dwelling, residence; [2325]; gs. hámes, 2366, 2388; ds. hám (after: tó, æt, fram), 124, 194, 374, 1147, 1156, 1248, 1923, 2993; as. hám, 717, 1407, 1601 (adv., home(-wards)); ap. hámas, 1127. [OFris. hám, hém, OS. hém, OHG. heim, Ger. Heim; cp. Go. haims 'village', L. cúnae 'cradle, nest', Skt. çayá 'lair']

Háma, wk.m., a person of the Germanic (Gothic) cycle of legends; 1198. see n. l.1198. [ON. Heimir, OHG. Heime; cf. 'Widsith' ll.129-30]

hamer, m., hammer; ds. hamere, 1285; gp. homera, 2829.

hám-weorðung**, f., ornament of a home; as. -e, 2998.

hand, hond, f. -u., hand; hand, 1343, 2099, 2137, 2697; hond, [1520], 2216, 2488, 2509, 2609, 2684; ds. handa, 495, 540, 746, 1290, 1983, 2720, 3033, 3124, [F. 29], honda 814; as. hand, 558, 983, 1678, 2208; hond, 656 (~ ond rond), 686, 834, 927, 2405, 2575; dp. hondum, 1443, 2840. [Go. handus, ON. hond, OFris. OS. hand, OHG. hant, Ger. Hand]

hand-bona**, wk.m., slayer by hand; ds. (tó) handbonan (wearð): 460, 1330 (-banan), 2502.

hand-gestealla**, wk.m., comrade, associate; ds. hondgesteallan, 2169; np. handgesteallan, [2596].

hand-gewriþen**, adj. (pp.), twisted or woven by hand; apf. -e, 1937. [wríþan]

hand-gripe, m., hand-grip; 965.

hand-léan, hond-léan, **, see and-léan.

hand-scolu, -scalu, **, f., (hand-)troop, companions; ds. handscale, 1317, hondscole, 1963. [shoal]

hand-sporu**, wk.f., hand-spur, nail, claw; 986.

hand-wyr­e, adj., made worthy by hand, hand-crafted; mas. ha[n]dwyr­ne, [2245] (usu. em. h[o]rdwyr­ne).

hangian, w2., hang (intr.); 1662; pres. 3 sg. hangað, 2447; 3 pl. hongiað, 1363; pret. 3 sg. hangode, 2085 [Go. OS. OHG. háhan, OFris. huán, Du. hangen; Hit. gank-].

hár, adj., hoary, grey, old; hár (hilderinc), 1307; gsm. háres 2988; dsm. hárum, 1678, [3136]; asm. hárne (stán), 887, 1415, 2553, 2744; asf. háre, 2153. [Ger. hehr] --Cpd.: an-.

hát, adj., hot; 897, 2296, 2547, 2558, 2691, 3148; nsn., 1616; gsn. 849, hátan 1423; asm. hátne, 2781; apm. háte, 2819. [ON. heitr, OFris. OS. hét, OHG. heiz, Ger. heiß; cp. Go. heitó 'fever'] --Supl. hátost, 1668.

hát, n., heat; as., 2605.

hátan, redup. (1) name, call; pres. opt. 3 pl. hátan, 2806; pp. háten, 102, 263, 373, 2602. (2) order, command (also shading off into cause); abs.: pret. 3 sg. heht, 1786; w/ inf.: pret. 3 sg. heht, 1035, 1053, 1807, 1808, 2337, 2892; hét, 198, 390, 1114, 1920, 2152, 2190, 3095, 3110; passive constr., pp. háten, 991; w/ acc. & inf.: inf. hátan, 68; pres. 1 sg. háte, 293; imp. sg. hát, 386, pl. hátað, 2802; pret. 3 sg. hét, 674 (subj. acc. implied), 1868; hét hine wél brúcan, 1045, similarly, 2812; w/ þæt-clause: pret. 3 sg. hét, 2156. [hight (arch.); Go. haitan, ON. heit, OFris. héta, OS. hétan, OHG. heizzan, Ger. heissen]

ge-hátan, redup., promise, (vow, threaten); pres. 1 sg. geháte, 1392, 1671; pret. 3 sg. gehét, 2132, 2937, 2989 (w/ gen.); 1 pl. gehéton, 2634; 3 pl. ~, 175; pp. nsf. geháten (betrothed), 2024.

hatian, w2., hate, persecute; 2466; pret. 3 sg. hatode, 2319. [Go. hatan, hatjan, OHG. hazzén, Ger. hassen] see daéd-hata, hettend.

hattres, see attor.

hæf*, n., sea; ap. heafo, 2477.

hæfen, see hebban.

hæft, m., *captive; 2408 (i.e. slave), (cp. 'Daniel' l.266, 'Christ & Satan' l.154, ll.360f.); --**wk. (adj.): asm. (helle) hæfton, 788 (='captivus inferni') [Go. hafts]

hæft-méce**, m. -ja., hilted sword; ds., 1457. [haft; Ger. Heft]

hæft-nýd, f. -i., captivity; as., [3155].

hæg-steald, adj., young; gpm. -ra, 1889. (also 'Genesis' l.1859 used as adj., elsewhere noun [so np. -as, F. 40]) [see haga; Ger. Hagestolz]

haél, n. -c. (Siev. §§288 n.1, 289 n.2), (1) safety, good luck; as., 653. (2) omen(s); as., 204. [hál] see haélo.

hæle, hæleð, *, m. -c. (Siev. §§281 n.4, 263 n.4), hero, warrior, man; hæle (hildedéor): 1646, [1816], 3111; hæleð, 190, 331, 1069, [F. 23, 43]; np. hæleð, 52, 2247, 2458, 3142; gp. hæleþa, 467, 497, 611, 662, 912, 1047, 1189, 1198, 1296, 1830, 1852, 1954, 2052, 2072, 2224, 3005, 3111; dp. hæleðum, 1709, 1961, 2024, 2262. [Ger. Held]

haélo, wk.f., prosperity, luck, hail; ds. haéle, 1217; as. ~, 719; haélo, 2418. [hál, haélþ> health] --Cpd.: un-.

Hæreð, m., father of Hygd; gs. Hæreþes 1929, Hæreðes 1981.

hærg-træf*, n., holy (heathen) temple; (indoor?) shrine with altar and idols; dp. -trafum, [175]. (cp. 'Andreas' l.1689: helltrafum) [see herg; Lat. trabs(?)]

haéste*, adj. -ja., violent; asm. haéstne, 1335. [Go. haifsts 'quarrel']

Hæðcyn, -cen, m., Geatish prince, second son of Hréðel; Hæðcyn, 2434, 2437; ds. Hæðcynne, 2482; as. Hæðcen, 2925. [h(e)aðu- 'war'; cyn 'kind']

haéþen, adj., heathen, pagan, gentile, (lit., 'man of the heath' i.e. a pejorative for 'rustic'; often used in later writing to refer to Danes); gsm. haéþenes, 986; dsn. haéðnum, 2216; asf. haéþene, 852; asn. haéðen, 2276; gpm. haéþenra, 179. [Go. haiþnó, ON. heiðinn, OFris. héthen, OS. héðin, OHG. heidan, Ger. Heiden]

haéð-stapa*, wk.m., heath-stalker (stag); 1368. [steppan]

hé, héo, hit, pers. pron., he, she (she), it; hé 285` times, 7, 29, 80, &c.; [F. 3 times]; nsf. héo 18 times (in the A part of the MS. only), hío 11 times (only 3 times in A), híe 2016; nsn. hit 18 times, hyt (in B only) 5 times; gsm. his (possessive) 78 times, [F. 4 times]; gsf. hire, 722 (or dat.), poss.: 641, 1115, 1546, so: hyre, 1188, 1339, 1545, 2121; gsn. his, 2579, poss.: 1733, 2157; dsm. him 168 times used also as (reflex.) 'ethic dative': him...gewát, 26, 234, 662, 1236, 1601, 1903, 1963, 2387, 2949, [F. 43], similarly, 1880, him...losað, 2061, con him, 2062, him...gelýfde, 1272, him...ondréd, 2347, similarly, 2348, him selfa déah, 1839; hym, 1918 (dp.?); dsf. hire, 626, 1521, 1566, 1935, hyre, 945, 2175, 3153 ('ethic dat.'); dsn. him, 78, 313; asm. hine 45 times (only 4 times in B), [F. 13, 46], hyne 30 times (only 6 times in A), [F. 33]; asn. hit 12 times, hyt, 2158, 2248, 3161, [F. 21]; np. híe 53 times (9 times in B); hí, 28, 43, 1628, 1966, 2707, 2934, 3038, 3130, 3163; hig, 1085, 1596, [F. 41, 42]; hý, 307, 364, 368, 2124, 2381, 2598, 2850; gp. (poss. & partit.) hira, 1102, 1124, 1249; heora, 691, 698, 1604, 1636; hiora, 1166, 2599, 2994; hiera, 1164; hyra, 178, 324, 1012, 1055, 1246, 2040, 2311, 2849, [F. 3 times]; dp. him 32 times (gewiton him: 301, 1125); [F. 17]; ap. híe, 477, 694, 706, 1068, 2236; hig, 1770; hý, 1048, 2233, 2592.

héa-burh, f. -c., (high burgh), great town; as., 1127.

heafo, -u, see hæf.

héafod, n., head; 1648; as., 48, 1639; ds. héafde, 1590, 2138, 2290, 2973; dp. héafdon, 1242. [Go. haubiþ, ON. haufuð, OFris. háved, OS. hóbid, OHG. houbit]

héafod-beorg**, f., head-protection; as. -e, 1030.

héafod-maég*, m., (head-, i.e.) near relative; gp. -mága, 2151; dp. -maégum, 588.

héafod-segn**, m.n., head-sign, banner; as., 2152. [see segn]

héafod-weard(**)(+), f., head-watch, i.e. death-watch, (wake) (cp. 'Dream of the Rood' l.63); as. -e, 2909.

heafola, see hafela.

héah, adj., high, lofty, exalted; 57, 82, 2805, 3157; gsn.wk. héän, 116; dsm.n. héaum, [2212]; dsm.wk. (sele þám) héan: 713, 919, 1016, 1984; asm. héanne, 983; asn. héah, 48, 2768; asm.wk. héän, 3097; dp. hæum (=héagum?) (high-born men?), [1983]. [Go. hauhs, OFris. hách, OS. OHG. hóh, Ger. hoch]

héahealle, f., high hall, august building; héähealle, 1926.

héah-cyning(*), m., great king; gs. -es, 1039.

héah-gesceap**, n., (high) destiny; as., 3084.

héah-gestréon*, n., splendid treasure; gp. -a, 2302.

héah-lufu (-lufe)**, wk.f., high love; as. -lufan, 1954.

héah-sele**, m. -i., high (great) hall; ds., 647.

héah-setl, n., high seat, throne; as., 1087. [settle]

héah-stede**, m. -i., lofty place; ds., 285.

heal(l), f., hall; heal, 1151, 1214; heall, 487; gs. healle, [F. 4, 20]; ds. ~, 89, 614, 642, 663, 925, 1009, 1288, 1926, [F. 28]; as. ~, 1087. --Cpds.: gif-, medo-.

heal-ærn**, n., hall-building; gp. -a, 78.

healdan, redup., hold, keep, guard, occupy, possess, rule; 230, 296, 319, 704, 1182, 1348, 1852, 2372, 2389, 2377, 3034, 3166; pres. 2 sg. healdest, 1705; 3 sg. healdeð, 2909; opt. 3 sg. healde, 2719; imp. sg. heald, 948, 2247; ger. healdanne, 1731; pret. 1 sg. héold, 241, 466, 2732, 2737, 2751; 3 sg. ~, 57, 103, 142, 161, 305, 788, 1031, 1079, 1748, 1959, 2183, 2279, 2377, 2414, 2430, 3043, 3084, 3118; híold, 1954; 3 pl. héoldon, 401, 1214, [F. 42]; opt. 3 sg. héolde, 1099, 2344, [F. 23]. [Go. haldan, ON. halda, OFris. halda, OS. haldan, OHG. haldan, haltan, Ger. halten, OSw. halla (< *halþan)] --Cpds.: be-, for-; dréam-healdende.

ge-healdan, redup., hold, keep, guard, rule; 674, 911, 2856; pres. 3 sg. gehealdeþ, 2293; opt. 3 sg. gehealde, 317; imp. sg. geheald, 658; pret. 3 sg. gehéold, 2208, 2620, 3003.

healf, adj., half; gsf. -re, 1087. [Go. halbs, ON. halfr, OFris. OS. half, OHG. halb, Ger. halb]

healf, f., (half), side; ds. -e, 2262; as. -e, 1675; gp. -a, 800; ap. -a, 1095, 1305, -e, 2063. [Go. halba]

Healf-Dene, m. -i., king of the Danes, father of Heorogár, Hróðgár, Hálga (& Ýrse); héah ~, 57; gs. -es, 1064; maga ~, 189, 1474, 2143; mago ~, 1867, 2011; sunu ~, 268, 344, 645, 1040, 1652, 1699, 2147; ~ sunu, 1009; bearn ~, 469, 1020. [O. (West) N. Hálfdan(r), O.Dan. Haldan (Lat. Haldanus)].

heal-gamen**, n., entertainment in the hall; as., 1066.

heal-reced**, n., hall-building; as., 68.

heals, m., neck; ds. healse, 1872, 2809, 3017, halse, 1566; as. heals, 2691. [Go. hals, Ger. hals] --Cpds. (adj.): fámig-, wunden-.

heals-béag**, m., neck-ring, collar; as. -béah, 2172; gp. -béaga, 1195.

heals-gebedda**, wk.m.f., dear bed-companion, consort; 63. (cp. 'Genesis' l.2152: healsmægeð)

healsian, w2., implore; pret. 3 sg. healsode, 2130.

heal-sittend(e)**, m. -c. (pret. ptc.) [pl.], hall-sitt er; gp. -sittendra, 2015; dp. -sittendum, 2868.

heal-ðegn**, m., hall-thane; gs. -ðegnes, 142; ap. -ðegnas, 719.

heal-wudu**, m. -u., hall-wood; 1317.

héan, adj., abject, humiliated, wretched, despised; 1274, 2099, 2183, 2408. [Go. hauns, OFris. hána, OHG. hóni; see hýnan]

héan(ne), see héah.

héap, m., band, troop, company, multitude; 432; (þrýðlíc þegna) héap: 400, 1627; ds. héape, 2596; as. héap, 335, 730, 1091. [heap; Go. hups, Ger. Haufe] --Cpd.: wíg-.

heard, adj., hard, strong, brave, hardy, severe; 376; (wíges) heard: 886, similarly, 1539, [F. 21]; heard (under helme): 342, 404, 2539; nsf. heard, 2914; heard (hondlocen): 322, 552; nsn. heard, 1566 (semi-adv. fuction), 2037 (p.?), 2509; nsm.wk. hearda, 401, 432, 1435, 1807, 1963, 2255, 2474, 2977; nsn.wk. hearde, 1343, 1553; dsm. (níða) heardum, 2170, wk.(?) heardan, 2482; asm. heardne, 1590; asn. heard, 1574, 2687, 2987; npm. hearde, 2205; npf. ~, 2829; gpm. heardra, 988; gpf. ~, 166, [heordra, F.26]; dpm. heardum, 1335, wk.(?) heardan, 963; apn. heard, 540, 2638. --Comp. asf. heardran, 576, 719. [hard; hardy fr. OFr. (fr. Gmc.); Go. hardus, ON. harðr, OFris. herd, OS. hard, OHG. herti, Ger. hart; cp. Gr. καρτος 'strength'] --Cpds.: fýr-, íren-, níð-, regn-, scúr-.

hearde, adv., hard, sorely; 1438, 3153 (~ ondréde, cp. 'Christ & Satan' l.1018).

heard-ecg*, adj., hard of edge; nsn, 1288; asn., 1490.

heard-hicgende**, adj. (pres. ptc.), brave-minded; npm. 394, 799. [hycgan]

Heard-réd, m., Geatish king, son of Hygelác; 2388; ds. -e, [2202], 2375. [heard 'fierce'; réd 'counsel']

hearm, m., harm, injury, insult, as., [2276]; ds. -e, 1892.

hearm-dæg**, m., evil day; ap. -dagas, [3153].

hearm-scaþa**, wk.m., pernicious enemy; 766. see sceaþa.

hearpe, wk.f., harp, lyre; gs. hearpan (swég): 89, 2458, 3023, ~ (wyn(ne)): 2107, 2262. [Go. *harpa (in It. Prov. Span. Port. arpa, Fr. harpe), ON. OS. harpa, OHG. har(p)fa ds., Ger. Harfe]

heaðerian, w2., restrain, confine; pp. geheaðerod, 3072. [haðor]

heaðu-, battle. in compounds, see below. [Go. *haþus (in pr. names Adosind, Adefons, Theuda-hathus), OS. OHG. hathu-; cf. ON. Hoðr 'god of war', Gall. Catu-, NIr. cath]

heaþo-blác**, adj., bleak by battle, pale, mortally wounded; [2488].

Heaðo-Beardan, wk.m.p., a Germanic tribe; gp. -Beardna, 2032; Heaða-~, 2067. [heaðo- 'war'; beard 'beard']

heaðo-byrne*, wk.f., war-byrnie, mail-coat; 1552. [OHG. Hadu-; ON. Hoðr]

heaþo-déor**, adj., battle-brave; 688; dpm. -um, 772.

heaðo-, heaðu-fýr,**, n., battle-fire, deadly fire; gs. heaðufýres, 2522; dp. heaðofýrum, 2547.

heaþo-geong**, adj., young (in war); [F. [2]].

heaðo-grim(m)*, adj., battle-grim, fierce; -grim, 548, 2691.

heaðo-lác**, n., (battle-sport), battle; gs. -es, 1974; ds. -e, 584. (cp. beadu-lác)

Heaþo-láf, m., a man of the Wylfing tribe; ds. -e, 460. [heaþo- 'war'; láf 'remnant', 'heirloom']

heaþo-líðend(e)*, m. -c. (pres. ptc.) [pl.], war-sailor, sea-warrior; np. -líðende, 1798; dp. -líðendum, 2955.

heaðo-maére**, adj.-ja., renowned in battle; apm., 2802.

Heaþo-Raémas, m.p., a people living in southern Norway (Romerike); ap. -Raémes, 519. ('Widsith' l.63: Heaþo-Réamum, dp.; ON. Raumar)

heaðo-raés**, m., storm of battle; 557; gp. -a, 526; ap. -as, 1047.

heaðo-réaf**, n., war-dress, battle-gear, armour; as., 401. cp. wælréaf; réafian.

heaðo-rinc*, m., warrior; as., 2466; dp. -um, 370.

heaþo-róf*, adj., brave/famed in battle; 381, 2191; npm. -e, 864.

heaðo-sceard**, adj., battle-hacked, notched; npf. -e, 2829.

Heaðo-Scilfingas, see Scylfingas.

heaðo-síoc**, adj., battle-sick, wounded; dsm. -um, 2754.

heaþo-stéap**, adj., (steep) towering in battle; nsm.wk. -a, (helm), 1245; asm. -ne (~), 2153.

heaþo-swát**, m., battle-sweat, blood shed in battle; ds. -e, 1460, 1606; gp. -a, 1668.

heaðo-torht**, adj., battle-clear, clear (sounding) in battle; nsf., 2553.

heaðo-waéd**, f., war-dress, armour; dp. -um, 39. see ge-waéde.

heaðo-weorc**, n., battle-work, fight; as., 2892.

heaðo-wylm*, m. -i., (battle-surge), violent flame; gp. -a, 82; ap. -as, 2819.

heáþu, f., indecl., high place; here meaning high sea; 1862. [=heáhþu?]

heaðu-sweng**, m. -i., battle-stroke, battle-swing ; ds. -e, 2581.

héawan, redup., hew; 800.

ge-héawan, redup, hew, cut (to pieces); opt. 3 sg. gehéawe, 682.

hebban, VI, (heave), raise, lift; 656; pp. hafen, 1290; hæfen, 3023. [hafjan] --Cpd.: á-.

hédan, w1., w/ gen., heed, care for; pret. opt. 3 sg. gehédde, 505; pret. 3 sg. hédde, 2697.

ge-héde, 505, see ge-hégan.

hefene, see heofon.

ge-hégan*, w1., hold (a meeting), perform, carry out, achieve; 425 (~ ðing). [cp. ON. heyja; Siev. §409 n.14]

heht, see hátan.

helan, IV, conceal, cover, hide; inf., [1372].

hel(l), f. -jó, hell, (Hel, [goddess of the underworld]-??); hel, 852; gs. helle, 788, 1274; ds. ~, 101, 588; as. ~, 179. [Go. halja]

hell-bend**, f. -jó., (m. -i.), bond of hell ; dp. -um, 3072.

helm, m., (1) protection, cover; as., 1392. (2) helmet; ns., 1245, 1448, 1629, 2255, 2659, 2762, [F. 45]; gs. helmes, 1030; ds. helme, 342, 404, 1286, 2539; as. helm, 672, 1022, 1290, 1526, 1745, 2153, 2615, [2723], 2811, 2868, 2973, 2979, 2987; dp. helmum, [3139]; ap. helmas, 2638. (3) *protector, lord (cf. Stjerna 7[?]); ns. helm (Scyldinga, &c.), 371, 456, 1321, 1623, 2462, 2705; as., 182 (heofena helm), 2381. [ON. hjalmr, OFris. OS. OHG. helm, MnE.helm; cp. Lat. céláre, occulere 'to hide, to conceal', Skt. çarma 'umbrella'] --Cpds.:grím-, gúð-, niht-, scadu-.

helm-berend*, m. -c. [pl.], (helmet-bearer), warrior; ap. (hwate) helmberend: 2517, 2642.

Helmingas, m.p., the family to which Wealhþéow belongs; gp. -a, 620. ('Widsith' l.29: Helm)

help, f., help; ds. (hæleðum tó) helpe: 1709, 1961, similarly, 1830; as. helpe (gefremede): 551, 1552.

helpan, III, help; w/ dat.: [2340], 2684; w/ gen. or dat.: 2649; w/ gen.: 2879; pret. 3 sg. healp, 2698; inf., 2449. [Go. hilpan, ON. hjalpa, OS. helpan, OFris. helpa, OHG. helfan, Toch. tsalp]

hel-rúne(**)+, wk.f., one skilled in the mysteries of hell, necromancer; demon; np. -rúnan, 163. cp. rún.

Hemming, m., a kinsman of Offa(?); gs. Hemninges, 1944, Heminges 1961.

Hengest, m., leader of the (Half-)Danes after Hnæf's death in Frisia; 1127, [F. 17]; ds. -e, 1083, 1096. [hengest 'horse']

héo (hío), see hé.

heofon, m., heaven; (pl. used w/ sg. meaning); 3155; gs. heofenes, 414; heofones, 576, 1801, 2015, 2072; ds. hefene, 1571; gp. heofena, 182; dp. heofenum, 52, 505. [Go. himins]

heolfor*, m. or n., blood, gore; ds. heolfre, 849, 1302, 1423, 2138.

heolster(*), m., hiding-place; as., 755. [helan; Go. hulistr]

heonan, adv., hence; 252; heonon, 1361. cp. hin-fús.

héore*, adj. -ja., safe, pleasant, good; nsf. héoru, 1372. [Ger. geheuer] --Cpd.: un-.

heoro-, heoru-dréor,**, m. or n., (sword-, i.e. ) battle-blood; ds. heorodréore, 849; heorudréore, 487.

heoro-dréorig*, adj., (sword-)gory, blood-stained; nsn., 935; asm. -ne, 1780, 2720.

Heoro-gár, m., Danish king, elder brother of Hróðgár; 61; Hioro-, 2158; Here-,467. [heoro 'sword', here 'army'; gár 'spear'] (cp. hioro-serce 2539, here-syrce 1511)

heoro-gífre*, adj. -ja., (sword-greedy), fiercely ravenous; 1498.

heoro-, heoru-grim(m), *, adj., (sword-grim), fierce; heorogrim, 1564; nsf.wk. heorugrimme, 1847.

heoro-hócyhte**, adj. -ja., (sword-hooked), barbed; dpm. -hócyhtum, 1438.

heoro-sweng*, m. -i., sword-stroke, sword-swing; as., 1590.

heorot, m., hart, stag; 1369. [Ger. Hirsch < Gmc. *herutaz < IE. *keru-do- < IE. *ker- 'horn, head'; cp. MnE. horn, Lat. cervus, Gk. λζςβσ] (cp. Heorot)

Heorot, m., the famous hall of the Danish king Hróðgár (corresonding to the royal seat of Hleiðr (Zeeland) in Norse tradition(?)); 1017, 1176, Heort 991; gs. Heorotes, 403; ds. Heorote, 475, 497, 593, 1267, 1302, 1330, 1588, 1671, Heorute 766, Hiorote 1990, Hiorte 2099; as. Heorot 166, 432, Heort 78. [heorot 'hart']

Heoro-weard, m., son of Heorogár; ds. -e, 2161. [heoro- 'sword'; weard 'guard']

heoro-wearh**, m., accursed foe, savage outcast; 1267. see werhðo.

heor(r)(**)+, m., hinge; np. heorras, 999. [har( re), (dial.)]

heorte, wk.f., heart; 2561; gs. heortan, 2463, 2507; ds. ~, 2270. [Go. haírtó, ON. hjarta, OFris. herte, OS. herta, OHG. herza, Ger. Herz; L. cor, Gr. καρδια (> MnE. cardiac), OIr. cride] --Cpds.: blíð-, grom-, rúm-, stearc-heort.

heorð-genéat*, m., hearth-companion, retainer; np. -as, 261, 3179; dp. -um, 2418; ap. -as, 1580, 2180. see béod-genéat.

heoru*, m. -u., sword; 1285. [Go. haírus, ON. hjorr, OS. heru, Skt. çaru- 'missile, spear, arrow'] (as simplex only here & in 'Gnomic' of the 'Exeter Book' l.202; freq. in compounds)

heoðu, f., hall, precincts; ds. heoðe, 404.

hér, adv., here, hither; 244, 361, 376, 397, 1061, 1228, 1654, 1820, 2053, 2796, 2801, [F. 3, 4, 5, 26]. [Go. hér, OFris. hír, OS. hér, hír, OHG. hiar, Ger. hier]

here, m. -ja., army, host, troop; ds. herge, 1248, 2347, 2638. [Go. harjis, ON. herr, OS. OHG. heri, Ger. Heer] --Cpds.: flot-, scip-, sin-.

Here-beald, m., Geatish prince, eldest son of Hréðel; 2434; ds. -e, 2463. [here 'army'; beald 'bold']

here-bróga**, wk.m., war-terror; ds. -brógan, 462.

here-byrne**, wk.f., battle-byrnie; 1443.

Here-gár, see Heoro-gár.

here-gríma**, wk.m., war-mask, visored helmet; ds. (under) heregríman: 396 (dp.?), 2049, 2605. see grím-helm

Here-mód, m., a king of the Danes; 1709; gs. -es, 901. [here 'army'; mód 'mind', 'spirit', 'courage']

here-net**, n. -ja., (war-net), mail-coat; 1553.

here-níð**, m., hostility, violence; 2474.

here-pád**, f., coat of mail; 2258. [Go. paida; cp. Gr. βαιτη- 'leather coat' (of Illyrian or Thrycian origin); OE. pád is a probable loan-word from Thracian (old Gmc. has very few native words in initial p-, cf. ety. notes under entry OE. an-pæð), spread through Gmc. via Gothic; if so, change of b- to p- suggests a very early loan, prior to the First Gmc. Sound Shift ('Grimm's Law'); likely a 'trade'-word, possibly entering Gmc. along with 'hemp' (e.g. OE. hænep), cp. Gr. κανναβις 'cannabis, hemp']

here-ric*, m., army-rule, war-hero; as., 1176.

Here-ríc, m., uncle of Heardréd(?) (i.e. brother of Hygd); gs. -es, 2206. [here 'army'; ríce 'powerful']

here-sceaft**, m., battle-shaft, spear; gp. -a, 335.

here-sceorp**, n., war-dress, armour; [F. 45].

Here-Scyldingas, see Scyldingas.

here-spéd**, f. -i., success in war; 64. [speed ]

here-straél**, m., war-arrow; 1435.

here-syrce**, wk.f., (battle-sark), shirt of mail; as. -syrcan, 1511. cp hioro-serce.

here-waéd**, f., war-dress, armour; dp. -um, 1897. see ge-waéde.

here-wæs(t)m**, m., (warlike stature,) martial vigour; dp. -wæsmun, 677. [weaxan]

here-wísa*, wk.m., army leader; 3020. [cp. wísian]

herg (hearh), m., a place sacred to a god; idol, altar, sanctuary; wood, holy grove; dp. hergum, 3072. [ON. hörgr 'heap of stones; place of worship', OHG. harug 'altar; sanctuary, chapel; holy grove'; prob. cf. OIr. carn 'heap of stones', Lat. carcer '(stone) enclosure, prison']

herge, see here, herian.

herian, w1., praise; 182, 1071; pres. opt. 3 sg. herge, 3175; honour; pret. 3 sg. he[ro]de, [2930] (MS heorde -- usu. emended to ah[red]de); pres. opt. 1 sg. herige, 1832. [Go. hazjan]

hete, m. -i. (n. -c., Siev. §§263 n.4, 288 n.1), hate, hostility; 142, 2554. [Go. hatis, n., ON. hatr, OHG. haz, Ger. Haß] --Cpds.: ecg-, morþor-, wíg-.

hete-líc(**)+, adj., hateful; 1267. [Ger. hässlich]

hetend, see hettend.

hete-níð(*), m., enmity; ap. -as, 152.

hete-sweng**, m. -i., hostile blow; ap. -swengeas, 2224.

hete-þanc*, m., thought of hate; dp. um, 475.

hettend*, m. -c., enemy; np. hetende, 1828; dp. hettendum, 3004. [Cp. hatian; Ger. hetzen]

Het-ware, m. -i.p., a Frankish people on the lower Rhein; 2363, 2916. ('Widsith' l.33: Hætwerum, dp.) [hæt(t) 'hat' (perh. 'helmet')?; -ware 'inhabitants'] (cf. Lat. forms Chatti: Chattuarii)

hicgean, see hygan.

hider, adv., hither; 240, 370, 394, 3092. [Go. hidré, ON. heðra 'here', Ger. hierher]

hige, hyge, *, m. -i., mind, heart, soul; hige, 593; hyge, 755; gs. higes, 2045; as. hige, 267; dp. higum, 3148. [Go. *hugs, OHG. huct; cf. Go. gahugds, OS. gihugd]

Hige-lác, see Hyge-lác.

hige-maéðu (=-méðu)**, wk.f., weariness of mind, distress of soul; dp. -maéðum, 2909. cp. hyge-méðe.

hige-róf*, adj., valiant; asm. -ne, [204].

hige-þíhtig**, adj., strong-hearted, determined; asm. -ne, 746. see þýhtig.

hige-þrym(m)**, m. -ja.(?), greatness of heart; dp. -þrymmum, 339.

hild*, f. -jó., war, battle; 1588, 1847; gif mec hild nime: 452, 1481; gs. hilde, 2723, 2298; ds. hilde, 2916; (æt) hilde, 1460, 1659, 2076, 2258, 2575, 2684, [F. 37]; as. hilde, 647, 1990; [gp. hilda, F. 26]; ds. hilde, 3136; --valour; ns. hild, 901; as. hilde, 2952. [Go. *hildi- 'battle' (in pr. names Hild-ulf, Hildi-gern), OH. hildr, OS. hild, OHG. hilta]

hilde-bil(l)**, n., battle-sword(/-"bill"); -bil, 1666; ds. -bille, 557, 1520, 2679.

hilde-bord**, n., (battle-board, i.e.) shield; dp. -um, 3139; ap. -bord, 397.

Hilde-burh, f., sister of Hnæf (chief of the Half-Danes), daugher of Hóc, wife of the Frisian king Finn; 1071, 1114. [hild 'battle'; burh 'fortified place']

hilde-cyst**, f. -i., battle-virtue, valour; dp. -um, 2598.

hilde-déor*, adj., brave in battle; 312, 834, 2107, 2183; (hæle) hildedéor: 1646, 1816, 3111 (-díor); npm. -déore, 3169.

hilde-freca, see hild-freca.

hilde-geatwe**, f. -wó.p., war-equipments; gp. -geatwa, 2362; ap. -geatwe, 674. see wíg-getáwa.

hilde-gicel**, m., battle-icicle; dp. -um, 1606.

hilde-gráp**, f., hostile grasp; 1446, 2507.

hilde-hlæm(m), -hlem(m),**, m. -ja.(?), crash of battle; gp. -hlemma, 2351, 2544; dp. -hlæmmum, 2201.

hilde-léoma**, wk.m., battle-light; as. -léoman (sword, cp. beadoléoma 1523), 1143; np. ~ (flames), 2583.

hilde-méce**, m. -ja., battle-sword; np. -méceas, 2202.

hilde-mecg**, m. -ja., warrior; np. -mecgas, 799.

hilde-raés**, m., storm of battle; 300.

hilde-rand**, m., battle-shield; ap. -as, 1242. [round ]

hilde-rinc*, m., warrior; (hár) hilderinc: 1307, 3124; gs. -es, 986; ds. -e, 1495, 1576.

hilde-sceorp**, n., war-dress, armour; as., 2155.

hilde-setl**, n., war-seat, saddle; 1039. [settle ]

hilde-strengo**, wk.f., battle-strength; as., 2113.

hilde-swát**, m., battle-sweat, battle-blood; hostile vapour; 2558.

hilde-túx (=túsc)**, m., battle-tusk; dp. -um, 1511.

hilde-waépen**, n., war-weapon; dp. -waépnum, 39.

hilde-wísa**, wk.m., leader in battle; ds.(p.?) -wísan, 1064. [cp. wísian]

hild-freca*, wk.m., fighter, warrior; ds. -frecan, 2366; np. hildefrecan, 2205.

hild-fruma*, wk.m., war-chief; gs. -fruman, 2649 (ds.?), 2835; ds. ~, 1678.

hild-lata*, wk.m., (adj.), one sluggish in battle, coward; np. -latan, 2846. [late]

hild-plega, wk.m., war-play, warfare, battle; ds. -n, 1073.

hilt, n. f.(m.) -i. (Siev. §267a), hilt; (gylden) hilt, 1677 (neut.); as. hilt, 1614 (fem.), 1668 (neut.); hylt, 1687; pl. w/ sg. meaning: dp. hiltum, 1574. --Cpds.: fetel-, wreoþen-.

hilted**, adj., hilted; asn., 2987.

hilte-cumbor**, n., hilt-banner; as., 1022.

hindema**, adj.supl., last, (hindmost); dsm. hindeman (síðe): 2049, 2517. [Go. hindumists]

hín-fús*, adj., eager to get away; 755. see heonan.

híofan, II, w1., lament; pres. ptc. npm. híofende, 3142. [Go. hiufan]

hioro-drync**, m. -i., sword-drink, blood; dp. -um, 2358. [cp. Ger. Trunk]

hioro-serce**, wk.f., (battle-sark), coat of mail; as. -sercean, 2539.

Hiorot, see Heorot.

hioro-weallende**, adj. (pres. ptc.), welling fiercely; asm. (uninfl.), 2781.

hit (hyt), see hé.

hladan, VI, lade, load, heap up, lay; 2126; pret. 3 pl. hlodon, 2775; pp. hladen, 1897; nsn., 3134. [Go. hlaþan] --Cpd.: gilp-hlæden.

ge-hladan, VI, load; pret. 3 sg. gehleód, 895.

hlæst, m. (or n.), freight, load, cargo; ds. -e, 52. [hladan; MnE. last]

hlaéw, hláw, m. (Siev. §§250 n.1, 288 n.1), mound, barrow, cave; ds. hláwe, 1120; hlaéwe, 2773; as. hlaéw, 2411, 2802, 3169; hlæo, 3159; dp. hlaéwum, 2296. [MnE. low; Go. hlaiw, ON. hlaiwa, OS. OHG. hléo]

hláford, m., lord (from *hláf-weard 'guardian of the loaf/bread', so 'Paris Psalter' 104.l17); 2375, 2642; gs. -es, 3179; ds. -e, 2634; as. hláford, 267, 2283, 3142. [Go. hlaifs 'bread'] --Cpd.: eald-.

hláford-léas, adj., lord-less; without a leader; npm. -e, 2935.

hláw, see hlaéw.

hleahtor, m., laughter, merriment; hleahtor, 611; as. hleahtor, 3020.

hléapan, redup., leap, gallop; 864. [Go. -hlaupan] --Cpd.: á-.

hléo(*), m.(n.) -wa., cover, shelter, protection, hence protector (cp. helm, eodor); eorla hléo: ns., 791, 1035, [1229], 1866, 2142, 2190; as., 1967; wígendra hléo: ns., 899, 1972, 2337; vs., 429. [lee; Go. hlija]

hléo-burh**, f. -c., sheltering town, stronghold; as., 912, 1731.

ge-hleód, see ge-hladan.

hleonian (hlinian), w2., lean; hleonian, 1415. [Go. *hlain 'hill']

hléor-berg**, f., cheek-guard, helmet; dp. -an, 304. see hléor-bolster.

hléor-bolster**, m.(?), cheek-cushion, pillow; 688. [MnE.: leer, bolster] (cp. wangere, Go. waggareis)

hléotan, II, (cast lots), obtain; pret. 3 sg. hléat (w/ dat. [instr.]), 2385.

hléoðor-cwyde*, m. -i., ceremonious speech; as., 1979. [cweðan]

hléoþrian, w2., speak, exclaim; pret. 3 sg. hléoþrode, [F. 2].

hlífian, w2., stand high, tower; 2805; pret. 3 sg. hlífade, 81, 1898; hlíuade, 1799.

hlim-bed(d)**, n. -ja., bed of rest; as., 3034. (=hlin-; see hleonian)

hlið, hlíð, n., hill with a hollow/concavity/cleft (Gelling 8); ?-cliff, hill-side, hill; gs. hlíðes, 1892. --[cp. hlid>MnE. lid, ON. hlíþ 'hill-slope' (Gelling 8)] --Cpds.: fen-, mist-, næs-, stán-, wulf-hlið.

hlíuade, see hlífian.

hlúd, adj., loud; asm. -ne, 89. [cf. Go. hliuma]

hlyn(n), m. -ja., sound, din; hlyn, 611.

ge-hlyn(n)(**), n. -ja., loud sound, din; [F. 28].

hlynnan(*), w1., (hlynian, w2.), make a noise, shout, roar; hlynnan, 2553; [pres. 3 sg. hlynneð, F. 6]; pret. 3 sg. hlynode, 1120.

hlynsian*, w2., resound; pret. 3 sg., hlynsode, 770.

hlytm(**), m. -i., lot; ds. -e, 3126. [hléotan] (see un-hlitme)

hnáh, adj., lowly, mean, poor, illiberal; nsf., 1929. comp. dsm. hnáhran, 952; asm. hnágran, 677. [hnígan; Go. hnaiws]

hnaégan, w1., humble, subdue; pret. 3 sg. hnægde, 1318.

ge-hnaégan, w1., lay low, humble, subdue; pret. 3 sg. gehnaégde, 1274, pret. 3 pl. gehnaégdon, 2916. [hnígan; Go. hnaiwjan, Ger. neigen; see hnáh]

Hnæf, m., chief of the (Half-)Danes, brother of Hildeburh, son of Hóc; [F. [2]]; gs. -es, 1114; ds. -e, [F. 40].

hnítan, I, (strike), clash together; pret. 3 pl. (þonne) hniton (féþan): 1327, 2544 (hnitan).

Hóc, m., father of Hildeburh & Hnæf; gs. -es, 1076. [cp. OE. hécen 'kid']

hof, n., dwelling, house, court; ds. hofe, 1236, 1507, 1974, [2212]; as. hof, [312]; dp. hofum, 1836; ap. hofu, 2313. [Ger. Hof]

(ge-)hogode, see (ge-)hycgan.

hoh, m., mound, hill; 1944, ds. hoe, [3157].

hold, adj., loyal, trustworthy; well-disposed, friendly; 2161, 2170; nsn., 290; asm. -ne, 267, 376, 1979; gpm. -ra, 487. [Go. hulþs, Ger. hold]

hólinga, adv., in vain, without cause; 1076.

holm*, m., sea, water; 519, 1131, 2138; ds. -e, 543, 1435, 1914, 2362; as. holm, 48, 632, 1592; gp. -a, 2132; ap. -as, 240. [orig. meaning 'piled up waves', cp. ON. hólmr 'islet', Lat. collis; MnE. holm(e) (obs.)] --Cpd.: waég-.

holm-clif**, n., sea-cliff, cliff by the water-side; ds. -e, 1421, 1635; ap. -u, 230.

holm-wylm**, m. -i., surge of the sea; ds. -e, 2411.

holt, n., wood, copse; as., 2598, 2846. [holt, (arch.); Ger. Holz] --Cpds.: æsc-, fyrgen-, gár-; Hrefnes-.

holt-wudu*, m. -u., wood; 2340 (wooden shield ); as., 1369 (forest).

homer, see hamer.

hond, hond- (gestealla, scolu), see hand(-).

hond-gemót**, n., hand-meeting, battle; gp. -a, 1527, [2355].

hond-gesella*, wk.m. companion (who is close to one's side), comrade-in-arms; dp. -gesellum, 1481. [sæl, sele; Ger. Geselle] cp. ge-selda; hand-gestealla.

hond-geweorc, n., handiwork, deed of strength; ds. -e, 2835.

hond-locen**, adj. (pp.), (locked) linked by hand ; nsf., 322, 551. [lúcan]

hond-raés*, m., hand-fight; 2072.

Hond-scióh, m., a Geat warrior, one of the comrades of Béowulf; ds. -sciö, 2076. ['Glove' : hond 'hand'; scióh 'shoe'; cf. Ger. Handschuh 'glove', ON. (name) Vottr 'glove']

hond-slyht, m., counter-blow, return blow by hand; ; as., 2929, 2972. (influenced by ondslyht?).

hond-sweng, m., hand-swing, stroke; ds. -e, [1520].

hond-wundor**, n., wondrous thing wrought by hand ; gp. -wundra, 2768.

hongian, see hangian.

hord, n., hoard, treasure (orig. what is hidden ); 2283, 2284, 3011, 3084; gs. hordes, 887; ds. horde, 1108, 2216, 2547, 2768, 2781, 3164; as. hord, 912, 2212, 2319, 2422, 2509, 2744, 2773, 2799, 2955, 3056, 3126, hord ond ríce: 2369, 3004. [Go. huzd, ON. hodd, OS. hord, OHG. hort, Ger. Hort < Gmc. *huzdam 'thing hidden away' < IE. *kuz-dho- or *IE. kudh-to- < IE. *kus- < IE. *(s)keu- 'to cover, conceal' (Watkins 78:(s)keu-/Pokorny 2. (s)keu- 952); cf. ON. ský 'cloud' < Gmc. *skeu-jam 'cloud (cover)'; cp. OE. hydan (below)] --Cpds.: béah-, bréost-, word-, wyrm-.

hord-ærn(**)+, n., treasure-house; ds. -e, 2831; gp. -a, 2279.

hord-burh(*), f. -c., treasure-city; as., 467.

hord-gestréon*, n., stored-up possessions, treasure; gp. -a, 3092; dp. -um, 1899.

hord-máðum**, m., hoard-treasure, jewel; as. hordmádmum, 1198.

hord-weard*, m., guardian of treasure; hordweard hæleþa ('king'): ns., 1047, as., 1852; hordweard ('dragon'): ns., 2293, 2302, 2554, 2593.

hord-wela**, wk.m., hoarded wealth; as. -welan, 2344. [weal]

hord-weorþung*, f., honouring with treasure; as. -e, 952.

hord-wyn(n)**, f. -jó., hoard-joy, delightful treasure; as. -wynne, 2270.

horn, m., horn; 1423; as., 2943; [np. -as, 'gables', F. [1], 4]; dp. -um, 1369. [Go. haúrn, OFris. OS. OHG. horn; L. cornu, Gr. κερας, Gall. karnom, Skt. çrnga-] --Cpd.: gúð-.

horn-boga*, wk.m., horn-bow (i.e. bow 'tipped with horn' or 'curved like a horn'); ds. -bogan, 2437.

horn-géap*, adj., wide-gabled; 82. see géap.

horn-reced**, n., gabled hall; as., 704.

hors, n., horse; 1399. [OS. hros(s), O.Fris. hors, M.Du. ors, Du. ros, ON. hross, hors, OHG. hross, ross, Ger. Roß < Gmc. *khursa- (also w/ cog. in Finnic; origin of both Gmc. & Finnic source traced to Sarmatian, Alannic - denoting a new breed of (faster) horse suitable for horse-back fighting(??), along with OE. mearh (also a likely Iranian loan-word), eventually completely making obsolete the old word for 'horse': eoh (see under entry ╔omÚr; seems to enter Gmc. via Gothic, borrowed during their sojourn in the southern Russian steppes? - on this Iranian origin of word, see further Brøndel)]

hós**, f., troop (of attendants); ds. -e, 924. [Go. hansa; OHG. (Ger.) hansa]

hoðma*, wk.m., concealment, grave; ds. (p.?) hoðman, 2458.

hrá (hraé(w), hréa(w)), n.(m.) (Siev. §250 n.1), corpse, cadaver, body; hrá, 1558. [np. hraéw, F. [34]]. [Go. hraiwa-]

Hraédlan, Hraédles, see Hréðel.

hræd-líce, adv., quickly; 356, 963. [hraþe]

hræfen, see hrefn.

hrægl, n., dress, corslet; 1195; gs. -es, 1217; gp. -a, 454. [rail (obs.); night-rail (dial.)] --Cpds.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-.

hræðre, see hreðer.

hrá-fyl(l)**, m. -i., fall of corpses, slaughter; as. -fyl, 277.

hraþe, hræþe, adv., quickly; hraðe (hraþe), 224, 740, 748, 1294, 1310, 1541, 1576, 1914, 1937, 2117, 2968; hræþe, 1437; hreþe, 991; raþe (cp. Go. raþizó, comp.?), 724; hraþe: 1390, 1975. --Comp. hraþor, 543. [Go. raþs, OHG. rat, rad, MLG. rade, OHG. rato, rado; rather]

hréam, m., cry, outcry; 1302.

hréa-wíc**, n., place of corpses; as. (p.?), 1214. [hrá; Go. hraiwa-]

hrefn (hræfn), m., raven; [hræfen, F. 34]; hrefn (blaca), 1801; (wonna) ~, 3024; ds. hrefne, 2448. [ON. hrafn, MLG. raven, OHG. hraban, Ger. Rabe]

Hrefna-wudu, m. -u., a forest in Sweden; as. (or ds.?), 2925. [hrefna 'raven'; wudu 'wood']

Hrefnes-holt, n., a forest in Sweden; as., 2935. [hrefna 'raven'; holt 'wood']

hrémig*, adj., w/ gen. or dat., exulting, boasting; loud; 124, 1882, 2054; npm. hrémge, 2363. [OS. hróm, Ger. Ruhm]

hréoh, adj., rough, fierce, savage, troubled; 1564, 2180; dsn. hréoum, 2581, wk. hréon, 1307; npf. hréo, 548. (cp. blód-, gúð-, wæl-réow)

hréoh-mód(*), adj., troubled in mind, fierce; 2132, 2296.

hréosan, II, fall, rush; pret. 3 sg. hréas, 2488, 2831; 3 pl. hruron, 1074, 1430, 1872. --Cpd.: be-.

Hréosna-beorh, m., a hill in Geatland; as., 2477.

hréow, f., sorrow, distress; 2328; gp. -a, 2129. [ rue; OHG. (h)riuwa, Ger. Reue]

hréð*, orig. n. (Siev. §§267 a, 288), glory, triumph; as., 2575. [cf. Go. hróþeigs] see hróðor. --Cpds.: gúð-, sige-. (Hréð-ríc)

hreþe, see hraþe.

Hréðel (-aé-, Hraédla), m., king of the Geats, father of Hygelác, grandfather of Béowulf; 374 (Hréþel Géata), 2430 (Hréðel cyning), 2474; gs. Hréþles, 1847, 2191, 2358, 2992; Hraédles, 1485; Hraédlan, 454. [hréð 'glory'?, eþel 'homeland'?]

hreðer*, n.(?), breast, heart; 2113, 2593; ds. hreþre, 1151, 1446, 1745, 1878, 2328, 2442, 3148; gp. hreðra, 2045. [Go. haírþra, n.p.]

hreþer-bealo**, n. -wa., (heart-bale), distress; 1343.

Hréþling, m., son of Hréþel; as., 1923 (Higelác), 2925 (Hæðcen). Hréðlingas, m.p., Geatish people; 2960.

Hréð-men, m. -c., a name for the Geats; gp. -manna, 445.

Hréð-ríc, m., a son of Hróðgár; 1189, Hréþrinc, 1836. [hróð-: hréð 'glory'; ríce 'powerful']

hréð-sigor**, m.(n.), glorious victory; gp. -a, 2583.

hrínan, I, touch, reach; w/ dat.:988, 1515, 3053; pret. opt. 3 sg. hrine, 2976 (hurt); w/ æt: pret. 3 sg. hrán, 2270. --Cpd.: æt-.

hrimge/hrinde**, pp. npm. (of *hrindan, w1.), covered with frost, ("rimy"); hrimge, 1363 [rind (dial, (North.)) 'hoar-frost'; cp. OE. hrím].

hring, m., (1) ring (ornament); as., 1202, 2809; np. hringas, 1195; gp. hringa (þengel), 1507, ~ (hyrde), 2245, ~ (fengel), 2345; dp. hringum, 1091; ap. hringas, 1970, 3034. (2) ring-mail, armour formed of rings; 1503, 2260 (byrnan hring). [Go. *hriggs (> Fr. rang, Prov. renc 'row'), ON. hringr, OFris. OS. OHG. hring, Ger. Ring; cp. Gr. κ&ipsilon;ρκος, Lat. circus] --Cpd.: bán-.

hringan, w1., ring, resound; pret. 3 pl. hringdon, 327.

hring-boga**, wk.m., coiled creature (dragon); gs.(ds.?) -bogan, 2561. [ring; búgan]

Hring-Dene, see Dene.

hringed(**), adj., (pp.), formed of rings; hringed (byrne), 1245; asf. hringde (byrnan), 2615.

hringed-stefna**, wk.m., ring-prowed ship; 32, 1897; as. -stefnan, 1131. [stefn] (perhaps a ship furnished w/ rings, or having a curved stem, cp. wundenstefna; hringnaca, ON. Hringhorni [Baldr's ship in Snorri 'Edda'])

hring-íren**, n., ring-iron, iron rings (of mail-coat); 322.

hring-maél**, adj., ring-marked, i.e. (sword) adorned with a ring, (or, perhaps, ring-weapon); see fetelhilt, (or with wavy patterns?, i.e. pattern-welded?); nsn. (p.?), 2037; --used as noun (ring-sword); ns., 1521; as., 1564. ('Genesis' l.1989: hring-maéled)

hring-naca**, wk.m., ring-prowed ship; 1862. see hringed-stefna.

hring-net(t)**, n. -ja., ring-net, coat of mail; as. -net, 2754; ap. ~, 1889.

hring-sele**, m. -i., ring-hall; ds., 2010 (cp. béah-sele); (of the dragon's cave:) ds., 3053; as., 2840.

hring-weorðung**, f., ring-adornment; as. -e, 3017.

hroden*, pp. (of hréodan, II), adorned, decorated; asn., 495, 1022, 1151; ge-hroden, npn., 304. --Cpds.: béag-, gold-.

hróf, m., roof; 999; as., 403, [836], 926, 983, 1030 (helmes ~, 'crown'), 2755. --Cpd.: inwit-.

hróf-sele**, m. -i., roofed hall; ds., 1515.

Hrones-næs(s), m., a headland on the coast of Geatland; ds. -næsse, 2805, 3136. [hron 'whale']

hron-fisc(**)(+), m., whale(-fish, cp. Ger. Walfisch); ap. -fixas, 540. [Celt. rhon?]

hron-rád*, f., whale-road, ocean; as. -e, 10.

hrór, adj., agile, vigorous, strong; dsm.wk. -an, 1629. [cp. on-hréran; Ger. rührig] --Cpd.: fela-.

Hróð-gár, m., king of the Danes, son of Healf-Dane, lord of Heorot; 61, 356, 371, 456, 653, 662, 925, 1017, 1236, 1321, 1687, 1840, 2155; gs. -es, 235, 335, 613, 717, 826, 1066, 1456, 1580, 1884, 1899, 2020, 2351; ds. -e, 64, 1296, 1399, 1407, 1592, 1990, 2129; as. -, 152, 277, 339, 396, 863, 1646, 1816, 2010; vs., 367, 407, 417 (þéoden H.), 1483. --note: Hróðgár maþelode: 925, 1687, 1840; Hróðgár maþelode, helm Scyldinga: 371, 456, 1321. [hróðor, hréð 'glory'; gár 'spear'; cf. ON. Hróðgeirr, MHG. Rüedegér, Anglo-Norman Roger (see 'O.E. Chronicle, AD 1076)]

Hróð-mund, m., a son of Hróðgár; 1189. [hróð 'glory'; mund 'hand', 'protection']

hróðor*, n., joy, benefit; ds. hróðre, 2448; gp. hróþra, 2171. [cf. Go. hróþeigs] see hréð. (Hróð-gár)

Hróþ-ulf, m., son of Hálga, nephew of Hróðgár; 1017; as., 1181. [hróþ 'glory'; -ulf : wulf 'wolf'; ON. Hrólfr, ME. Rolf, cf. Ralph]

Hrunting, m., Unferð's sword; 1457; ds. -e, 1490, 1659; as., 1807. [hrunt 'a long piece of wood'?; cf. ON. Hrotti (sword-name); ON. (OE.) hrinda(n) 'thrust']

hruron, see hréosan.

hrúse*, wk.f., earth, ground; 2558; vs., 2247; ds. hrúsan, 2276, [2279], 2411; as. ~, 772, 2831.

hrycg, m. -ja., back, ridge; as., 471. [cf. Go. hrugga, Lat. crux]

hryre, m. -i., fall, death; ds., 1680, 2052, 3005; as., [3179]. [hréosan] --Cpds.: léod-, wíg-.

hryssan (hrissan), w1., shake, rattle (intr.); pret. 3 pl. hrysedon, 226 (cp. 327). (elsewhere trans.) [Go. af-, us-hrisjan]

hú, adv., conj., how; in direct question: 1987; --in dependent clauses (indir. interr. or explic.), w/ ind., sometimes opt.; 3, 116, 279, 737, 844, 979, 1725, 2093, 2318, 2519, 2718, 2884, 2948, 3026, [F. 47].

Húgas, m.p., a name applied to the Franks; gp. -a, 2502; ap. -as, 2914.

hund, m., dog, hound; dp. -um, 1368. [Go. hunds, ON. hundr, OFris. OS. hund, OHG. hunt, Ger. Hund, OIr. cú, Gr. κυων, Arm. çun, Toch. ku, Skt. çvá]

hund, num., n., hundred; a., w/ partit.gen. (misséra:) 1498, 1769; hund (þúsenda), 2994, (þréo) hund (wintra), 2278. [Go. hunda, ON. OFris. OS. hund, OHG. hunt; L. centum, Gr. 'ε-κατον, W. cant, OIr. cét, Skt. çatam, Toch. känt]

Hun-ferð, see Un-ferð.

Hún-láfing, m., Hengest's sword? or perh. a warrior in Hengest's band (son of Húnláf)?; 1143. [*hún- 'high'; láf 'remnant', 'heirloom' (-ing: patronymic)]

húru, adv., indeed, at any rate, verily, however; 182, 369, 669, 862, 1071, 1465, 1944, 2836, 3120.

hús, n., house; gs. húses, 116, 1666; gp. húsa (sélest): 146, 285, 658, 935. [Go. ON. OFris. OS. OHG. hús] --Cpds.: bán-, eorð-, nicor-.

húð, f. spoils, booty, plunder; ds.(gs.?) -e, 124. [Go. hunþs 'captivity']

hwá, m.f., hwæt, n., pron., (1) interr., who, what; hwá, 52, 2252, 3126, [F. 23]; hwæt, 173, 233 (who), w/ gp. (what sort of): 237; dsm. hwám, 1696; asn. hwæt, 1476, 3068, w/ partit. gen.: 474, 1186; isn. (tó) hwan, 2071. (2) indef., some one, any one, something, anything; asm. hwone, 155; nsn. hwæt, 3010; asn. ~, 880. [Go. hwa, hwas, OFris. hwá, hwet, OHG. hwaz, Ger. wer, was, W. pa, Skt. kad, kas] hwæt, interj., see hwæt. --Cpds.: aég-, ge-.

ge-hwá, pron., prec. by partit. gen., each (one); gsm. gehwæs, 2527, 2828 (ref. to fem.); dsm. gehwaém, 1364 (ref. to fem.), 1420; gehwám, 882, 2033; dsn. gehwám, 88; dsf. gehwaére, 25; asm. gehwone, 294, 800 (ref. to fem.), 2765; gehwane, 2397, 2685.

hwan, see hwá.

hwanan, -on, adv., whence; hwanan, 257, 2403, hwanon, 333.

hwár, see hwaér.

hwata, -e, -um, see hwæt.

hwæder, see hwyder.

hwaér, adv., conj., where, anywhere; [762], 2029; hwár, 3062; elles hwaér, elsewhere; 138. [Go. hwar, ON. hvar, OS. hwar, OHG. hwara, OHG. wár, Ger. wo; Alb. kur 'when', Skt. karhi 'when'] --Cpds.: aég-, ge-, ó-.

ge-hwaér, adv., everywhere, on every occasion; 526.

hwæt, adj., brisk, vigorous, valiant; nsm.wk. hwata, 3028; dsm. hwatum, 2161; npm. hwate (Scyldingas): 1601, 2052; apm. hwate, 3005; ~ (helmberend): 2517, 2642. [see hwettan] --Cpds.: fyrd-, gold-.

hwæt, pron., see hwá.

hwæt, interj. (=interr. pron.), what, lo, behold, well; foll. by pers. or dem. pron.; at the beginning of a speech ( 'listen'): 530, 1652; within a speech: 942, 1774, 2248; at the beginning of the poem (as of many other OE. poems): 1. (stressed in 1652, 1774). [Go. gahwatjan]

hwæðer, pron., (whether), which of two; 2530; asf. (swá) hwæþere...(swá), whichsoever, 686. [Go. hwaþar] --Cpds.: aég-, ge-; nóðer.

ge-hwæþer, pron., eitehr, each (of two), both; 584, 814, 2171; nsn., 1248; gsn. gehwæþres, 1043; dsm. gehwæðrum, 2994. [either fr. aég-hwæþer]

hwæþer, conj., whether; 1331, 1356, 2785; [F. 48], hwæþre, 1314.

hwæþre, hwæþere, adv., however, yet; hwæþre, 555, 1270, 2098, 2229, 2298, 2377, 2874, hwæþere, 970, 1718; hwæðre (swá þéah), 2442, 2819; however that may be, anyhow; hwæþere, 574, hwæþre, 890, hwaþere, 578. hwealf, (f.) n., vault, arch; as. (heofones) hwealf: 576, 2015. [cp. Go. hwilftrjós 'tomb', Ger. wölben]

hwearf-líc(**), adj., active(?), trusty(?); gpm. -ra, [F. [34]].

ge-hwelc, see ge-hwylc.

hwéne, adv., a little, somewhat; 2699. [Siev. §237 n.2; cp. lýthwón]

hweorfan, III, turn, go, move about; 2888; hworfan, 1728; pret. 3 sg. hwearf, 55, 355, 1188, 1573, 1714, 1980, 2238, [2268], 2832, [F. 17]; opt. 3 sg. hwurfe, 264. [Go. hwaírban, Ger. werben] --Cpds.: æt-, geond-, ond-, ymbe-.

ge-hweorfan, III, go, pass; pret. 3 sg. (on aéht) gehwearf, 1679, (similarly) ~: 1210, 1684, 2208.

hwergen(**), adv., somewhere; elles hwergen, elsewhere; 2590. [cp. Ger. irgend]

hwettan, w1., whet, urge, incite; pres. opt. 3 sg. hwette, 490; pret. 3 pl. hwetton, 204. [hwæt, adj.]

hwíl, f., while, time, space of time; 146; ds. -e, 2320; as. -e, 16, 1762, 2030, 2097, 2137, 2159, 2548, 2571, 2780; a long time: ns. hwíl, 1495; as. -e, 105, 152; --dp. hwílum, adv., sometimes, at times, now and again, whilom, formerly; 175, 496, 864, 916, 1728, 1828, 2016, 2020, 2107-2108-2109-2111, 2299, 3044. [Go. hweila, OFris. hwíle, OS. hwíl, OHG. hwíla ds., Ger. Weile] --Cpds.: dæg-, gescæp-, orleg-, sige-.

hwít, adj., white, shining; nsm.wk. -a, 1448. [Go. hweits, Ger. weiß]

hworfan, see hweorfan.

hwyder, adv., whither; 163.

hwylc, pron., (1) interr., which, what; 274; nsf., 2002; npm. -e, 1986. (2) indef., any (one) (w/ part. gen.); nsm., 1104; nsn., 2433; --swá hwylc...swá, whichever; nsf., 943; dsm. ~ hwylcum ~, 3057. [< hwá-líc; Go. hwileiks, hwéleiks, ON. hve-, hví-líkr, OFris. hwe-lík, hwelk, hulk, OS. hwe-, hwi-lic, OHG. hwe-líh; cf. L. quis, Gr. τ&ipsilon;ς, Skt. cid 'whatever'] --Cpds.: aég-, ge-, nát-, wél-.

ge-hwylc, pron., each, every (one), w/ partit. gen. (pl.); 985, 1164, 1673; gsm. gehwylces, 732 (ánra ~, see án), 1396; gsn. ~, 2094, 2189; dsm. gehwylcum, 412, 768, 784 (ánra ~), 996, 2859, 2891; dsf. gehwylcre, 805 dsn. gehwylcum, 98; asm. gehwelcne, 148; gehwylcne, 2250, 2516; asf. gehwylce, 1705; asn. gehwylc, 2608; ism. gehwylce, 2450; isn. ~, 936, 1090, 2057.

hwyrfan, w1., move about; pres. 3 pl. hwyrfaþ, 98. [hweorfan]

hwyrft, m. -i., turning, motion, going; dp. -um, 163. [hweorfan] --Cpd.: ed-.

hycgan, w3., think, purpose, resolve; [imp. pl. hic geaþ, F. 11]; pret. 1 sg. hogode, 632. [Go. hugjan, ON. hyggja, OS. huggean, OHG. huggen] --Cpds.: for-, ofer-; bealo-, heard-, swíð-, þanc-, wís-hycgende.

ge-hycgan, w3., resolve; pret. 2 sg. gehogodest, 1988.

hýdan, w1., hide; 446; pres. opt. 3 sg. hýde, 2766 [< Gmc. *húd-jan; see etym. notes under OE. hord (above)].

ge-hygd, fn. -i., thought; as., 2045. [hycgan, Go. gahugds] --Cpds.: bréost-, mód-; (ofer-, won-hygd).

Hygd, f. -i., wife of Hygelác; 1926, 2369; ds. -e, 2172. [ge-hygd 'thought', 'deliberation']

hyge, see hige.

hyge-bend**, f. -jó. (m. -i.), mind's bond, heart-string; dp. -um, 1878.

hyge-giómor*, adj., sad in mind, sad at heart; 2408.

Hyge-lác, Hige-lác, (Hýlác(es) 1530 pointing to the form Hyglác?; the form Hyge- occurs only between ll.2001 & 2434, besides 813, 2943), m., king of the Geats, son of Hréþel; 435, 1202, 1983, 2201, 2372, 2434, 2914; gs. -es, 261, 342, 2386, 2943, 2952, [2958]; ~ þegn, 194, 1574, 2977; maég ~, 737, 758, 813, 914, 1530, (similarly) 407; ds. -e, 452, 1483, 1830, 1970, 2169, 2988; as. -, 1820, 1923, 2355; vs., 2000 (dryhten H.), 2151. [hyge 'mind'; lác 'play'; cf. ON. Hugleikr]

hyge-méðe**, adj. -ja., wearying the mind; nsn., 2442. [Ger. müde] (cp. saé-méþe)

hyge-sorh*, f., heart-sorrow; gp. -sorga, 2328.

hyht, m. -i., hope, solace; 179.

ge-hyld, n.-i. (-c.) (Siev. §§267a, 288 n.1), protection; (manna) ~, 3056. [healdan]

hyldan, w1., incline, bow down; refl.: pret. 3 sg. hylde (hine), 688. [heel 'tilt'; OE. heald, 'sloping', 'inclined']

hyldo, wk.f., favour, grace, loyalty, friendship; 2293; gs., 670, 2998; as., 2067. [hold]

hylt, see hilt.

hýnan, w1., humble, ill-treat, injure; pret. 3 sg. hýnde, 2319. [héan; Ger. höhnen; honi soit etc.]

hýnðu, f., humiliation, harm, injury; as. hýnðu, 277; hýðo(?), 3155; gp. hýnða, 166; hýnðo, 475, 593. [see hýnan]

hýran, w1., (1) hear; w/ acc., hear of: pret. 1 sg. hýrde, 1197; --w/ inf.: pret. 1 sg. hýrde, 38; (secgan) hýrde, 582; 3 sg. (~) hýrde, 875; 1 pl. (~) hýrdon, 273; --w/ acc. & inf.: pret. 1 sg. hýrde, 1346, 1842, 2023; --w/ þæt-clause: pret. 1 sg., hýrde ic þæt (formula of transition, 'futher'), 62, 2163, 2172. (2) w/ dat., listen to, obey; inf., 10, 2754; pret. 3 pl. hýrdon, 66. [Go. hausjan]

ge-hýran, w1., hear, learn; w/ acc.: imp. pl. gehýrað, 255; pret. 3 sg. gehýrde, 88, 609; --w/ (acc. and) acc. & inf.: pret. 3 pl. gehýrdon, 785; --w/ (obj. þæt and) þæt-clause: pres. 1 sg. gehýre, 290.

hyrde, m. -ja., ((shep)herd), guardian, keeper; 1742, 2245, 2304, 2505; (folces) hyrde: 610, 1832, 2644, 2981, [F. 46]; (wuldres) hyrde (=God), 931; (fyrena) hyrde (=Grendel), 750; as. hyrde, 887, 3133, (folces) ~, 1849, (ríces) ~: 2027, 3080; ap. hyrdas, 1666. --Cpd.: grund-.

hyrst(*), f. -i., ornament, accoutrement; armour; dp. -um, 2762; ap. -e, 2988; -a, 3164, [F. 20]. [OHG. (h)rust]

hyrstan(*), w1., adorn, decorate; pp. asn. hyrsted, 672. [Ger. rüsten; see hyrst]

hyrsted-gold*, n., fairly-wrought gold; ds. -e, [2255].

hyrtan(**)+, w1., encourage; refl.: take heart; pret. 3 sg. hyrte (hine), 2593. [heorte]

hyse*, m. -i. (-ja.) (Siev. §263 n.3), youth, young man; vs., 1217; [gp. hyssa, F. 48].

hyt(t) (hit(t))**, f. -jó., heat; 2649. [Ger. Hitze]

hýð, f., harbour; ds. -e, 32. [hythe (obs.); cp. Rotherhithe, etc.]

hýð-weard**, m., harbour-guardian; 1914.