HOME
Beowulf on Steorarume

N

n, see n.

naca*, wk.m., boat, ship; 1896; gs. nacan, 214; ds. nacan, 1903. [Ger. Nachen] --Cpd.: hring-.

nacod, adj., naked, bare; 2273 (-draca, smooth(?!)); nsn. (ref. to sword), 2585; apn. (~), 539. [Go. naqas, ON. nøkkveðr, OFris. nakad, MLG. naket, OHG. nachot, nachut, Ger. nackt; cf. L. núdus (< *nogvedos), OIr. nocht]

nh, see gan.

nalas, nals, nales, nallas, nalles, see nealles.

nam, nman, see niman.

nama, wk.n., name; 343, 1457, [F. 24]; as. naman, 78. [Go. nam, ON. nafn, OFris. nama, OS. OHG. namo, Ger. Name; cf. L. nómen, Gr. ονομα, Skt. náman-]

nn, pron., adj., no; nsn., 988; subst., w/ partit. gen., none; [F. 41]; nsn., 803. [ne, n]

nt, see witan.

nt-hwylc(*), pron., some (one), a certain (one), ('I know not which (one)'); ad.: dsm. -um, 1513; --subst., w/ partit. gen.: nsm., 2215, 2233; gsm. -es, 2053, 2223. [=ne wt; cp. ON. nokkurr; Lat. 'nescio quis']

nbben, see habban.

Ngling, m., Bowulf's sword; 2680. [ngl 'nail'; cp. sword-names Nagelrinc, -ring, Nagelung in 'drekssaga' & MHG. epics]

nfne, see nefne.

nafre, adv., never; 247, 583, 591, 655, 718, 1041, 1048, nfre, 250; w/ ne added before verb, 1460, [F. 37, similarly, nfre, F. 39].

ge-nagan*, w1., (approach), assail, attack; pret. 3 pl. genagdan 2206; pp. genaged, 1439.

ngl, m., nail; gp. -a, 985. [ON. nagl, OFris. neil, OS. OHG. nagal, Ger. Nagel; cf. OSlav. noguti, Lith. nãgas, Gr. 'ονυξ, Lat. unguis, OIr. ingen 'nail'; OSlav. noga, Skt. anghri- 'foot'; Lith. nagà, Lat. ungula 'hoof']

ngl(i)an, w1. (2.), nail; pp. asn. ngled, 2023. [Go. ga-nagljan, ON. negla, OS. neglian, OHG. neglien, Ger. nageln]

nanig, pron., no, no-one, none; ad.: nsn., 1514; asm. nanigne, 1197; gpm. nanigre, 949; --subst. (w/ gen.): nanig, 157, 242, 691, 859, 1933; dsm. nanegum, 598. [ne, anig]

nare, naron, ns (=ne ws), see eom.

ns(**)+, adv., by no means; 562, 2262. [=nealles]

ns(s), m., headland, bluff, ness; ds. nsse, 2243, 2417; as. ns, 1439, 1600, 2898; gp. nssa, 1360; ap. nssas, 1358, 1411, 1911. [cp. ON. nes] --Cpds.: sa-; Earna-, Hrones-.

ns-hli**, n., (slope of) headland (but see Gelling 8-9); dp. -hleoum, 1427.

ne, adv., not; immediately prec. the verb, 138 times, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, 119, 154, 162, 180, etc.; [F. 3a, 3b, 4b, 20, 37, 41]. n, conj., nor, after (or within) negat. clause, 157, 169, 577, 584, 793, 1084, 1101, 1454, 1736a, 1736b, 1737, 1930, 2126, 2185, 2263, 2264, 2348, 2533, 2628b, 2738b, 2957, 3016, [F. 39]; w/ ne added before verb: 182, 245, 862, 1515, 2922, [F. 3a, 3b, 4a]; disjunct. phrases, n lof n l 511, n...n...n 1393a, 1393b, 1394a; w/ frist neg. omitted: ar n sian 718, s n nor 858, wordum n worcum 1100, wyrda n worda 3030, similarly, 1454a, 1736a; --after positive clause: 510, 739, 1071, 2217, 2297. [Go. ni]

nah, near, nigh;
   I. adv.; 1221, 2870.
   II. prep. (usually following the noun), w/ dat., near, on, by, close to; 564, 1924, [2215], 2242, 2290, 2547, 2831, 2853; nh, 2411.
  III. (predic.) adj.; 1743, 2420, 2728. [Go. nhw]
--Comp.adv.nar, nearer; 745. --Supl. adj. nehsta, nhsta, last; dsm. nehstan (se), 2511; nhstan (~), 1203. [Go. néhw(a), ON. ná-, OFris. néi, ní, OS. OHG. náh; cf. MnE. next]

ge-neahhe, adv., sufficiently, abundantly, frequently; 783 (very), 3152 (perh. earnestly); supl. genehost, 794. [Go. ganauha]

nealles, adv., not at all; 2145, 2167, 2179, 2221, 2363, 2596, 2873, 3089; nalles, 338, 1018, 1076, 1442, 2503, 2832, 2919, 3015, 3019, 3023; nales, 1811; nallas, 1719, 1749; nalas, 1493, 1529, 1537; nals, 43. [ne, ealles] cp. ns.

nan, adv., from near, near; nn, 528, 839; nan, 1174, 2318; non, 3104.

nar, see nah.

nearo, adj. -wa., narrow; ap.(s.?)f. nearwe, 1409.

nearo, n. -wa., straits, difficulty, distress; dp. -um, 2245.

nearo-crft**, m., art of rendering access difficult, (lit., 'narrow-craft'); dp. -um, 2245.

nearo-fh**, adj., cruelly hostile; gsm. -fges, 2317.

nearo-earf*, f., severe distress; as. -e, 422.

nearwe, adv., narrowly, closely; 976.

nearwian, w2., press (hard); pp. genearwod, 1438.

nefa, wk.m., nephew; 2170, 1203; ds. nefan, 881; as. ~, 2206; grandson(?): ns. nefa, 1962. [MnE. nephew fr. OFr., fr. Lat. (acc.) nepotem]

nefne, nemne,
   I. conj.; (1) w/ subj.: unless, if--not; nefne 1056, 3054, nemne 1552 (ind.?), 2654. (2) w/ ind.: except that; nfne, 1353. (3) without verb (after negat.): except; nefne, 1934, 2151, 2533.
  II. prep., w/ dat.: except; nemne, 1081. [Go. niba(i), OS. neba, -o, -u, OHG. nibu, -a, nuba] --see nyme; bton.

nh, see nah.

ge-nehost, see ge-neahhe.

nelle, see willan.

nemnan, w1., name, call; 2023; pres. 3 pl. nemna, 364; pret. 3 pl. nemdon, 1354. [nama; Go. namnjan, ON. nefna, OFris. nemna, nenna, OS. nemnian, OHG. nemnen, nemmen, nennen, Ger. nennen] --Cpd.: be-.

nemne, see nefne.

nod-lau**, f., desire; dp. -lau, 1320. see nod.

non, see nan.

nosan, nosian, w1.2., w/ gen., seek out, inspect, go to, visit, attack; nosan 125, 1786, 1791, 1806, 2074, nosan 2366, 2388; nosian 115, 1125, nosian [2671], 3045; pres. 3 sg. nosa, 2486. [Go. -niuhsjan]

notan*, II, w/ gen., make use of, enjoy; imp. sg. not, 1217. [Go. niutan, ON. njóta, OFris. niáta, OS. niotan, OHG. niozan, Ger. geniessen] --Cpd.: be-.

neowol, adj., precipitous, steep; apm. neowle, 1411.

nerian, w1., save, protect; pres. 3 sg. nere, 572; pp. genered, 827. [(ge-)nesan; Go. nasjan]

ge-nesan, V, be saved, survive, get safely through; abs.: pret. 3 sg. gens, 999; w/ acc.: pret. 1 sg. ~, 2426; 3 sg. ~, 1977; [3 pl. genason 'bore', F. 47]; pp. genesen, 2397. [Go. ga-nisan, OS. OHG. nesan, Ger. genesen]

nan, w1., venture (on); pret. 2 pl. (on...wter aldrum) ndon, 510; opt. 1 pl. (si.) ndon, 538; --w/ acc., brave, dare; pres. ptc. nende, 2350. [Go. ana-nanjan]

ge-nan, w1., venture (on); (under a gewin aldre) genan, 1469; pret. opt. 1 sg. (si.) gende, 2133;--w/ acc., engage in, brave, dare; inf., 1933; pret. 1 sg. gende, 1656, 2511; 3 sg. (under...stn) ~, 888; 1 pl. gendon, 959. cp. ge-dgan.

nicor(**)+, m., water-monster, ("nicker" (arch.)); gp. nicera, 845; ap. niceras, 422, 575, nicras 1427. [OHG. nihhus, Ger. Nix(e) < Gmc. *nikwiz, *nikuz < IE. *neigw- 'to wash' (Watkins 57:neigw-/Pokorny neigu-)]

nicor-hs**, n., abode of water-monsters; gp. -a, 1411.

nd-gripe** (=nd-), m. -i., forceful/coercive grip; ds., [976].

ni-gripe**, m., hostile, evil grip; ds. [ni]gripe 976 (MS mid gripe; usu. em. [n]idgripe for nydgripe).

nehsta, see nah.

nigon, num., nine; a. nigene, 575. [Go. niun, ON. níu, OFris. OS. nigun, OHG. niun, Ger neun, L. novem, Gr. εννεα, OIr. nóin, W. naw, Toch. ñu, Skt. nava]

niht, f. -c., night; 115, 547, 649, 1320, 2116; gs. nihtes, adv., by night; 422, 2269, 2273, 3044; ds. niht, 575, 683, 702, 1334 (gystran niht); as. ~, 135, 736, 2938; gp. (ff) nihta ('days'), 545, nihta 1365; dp. nihtum, 167, 275, 2211; ap. (seofon) niht, 517. [Go. nahts, ON. nótt, OFris. nacht, OS. OHG. naht, Ger. Nacht, Gr. νυχ, Lat. nox, OSlav. nos`ti, Lith. naktìs, Skt. nakt(i)-; cf. OIr. in-nocht 'tonight', Toch. noktim 'towards evening'] --Cpds.: middel-, sin-.

niht-bealu**, n. -wa., night-evil; gp. -bealwa, 193.

niht-helm*, m., cover of night; 1789.

niht-long, adj., lasting a night; asm. -ne, 528. see and-long.

niht-weorc**, n., night-work; ds. -e, 827.

niman, IV, take, seize; 1808, 3132; pres. 3 sg. nyme, 598; pret. 3 sg. nm 1612, nam 746, 2986; 1 pl. nman, 2116; pp. numen, 1153; --carry off (w/ subject: da, hild, etc.); pres. 3 sg. nime 441, 447, 1491, 2536, nyme 1846; opt. 3 sg. nime, 452, 1481. [Go. niman, ON. nema, OFris. nema, nima, OS. neman, niman, OHG. neman, Ger. nehmen; cp. MnE. nim, numb, nimble]

ge-niman, IV, take, seize, take away; pret. 3 sg. genm, 2776, genam 122, 1302, 1872, 2429; pp. genumen, 3165.

nod(*), f., desire, pleasuer; as. -e, 2116. [Go. *niuþs (in pr. name Niudis), OS. niud, OHG. niot]

nos(i)an, see nosan.

nioor, see nier.

nowe, see nwe.

ge-nip, n., darkness, mist; ap. -u, 1360, 2808. [npan, Go. ganipnan]

npan(*), I, grow dark; pres. ptc. npende (niht): 547, 649.

nis, see eom.

n, m., (ill-will, envy), violence; ds. ne, 2680; hostility, persecution, trouble, affliction; ns. 2317; ds. ne, 827; as. n, 184, 276, 423, [F. 9];--*battle, contest; ds. ne, 2585; gp. na, 882, 1962, 2170, 2350, 2397, [F. 21], w/ verb (instrum. sense): 845, 1439 (by force?), 2206. [Go. nei, Ger. Neid; ON. níð 'pain', OFris. níth 'malice, strife', OS. níð, OHG. níd 'hate, malice', OIr. níth 'struggle, battle'] --Cpds.: bealo-, far-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, wl-.

n-draca**, wk.m., hostile/malicious dragon; 2273.

nier, adv., down(ward); 1360; ner, 3044. nioor, adv. comp. (based on stem ni-), lower down, 2699. [cp. nether]

n-gst*, m. -i., malicious (stranger or) for; as., 2699. (or -gast?)

n-geweorc(**), n., hostile deed, fight; gp. -a, 683.

n-grim(m)*, adj., grim, cruel; nsf. -grim, 193.

n-heard(*), adj., violence-hard(ened), brave in battle(?); 2417.

n-hdig**, adj., hostile; npm. -hdige, 3165. [=-hdig; hycgan]

n-sele**, m. -ja.p., hostile/battle hall; ds., 1513.

nias*, m. -ja.p., men; gp. nia, 1005, nia(?) 2215. [Go. nijis 'kinsman']

n-wundor**, n., fearful wonder, portent; as., 1365.

nwe, adj. -ja., new; 2243, 783 (unheard of, startling); asf. ~, 949; gpn. nwra, 2898; --dsm.wk. nwan (stefne) (afresh, anew), 2594, nowan (~), 1789. [Go. niujis, ON. nýr, OFris. níe, OS. niuwi, nígi, OHG. niuwi, Ger. neu, Lith. naũjas, Gr. νε&ipsilon;ος, Skt. navya-]

(ge-)nwian, w2., renew; pp. genwod, 1303, 1322, genwad, 2287.

nw-tyrwed**, adj. (pp.), new-tarred; asm. -tyrwydne, 295.

n, emphatic neg. adv., not at all, not, never; 136, 168, 244, 366, 450, 541: 543 (correl.), 575, 581, 586, 677, 754, 841, 968, 972, 974, 1002, 1025, 1355, 1366, 1392, 1453, 1502, 1508, 1735, 1892, 1907, 2081, 2160, 2307, 2314, 2347, 2354, 2373, 2423, 2466, 2585, 2618; n, 445, 567, 1536. --(n ar, see ar; n leng: 974, similarly, 2423; syan n (n): 567, 1453. with ne added before verb: 450, 567, 1453, 1508, 2466) [no; Go. ni aiw]

ge-ng, adj., enough, abundant, many; apm. -e, 3104; ap.(s.?)f. -e, 2489. [Go. ganhs]

nolde, see willan.

nm, see niman.

nn(**)+, n.(?), ninth hour (=3pm); 1600. [noon; fr. Lat. nona]

nor, adv., north(wards); 858. [Go. *naúrþs (in pr. name Narthildis), ON. norð(r), OS. norð, OFris. OHG. north, Ger. nördlich]

Nor-Dene, see Dene.

noran-wind(**)+, m., north wind; 547.

nose, wk.f., *projection, promontory, cape; ds. nosan, 1892, 2803. [cp. nosu]

ner, conj., nor, and not; 2124. [n-hwer]

n,
  I. adv. (conj.), now; 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 489, 602, 658, 939, 946, 1174, 1338, 1343, 1376, 1474, 1761, 1782, 1818, 2053, 2247a, 2508, 2646, 2666, 2729, 2743, 2747, 2900, 2910, 3013, 3101, 3114, [F. 7, 8, 10]; n gn, 2859, 3167; n gt, 956, 1058 (gt), 1134; n (stressed n), 426, 657.
  II. conj., now, now that, since; 430, 2799, 3020, [F. 21]; correl. w/ (preced.) adv. n: 1475, 2247b, 2745. [ON. OFris. OS. OHG. nú, Ger. nun, Lith. nù, Gr. νυ, νυν, OIr. nu-, Skt., Toch. nu]

nd, f. -i., necessity, compulsion, distress; ds. nde, 1005; as. nd, 2454. [nd>need; Go. naus, Ger. Not] --Cpds.: hft-, ra-.

(ge-)ndan, w1., compel, force; pp. nsn. gended, 2680, asf. gendde, 1005.

nd-bd(**)+, f., enforced contribution, toll; as. -e, 598.

nd-gestealla**, wk.m., comrade in need, i.e. in battle; np. -gesteallan, 882. [OHG. nt(igi)stallo, MHG. ntgestalle]

nd-wracu*, f., violent persecution, dire distress; 193.

nhsta, see nah.

nyman, see niman.

nyllan, see willan.

nyme, conj., unless, if--not; 781 (w/ subj.), 1658 (w. ind.?, but?). cp. nefne.

nyt(t), f. -j., use, office, duty, service; as. nytte, 494, 3118 (~ hold 'did its duty'). [cp. OHG. nuzz; see nyt(t), adj.] --Cpds.: sund-, sundor-.

nyt(t), adj. -ja., useful, beneficial; apm. nytte, 794. [notan; Go. (un-)nuts, OHG. nuzzi] --Cpd.: un-.

ge-nyttian(**), w2., w/ acc., use, enjoy; pp. genyttod, 3046.

nyer, see nier.