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Beowulf on Steorarume

O

of, prep., from (motion, direction); 37, 56, 229, 265, 419, 672, 710, 726, 785, 854, 921, 1108, 1162, 1571, 1629, 1892, 2471, 2624, 2743, 2769, 2809, 2819, 2882, 3121, 2176; postposit. (stressed), 671 (off); t of, 663, 2557; t...of, 2083, 2546; of...t, 2515, 2550; of flnbogan '(with an arrow shot) from a bow', 1433, similarly, 1744, 2437. [of, off; Go. af, Ger. ob]

of-, prefix, see following words in of-. (1) intensifying force, e.g. of-georn; (2) unfavourable force, e.g. of-yncan; (3) sense of attainment (to verbs of motion), e.g. of-faran; (4) force of killing to verbs of striking, throwing, following, etc., e.g. of-scetan; force of injury to verbs of denoting rest or action, e.g. of-licgan, of-tredan.

fer, m., bank, shore; ds. fre, 1371. [Ger. Ufer; cp. (Winds)or, etc.]

ofer, prep., (1) w/ dat., (rest:) over, above; 304, 1244, 1286, 1289, 1363, 1790, 1899, 1907, 2768, 2907, 2908, 3025, 3145. (2) w/ acc., (motion, extension:) over, across; 10, 46, 48, 200, 217, 231, 239, 240, 248, 297, 311, 362, 393, 464, 471, 481, 515, 605, 649, 802, 859, 899, 983, 1208, 1404, 1405, 1415, 1705, 1826, 1861, 1862, 1909, 1910, 1950, 1989, 2007, 2073, 2259, 2380, 2394, 2473, 2477, 2724, 2808, 2893, 2899, 2980, 3118, 3132, [F. 22]; --beyond; 2879, 1717 (more than); contrary to, against: 2330, 2409; after (time): 736, 1781; without, 685. [Go. ufar, Ger. ber]

ofer-cuman, IV, overcome; pret. 3 sg. -cwm, 1273; 3 pl. -cmon, 699; pp. -cumen, 845.

ofer-ode, see ofer-gn.

ofer-flon(**), II, flee from (acc.); 2525 (-fln).

ofer-fltan(**)+, I, over come (in a contest); pret. 3 sg. -flt, 517.

ofer-gn, anv., pass over, traverse, overrun; pret. 3 sg. oferode, 1408; 3 pl. -odon, 2959.

ofer-helmian**, w2., overhang, overshadow; pres. 3 sg. -helma, 1364.

ofer-hgian**, w2., overtake, overpower; 2766. [hie, overhye, dial.]

ofer-hycgan, w3., despire, scorn; pret. 3 sg. -hogode, 2345.

ofer-hygd, -hd, f.n. -i., pride, arrogance; gp. -hygda, 1740; -hda, 1760.

ofer-mgen*, n., superior force; ds. -e, 2917.

ofer-m()um**, m., fabuluous treasure; dp. -mmum, 2993.

ofer-scan**, w1., overtax, put to too severe a trial; pret. 3 sg. -shte, 2686.

ofer-son, V, (oversee), look on; pret. 3 pl. -swon, 419.

ofer-sittan(**)+, V, w/ acc., abstain from, forego (the use of), 'sit out'; 684; pres. 1 sg. -sitte, 2528.

ofer-swimman**, III, swim over, cross over (water); pret. 3 sg. -swam, 2367.

ofer-swan, w1., overpower, overcome; pres. 3 sg. -swe, 279, 1768. [sw]

ofer-weorpan, III, fall (over), stumble (elsewhere trans.); pret. 3 sg. -wearp, 1543.

Offa, wk.m., king of the (continental) Angles; 1957; gs. Offan, 1949. [Saxo: Uffo]

of-ferian**, w1., carry off; pret. 3 sg. -ferede, 1583.

of-gyfan, V, give up, leave; 2588; pret. 3 sg. -geaf, 1681, 1904, 2251, 2469; 3 pl. -gafon, 1600, -gfan, 2846.

of-latan, redup., leave, relinquish; pres. 2 sg. -latest, 1183; pret. 3 sg. -lt, 1622.

ofost, f., haste, speed; 256, 3007; ds. (on) ofoste, 3090; (bo on) ofeste, 386, (similarly:) ofste 1292, ofoste 2747, 2783.

ofost-lce, adv., speedily, in haste; [3130].

of-scotan, II, shoot (dead); pret. 3 sg. -sct, 2439.

of-sittan(**)+, V, w/ acc., sit upon; pret. 3 sg. -st, 1545.

of-slan, VI, slay, kill (off); pret. 1 sg. -slh, 574, 1665; 3 sg. ~, 1689, 3060.

oft, adv., oft(en); 4, 165, 171, 444, 480, 572, 857, 907, 951, 1065, 1238, 1247, 1252, 1428, 1526, 1885, 1887, 2018, 2029, 2296, 2478, 2500, 2867, 2937, 3019, 3077, 3116. (implying as a rule, regularly: 572, 1247, 2029, etc.) --comp. oftor, 1579. supl. oftost, 1663. [Go. ufta]

of-ton, I (II), (1) deny, deprive (w/ dat. of person & gen. of thing): pret. 3 sg. oftah, 5. (2) deny, withhold (w/ acc. of thing): pret. 3 sg. oftah, 1520, 2489. [confusion, as to form, meaning and construction between *ofthan and *oftohan - see Sievers 383]

of-yncan, w1., w/ dat. of person & gen. of thing, displease; 2032.

ht-(h)ere, m. -ja., son of the Swedish king Ongenow; gs. hteres, 2380, 2394; htheres, 2928, 2932; ds. htere, 2612. [ht 'pursuit' (or 'terror'?); here 'army'; ON. ttarr]

-hwar, adv., anywhere; 1737; wer, 2870. [see ag-hwar; n]

ombeht, m., servant, officer; 287; ombiht, 336. [cp. Go. andbahts; Ger. Amt. - probably fr. Celt.]

ombiht-egn*, m., servant, attendant; ds. -e, 673.

mig(**)+, adj., rusty; 2763; np. mige, 3049.

on (an: 677, 1247, 1935),
  I. prep., on, in, used 374 times; 1. w/ dat. (place, time, circumstance, manner, condition), on, in, at, among; 21, 22, 40, 53, etc.; [F. 12, 17, 28, 29]; (postpos., stressed, 2357). note: on him byrne scn, 405, similarly, on (stressed) him, 2036; cp. 752; gehrde on Bowulfe...geht, 609 (from), similarly, 1830; --on searwum, 1557, 2568, similarly, 2866 (in, postpos., stressed), cp. 2523 (on, postpos., stressed); --on rste genam rtig egna, 122, similarly: 747, 2986, 3164 (may be rendered by from);--among, in (w/ collect. nouns): on corre 1153, on herge 1248, 2638, on gemonge 1643, on folce 1701, 2377, on sigeode 2204, cp. 2197, on fan 2497, 2919, on m rate 2406, on hape 2596; --on sefan 473, 1342, 1737; on mde 753, 1418, 1844, 2281, 2527; on ferhe 754, 948, 1718; on hrere 1878, 2328; --(time:) on fyrste, 76; on morgne, 2484, similarly, 565, 2939; on niht, 575, 683, 702; etc.; --on orlege, 1326; on earfe, 1456, 2849;--semi-adj. phrases; (a) predic.: (ws) on slum 607, similarly, 643, 1170; on wynne 2014; on hron mde 1307, 2581, [cp. F. 12]; on ofeste 386, 1292, 2747, 2783 (cp. 3090); on sunde ('in the sea' or 'swimming' - see. n.1618) 1618; on fylle wear ('fell'), 1544; on blde, 847; (b) attrib., appos.: (fond) on helle ('hellish fiend'), 101; (secg) on searwum, 249, 2530, 2700, cp. 1557, 2568 (see above), 368; on frtewum, 962; on elne, 2506, 2816; on yrre, 2092; on giohe, 2793, 3095; --in respect to, in the matter of; an herewsmun, 677; on fe, 970; on gylpsprace, 981; --on am golde ongitan (by), 1484. 2. w/ acc. (motion [actual or fig.], manner, time); on, to, on to, into, in; 27, 35, 49, 67, etc., [F. 11]. note: on (holm) wliton, 1592, 2852; similarly, (son:) 2717, 2863 (cp. 1650), (starian:) 996, 1485, 1603, 1780, (postpos., stressed, on: 2796, cp. an w/ dat., semi-adv.: 1935); --(direction), on...hond 686, on tw healfa 1095, similarly: 800, 1305, 1675, 2063; 1728; --on bal gearu ('ready to be placed on...'), 1109; an wg gearwe, 1247; (price, w/ bebycgan) for, 2799; --without perception of motion in MnE.; on wteres aht...swuncon, 516, similarly, 242, 507, 2132, on wl crunge, 635; god wt on mec, 2650 (see 1830); 627 (gelfan); on (geses) hd ('in the position of', 'as'), 1297, similarly, 2193; on [mn]ne sylfes dm ('at my own discretion'), 2147; (time:) on morgentd, 484, 518, similarly, 837, 1428, cp. 1579, 1753; semi-adverbial phrases: on gylp, 1749, on lust, 618; on spd, 873; on ryht, 1555; on unriht, 2739; on geflit, 865; on ende, 2021. --on weg, on lst, on efn, on innan, see weg, lst, efn, innan. [Go. ana, Ger. an] see in.
  II. adv.; 1650 (see on, prep (2)), 1903.

on-, prefix, often meaningless (1), and rarely with the meaning of prep. on (2): 1. Go. and- (see and-) [OHG. int-, Ger. ent-]; (2) Go. ana-.

on-arn, see on-irnan.

on-beran, IV, harm, weaken, diminish; 990; pp. nsn. onboren, 2284.

on-bdan, I, wait; pret. 3 sg. onbd, 2302; (w/ gen.:) abide, await; inf., 397.

on-bregdan, III, swing open (trans.); pret. 3 sg. onband, 501.

oncer-, see ancor-.

on-cirran, w1., turn, change (trans.); 2857; turn (intr.), go; pret. 3 sg. oncirde, 2951, 2970.

on-cnwan, redup., know, recognise, perceive; pret. 3 sg. oncnow, 2554.

on-cwean, V, answer; pres. 3 sg. oncwy, [F. 7].

on-c()(**), f., grief, distress; onc, 1420; as. once, 830.

ond, conj., and; 311 times; spelt ond, 601, 1148, 2040; otherwise abbreviated: 7; [and: F. 15, 16a, 16b, 17, 35; 45 (and ac)].

ond-hweorfan**, III, turn (intr.) against; pret. 3 sg. ondhwearf, 548.

ond-lan, see and-lan.

ond-long, see and-long.

on-dradan, redup., dread, fear; 1674; pret. 3 sg. ondrd, 2347; opt. 3 sg. ondrde, [3153]. [ond-radan; Go. und-rdan]

on-drysne, adj. -ja., terrible, awful; asf., 1932.

Onela, wk.m., king of the Swedes, son of Ongenow; 2616; gs. Onelan, [62], 2932. [ON. li]

nettan, w1., hasten; pret. 3 pl. netton, 306, 1803. [*on-htjan]

on-findan, III, find, find out, discover, perceive; pret. 3 sg. onfand, 1522, 1890, [2219], 2288, 2300, 2629, 2713; onfunde, 750, 809, 1497; opt.(?) 3 sg. ~, 2841; pp. onfunden, 595, 1293.

on-fn, redup., w/ dat., receive, take; 911; imp. sg. onfh, 1169; pret. 3 sg. onfng, 52, 688, 748, 852, 1214, 1494.

on-geador**, adv., together; 1595.

on-gan,
  I. adv., opposite (towards somebody); 747.
  II. prep., w/ dat., against, towards; 1034; post-posit.: 681, 2364. [on-gegn; Ger. entgegen]

Ongen-ow, m. -wa., king of the Swedes; 2486, -o, 2924, 2951, -ow 2961; gs. -es, 1968, Ongenoes, 2387; -eowes, 2475; ds. -o, 2986. [ow 'servant'; cf. ON. Angantr]

on-geomor**, adj., very sad, mournful; 1970.

on-ginnan, III, begin, undetake; w/ acc.: pp. ongunnen, 409; w/ inf. (sometimes pleonastic); pres. 3 sg. onginne, 2044; pret. 1 sg. ongan, 2878; 3 sg. ~, 100, 871, 1605, 1983, 2111, 2210, 2312; ongon, 2701, 2711, 2790; 3 pl. ongunnon, 244, 3143. [Go. duginnan]

on-gitan, -gytan, V, perceive, see, hear, understand; ongitan, 1484, 1911, 2770; ongytan, 1496; ongyton, 308; pres. opt. 1 sg. ongite, 2748; imp. sg. ongit, 1723; pret. 3 sg. ongeat, 14, 1512, 1518; 3 pl. ongaton, 1431, 2944; **seize, get hold of; pret. 3 sg. angeat, 1291. [Go. -gitan]

on-hrran, w1., stir up, arouse; pp. onhrred, 549, 2554. [hrr]

on-irnan(*), III, *give way, spring open; pret. 3 sg. onarn, 721. [Go. rinnan]

on-latan, redup., loosen, release; pres. 3 sg. onlate, 1609.

on-lon, I, w/ dat. of pers. & gen. of thing, lend; pret. 3 sg. onlh, 1467.

on-lcnes(s), -lcns f. -j., likeness; onlcns, 1351.

on-lcan, II, unlock, disclose; pret. 3 sg. onlac, 259.

on-mdla(*), wk.m., arrogance, presumption; ds. onmdlan, 2926. [md]

on-munan, pret-pres., w/ acc. of pers. & gen. of thing, consider worthy of, consider fit for; pret. 3 sg. onmunde, 2640.

on-sacan, VI, resist, contest, fight (dat., against); 2954. cp. 1083.

on-sace, see on-scan.

on-sage(**)+, adj. -ja., attacking, assailing, fatal(?); nsf., 2076, 2483. [sgan]

on-salan, w1., untie, loosen, disclose; imp. sg. onsal, 489. [sl]

on-scan, w1., w/ acc. or pers. & gen. of thing, exact (something from someone), deprive (somebody of someting); pres. opt. 3 sg. (fores) onsace, cf. 1942.

on-sendan, w1., send, send away; imp. sg. onsend, 382; 3 pl. (for) onsendon, 45; pp. (~) onsended, 2266.

on-sittan, V, dread; 598. [cp. Go. and-sitan; Ger. sich entsetzen]

on-sponnan*, redup., unfasten; pret. 3 sg. onspon, 2723. [span]

on-springan, III, spring asunder; pret. 3 pl. onsprungon, 817.

on-stellan, w1., institute, bring about; pret. 3 sg. onstealde, 2407.

on-swfan(*), I, swing, turn (trans.); pret. 3 sg. onswf, 2559.

on-sn, see an-sn.

on-tyhtan(**), w1., incite, impel; pret. 3 sg. ontyhte, 3086. [cp. ton, II]

on-on*, I, prosper, thrive; pret. 3 sg. onh, 900.

on-wacian, w2., to watch over; pret. 3s. [o]nwa[ca]de, [2226] (MS crux *mwatide, usu. em. [i]nw[l]at[o]de and [o]n[fun]de).

on-wacnian, w2., awake (intr.); imp. pl. onwacnigea, [F. 10].

on-wadan(*), VI, enter, take possession of; pret. 3 sg. (hine fyren) onwd, 915.

on-wcnan, pret. onwc, VI, w1., awake(n) (intr.); pret. 3 sg. onwc, 2287; --arise, be born; pret. 3 sg. ~, 56; 3 pl. onwcon, 111. (cp. swebban)

on-weald, m., power, possession; as., 1044.

on-windan(*), III, unwind, loosen; pres. 3 sg. onwinde, 1610.

on-wc, see on-wcnan.

open, adj., open; asf. opene, 2271.

openian, w2., open (trans.); 3056.

r(*), n.(?), beginning, origin; 1688; ds. re (front), 1041; as. r, 2407. [fr. Lat. ora]

orc, m., cup, pitcher; np. orcas, 3047; ap. ~, 2760. [fr. Lat. orca, cp. urceus, Go. urkeis]

orc-nas**, m.p., Evil Spirits, (sea?) monsters, zombies(?), draugr(??); (orcs [from Tolkien's fantasy writing]); np. -ns, 112. [fr. Lat. orcus(?) 'god of the underworld' (> ogre); cp. Go. naus; cp. Ice. rkn 'a kind of seal']

ord, m.(?), point; 2791; ds. orde, 556; as. ord, 1549; --front, vanguard; ds. orde, 2498, 3125, [F. 12]. [Ger. Ort, ON. oddr; cp. odd (fr. ON.)]

ord-fruma, wk.m., leader, chief; front fighter, elite warrior; 263.

Ord-lf, m., a Danish warrior; [F. 16]. [ord 'point', 'vanguard'; lf 'remnant', 'relic', 'heirloom']

ret-mecg(*), m. -ja., warrior; np. -as, 363, 481; ap. ~, 332. [*or-ht, OHG. ur-heiz 'challenge'; Siev. §43 n.4]

retta*, wk.m., warrior; 1532, 2538. [see ret-mecg; (OHG.) 'Hildebrantslied' l.2: urhtto]

oree(s), see oru.

or-, stressed prefix, see following nouns & adjectives; (lit. 'out of' = Lat. ex-), is privative, as in orsorg 'unconcerned, without care', orwna 'hopeless'; or denotes origin, antiquity, as in oranc 'skilful work, mechanical art'. [Ger. ur-]

or-leahtre(**)(+), adj. -ja., blameless; 1886. [cp. lan 'blame']

or-lege(*), n. -i., war, battle, strife; gs. orleges, 2407; ds. orlege, 1326. [OS. urlagi]

orleg-hwl**, f., time of war, fight; [2002]; gs. -e, 2911; gp. -a, 2427.

or-anc, m., ingenuity, skill; dp. -ancum, 406; -oncum, 2087. [OHG. urdank]

oru, n., breath; 2557; ds. oree, 2839. [*or-, fr. Ger. *uzana-; cp. Go. uz-anan, vb., usanan]

or-wearde**, adj., without guardian; asn., 3127.

or-wna, wk.adj., despairing (of, gen.); (aldres) orwna: 1002, 1565. [Go. us-wna]

s-lf, m., a Danish warrior; 1148. [s, ON. ss 'god', OHG. ans- 'god' < Gmc. *ansu-; Av. ahura 'spirit, lord', Skt. asura- 'demon, spirit' < IE. *h2ensu- 'spirit' (Watkins 4:ansu-/Pokorny ansu- 48); lf 'relic', 'remnant', 'legacy']

o, prep., w/ acc., until; 2399, 3069, 3083. o t, conj., until; 9, 56, 100, 145, 219, 296, 307, 545, 622, 644, 1133, 1254, 1375, 1414, 1640, 1714, 1740, 1801, 1886, 2039, 2058, 2116, 2210, 2269, 2280, 2303, 2378, 2621, 2782, 2791, 2934, 3147; o t, 66; o e, 649. [o, conj., F. 31] (o specially indicates progress of narrative, 'then', 'when': 100, 644, 2210, etc.; sometimes it carries consecutive force, 'so that': 66, 1375, etc.

o-, (verbal) prefix, see the foll. verbs; usually denotes departure, separation, e.g. ofeallan 'fall off, decline, decay'; cp. stressed -. [Go. und, una-]

o-beran*, IV, bear (off); pret. 3 sg. obr, 579.

o-ode, see o-gn.

er, adj. (used as adj. & as subst.), other (cp. Lat. alter, alius:) the other, one of two, another, second, following; 503, 534, 859, 1338; (correl., 'one...the other':) 1349, 1351; 1353, 1560, 1755, 2481; (se er:) 1815, 2061; nsf., 2117; nsn., 1133, 1300; gsm. res, 2451; gsn. ~, 219, 605, 1874; dsm. rum, 814, 1029, 1165, 1228, 2167, 2171, 2198, 2565, 2908; am rum, 1471; asm. erne, 652, 1860, 2440, 2484, 2985; asn. er, 1086, 1583, 1945; ism. re, 2670, 3101; [dpf. rum, F. 16]; apn. er, 870. [Go. anar, Ger. ander]

o-ferian, w1., bear away; pret. 1 sg. oferede, 2141.

o-gn**, anv., pret. o-ode, went away, escaped; 3 pl. oodon, 2934.

oe, conj., or; 283, 437, 635, 637, 693, 1491, 1763, 1764a, 1764b, 1765a, 1765b, 1766a, 1766b, 1848, 2253, 2376, 2434, 2494, 2495, 2536, 2840, 2870, 2922; [F. 48]; and, 2475, 3006. [Go. aau]

o-wtan, I, w/ dat. of pers. & acc. of thing, reproach, blame; 2995. cp. t-.

wer, see -hwar.

-wiht, (f.)n. -i., anything, aught; ds. -e, 1822, 2432. see ht, .