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Beowulf on Steorarume

Þ/Ð

,
  I. adv., then, therupon; at beginning of sentence 87 times, [& F. 13, 14, 28, 43, 46], exclus. of gt, gn combination, (at beginning of fit 10 times (11: l.1050)); (...) verb (...) subj. 60 times; ( ws 46 times, 53, 64, 126, 128, 138, 223, 467, 491, 607, etc.; ar..., 1280); (...) subj. (...) verb 27 times, 86, 331 ( ar), 461, 465, 518, etc., ic...gefrgn: 74, 2484, 2694, 2752, 2773;--second (sometimes third, in 1011 & 2191 fourth) word in sentence 99 times; (at opening of fitt 8 times; always in a-line, except 1168, 1263, 2192, 2209, 2591, 2845, 3045); preceded by pers. pron. 10 times, 26, 28, 312, 340, 1263, 2135, 2468, 2720, 2788, 3137; preceded by verb 89 times, 34, 115, 118 (... ar inne), 217, 234, 301, 327, etc. & [F. 2]; --ond , 615, 630, 1043, 1681, 1813, 2933, 2997; ond..., 1590, 2707; n , 426, 657; gt (gt), gn, gna, see gt, gn, gna.
  II. conj. (only 11 times: ), when, since, as; nearly always in b-line; 140, 201, 323, 402, 419, 512, 539, 632, 706, 723, 733, 798, 967, 1068, 1078a, 1103, 1291, 1293, 1295, 1467, 1506, 1539, 1621, 1665, 1681 (? ond ), 1813a (? ond ), 1988a, 2204a, 2289a, 2287a, 2362, 2372(??), 2428, 2471, 2550, 2567, 2624, 2676, 2690, 2756, 2872, 2876, 2883, 2926a, 2944, 2978, 2983, 2992, 3066, 3088. (Sometimes a slightly correl. use of ... is found: 138-40, 723, 1506, 1665, 2623-25, 2756, 2982-84. -- is regularly used w/ pret. or pluperf. [n 426, w/ pres.])
See also Mitchell 1982 'Old English Syntax' & Blockley 1998 'Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: where clauses begin'.

, pron., see s.

afian, w2., consent to, submit to; 2963.

h, see on, I.

ge-ah, see ge-icgan.

m, see s.

anan, see onan.

anc, m., thank(s); w/ gen. (for); 928, 1778; as., 1809, 1997, 2794; --satisfaction, pleasure; ds. (t) ance, 379; --thought, in cpds.: fore-, ge-, hete-, inwit-, or-, searo-.

anc-hycgende**, adj. (pres. ptc.), thoughtful; 2235.

ancian, w2., thank, w/ dat. of pers. & gen. of thing (for); pret. 3 sg. ancode, 625, 1397; 3 pl. ancedon, 227, ancodon, 1626.

anon, see onan.

ra, see s.

ge-agon, see ge-icgan.

am, are, s, see s.

ar,
  I. dem. adv., there, also shading into then; 32, 157, 271, 284, 331, 400, 440, 493, 513, 550, 775, 794, 852, 913, 972, 977, 1099, 1123, 1165, 1187, 1243, 1269, 1280, 1365, 1470, 1499, 1613, 1837, 1907, 1951, 1972, 2009, 2095, 2199, 2235, 2238, 2297, 2314, 2369, 2385, 2459, 2522, 2573(?), 2866, 2961, 3008, 3038, 3039, 3050, 3070; ar ws, 36, 89, 497, 611, 835, 847, 856, 1063, 1232, 2076, 2105, 2122, 2231, 2762, similarly, 2137; ne ws...ar, 756, 1299, 2555, 2771; ar is, 3011; nis ar, 2458. (Sometimes ar appears rather expletive, e.g. 271, 2555; 1122, 2199. ar: 331, 1280) ar inne, ar on innan, see inne, innan.
  II. rel., where, occasionally shading into when, as; 286, 420, 508, 522, 693, 777 (slightly correl. w/ dem. ar), 866, 1007, 1079, 1279, 1359, 1378, 1394, 1514, 1923, 2003, 2023, 2050, 2276, 2355, 2486, 2633, 2698, 2787, 2893, 2916, 3082, 3167; to (the place) where, 356, 1163, 1313, 2851, 3108, perh. in: 1188, 1648, 1815, 2075; conj., in case that, if; 797, 1835, 2573(?), 2730. (Spelling ar only 30 times)
[Go. ar; OHG. dr, Ger. da] See also Mitchell 1982 'Old English Syntax' & Blockley 1998 'Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: where clauses begin'.

t, pron., see s.

t (usually spelt ), conj., that; used 213 times; introd. consecutive clauses, that, so that; 22, 65, 56, 571, etc.; after verbs of motion, until, 221, 358, 404, 1318, 1911, 2716; sometimes used to indicate vaguely some other kind of relation, 1434, 2528, 2577, 2699, 2806; provided that: 1099; --purpose clauses, that, in order that; 2070, 2747, 2749; [F. 19]; --substantive clauses; 62, 68, 77, 84, 274, 300, etc., [F. 44]; semi-explanatory, w/ reference to an anticipatory pron. (hit, t) or noun of the governing clause; 88, 290, 379, 627, 681, 698, 701, 706, 735, 751, 779 (ref. to s), 812, 910, 1167, 1181, 1596, 1671, 1754, 2240, 2325, 2371, 2839, 3036, etc. o t, see o; t e, see tte. See also Mitchell 1982 'Old English Syntax' & Blockley 1998 'Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: where clauses begin'.

tte ( = t e: 1846, 1850), conj., that; 151, 858, 1256, 1942, 2924.

, pers. pron., see .

, isn., see s.

, e (spelling e 5 times), rel. particle (representing any gender, number, and case), who, which, that, etc.; 45, 138, 192, 238, 355, 500, 831, 941, 950, 993, 1271, 1334 (in/by which), 1482, 1654, 1858, 2135, 2182, 2364, 2400 (on which, when), 2468, 2490, 2606, 2635, 2712, 2735, 2796, 2866, 2982, 3001, 3009, 3086, [, F. 9]; conj. when, 99; because, 488, 1436b, 2641, ...ne, that...not, lest, 242. Cp. , isn. of dem. pron. See also s (e), tte, ah (e). [cp. Go. ei]

ah,
  I. adv., nevertheless, however; sw ah: 972, 1929, 2878, 2967 (h); hwre ~, 2442.
  II. conj., w/ opt. or, rarely, ind. (several cases doubtful), though; 203, 526, 587, 589, 680 (ah...eal, cp. although), 1102, 1660, 2031, 2161, 2467 (ind.), 2855; h, 1613 (ind.); ah e, 682, 1130 (if?), 1167, 1368, 1716, 1831, 1927, 1941, [2218], 2344, 2481, 2619, 2642, 2838, 2976.
[Go. auh, Ger. doch; ON. *h>MnE. though]

ge-eah, see ge-icgan.

earf, f., need, want, distress, difficulty, trouble; 201, 1250, 1835, 2493, 2637, 2876; ds. -e, 1456 (as.?), 1477, 1525, 2694, 2709, 2849; as. -e, 1797 (pl.?), 2579, 2801. [Go. arba] --Cpds.: fyren-, nearo-.

earf, vb., see urfan.

earfa, wk.m., adj., needy, lacking (w/ gen.); 2225.

ge-earfian(**), w2., **necessitate, impose necessity; pp. geearfod, 1103.

earle, adv., severly, hard; 560.

aw, m., custom, usage, manner; 178, 1246, 1940; as., 359; dp. awum ('in good customs'), 2144. [thew(s); OS. thau] --Cp. ge-we.

ec, see .

eccean, w1., cover, enfold; 3015; pret. 3 pl. ehton, 513. [cp. thatch; Ger. decken]

egn, m., thane, follower, attendant, retainer, warrior, servant; 194, 235, 494, 867, 1574, 2059, 2709, 2721, 2977, [F. 13]; gs. -es, 1797; ds. -e, 1085, 1341, 1419, 2811; as. egn, 1871; np. -as, 1230; gp. -a, 123, 400, 1627, 1644, 1673, 1829, 2033; dp. -um, 2869; ap. -as, 1081, 3121. [thane (Sc. spelling); OHG. degan; cp. Gr. τεκνον 'child'] --Cpds.: ealdor-, heal-, mago-, ombiht-, sele-.

egn-sorg**, f., sorrow for thanes; as. -e, 131.

gon, -un, see icgan.

h, see ah.

ehton, see eccean.

encan, w1., think; abs.: pres. 3 sg. ence, 289, 2601; w/ t-clause: pret. 3 sg. hte, 691; w/ t (be intent on): ~, 1139; --w/ inf., mean, intend; pres. 3 sg. ence, 354, 448, 1535; pret. 1 sg. hte, 964; 3 sg. ~, 739; 1 pl. hton, 541; 3 pl. ~, 800. --Cpd.: -.

ge-encan, w1., think, remember; imp. sg. geenc, 1474; w/ acc., conceive; inf. geencean, 1734.

enden,
  I. conj., while, so long as; ~ lifde 57, similarly, 1224; ~...wold 30, similarly, 1859, 2038; ~...mte 1177, similarly, (2038), 3100; 284, 2499, 2649, 3027.
  II. adv., meanwhile, then; 1019, 2418, 2985.
[Go. and]

engel*, m., prince; as., 1507. [on, I; ON. engill]

nian, w2., serve; pret. 1 sg. node, 560. [egn]

od, f., people, nation, troop of warriors; 643, 1230, 1250, 1691; od, 2219; gp. oda, 1705. [Go. iuda 'people', Ger. Deutsch 'German', MDu. duutsch 'German', OHG. diutisc 'of the people' < Gmc. *theudiskaz 'of the people' < IE. teutá- 'tribe' (Watkins 92:teutá-/Pokorny téu- 1081); cf. L. Teutóní 'the Teutons' < Celt. < Gmc. *theudanóz 'Gmc. tribal name'; cf. W. tud 'country', OIr. túath 'people', Lith. tauta, L. totus 'all', Hitt. tuzzi 'army'] --Cpds.: sige-, wer-; Swo-; el-odig.

od-cyning(*), m., king of a people; 2963, 2970; od-, 2579; od-kyning, 2144; gs. -cynninges, 2694; as. -cyning, 3008; gp. -cyninga, 2.

oden(*), m., lord, prince, king, chief; 15 times w/ mare, see mare; 7 times w/ gp. (Scyldinga, etc.); 129, 1046, 1209, 1715, 1871, 2032, 2131, 2869, 3037; oden, 2336, 2810; gs. odnes, 797, 910, 1085, 1627, 1837, [2174], 2656; ds. odne, 345, 1525, 1992, 2572, 2709; as. oden, 34, 201, 353, 1598, 2384, 2721, 2786, 2883, 3079, 3141; oden, 2788; vs. oden (mn): 365, 2095; ~ (Hrgr), 417; ~ (Scyldinga), 1675; np. odnas, 3070. [od; Go. iudans]

oden-las**, adj., lord-less, deprived of one's chief; npm. -e, 1103.

od-gestron**, n., people's treasure, great treasure; gp. -a, [1218]; dp. -um, 44.

od-kyning, see od-cyning.

od-sceaa, wk.m., people's foe/scather; 2278, 2688.

od-Scyldingas, see Scyldingas.

od-ra**, f. -w., wk.m. (Siev. 295 n., 277n.2&3), distress of the people, great calamity; dp. -raum, 178.

of, m., thief; [2223](??-usually restored as [ow] 'slave'; possibly oden 'king' - see Tripp); gs. -es, 2219. [Go. iufs, Ger. Dieb]

on, I, thrive, prosper; pret. 3 sg. h, 8, 2836, 3058 (turn to profit); pp. nsf. geungen, excellent, 624. [Go. eihan] --Cpd.: on-; wl-ungen.

ge-on, I, prosper, flourish; 910; gen, 25; imp. sg. geoh, 1218.

on, w1., see wan.

os, see es, s.

ostre, adj. -ja., dark, gloomy; dp. (m.n.) ostrum, 2332. [Ger. dster]

ow, m., slave, servant; [Go. ius] Cpds.: Ecg-, Ongen-, Wealh-.

es, s, os, is, dem. pron. (adj., exc. 290), this; es, 432, 1702, [F. 7], s, 411; nsf. os, 484; nsn. is, 290, 2499, [F. 3]; gsm. isses, 1216; gsf. isse, 928, [F. 4]; gsn. isses, 1217, ysses 197, 790, 806; dsm. yssum, 2639; dsf. isse, 638; dsn. issum, 1169; asm. isne, 75, [F. 9], ysne 1771; asf. s, 1622, 1681; asn. is, 1723; asn is, 1723, 2155, 2251, 2643; isn. s, 1395; dpm. yssum, 1062, 1219; apm. s, 2635, 2640, 2732; apn. ~, 1652. (Alliter.: 197, 790, 806, 1395).

icgan, V, receive, take, partake of (food, drink); 1010; icgean, 736; pret. 1 pl. gun, 2633; 3 pl. gon, 563. [OS. thiggian]

ge-icgan, V, receive, partake of, drink; pret. 3 sg. geeah, 618, 628; geah, 1024; 3 pl. geagon, 1014.

n, poss. pron., thy (thine); 459, 490, 593, 954, 1705, 1853, 2048; nsn., 589; gsf. -re, 1823; gsn. -es, 1761; dsm. -um, 346, 592; dsf. -re, 1477; asm. -ne, 267, 353, 1848; asn. n, 1849; isn. -e, 2131; gpm. -ra, 367, 1672, 1673; dpm. -um, 587, 1178, 1708; apm. -e, 2095.

incean, see yncan.

ing, n., thing, affair, matter; 409; --meeting (judicial assembly); as., 426; gp. in: anige inga, in any way, by any means: 791, 2374, 2905. see ge-inge.

ge-ingan(*), w1., determine, appoint, purpose; pp. geinged, 647, 1938; w/ refl. dat., determine (to go to, t); pres. 3 sg. geinge [1837].

ge-inge, n. -ja., (1) agreement, compact; ap. geingo (terms), 1085. (2) result, issue; gs. geinges, 398, 709; gp. geingea, 525. [see ing; cp. Ger. Bedingung]

ingian, w2., settle, compound; (fa) ~, 156; pret. 1 sg. (fo) ingode, 470; --*speak, make an address; inf., 1843.

od(-), oden, see od(-), oden.

is, see es, s.

ge-ht, m., thought; as., 256, 610. [Go. ahts]

olian, w2., suffer, endure; 832; pres. 3 sg. ola, 284; pret. 3 sg. olode, 131, 1525; --intr., endure, suffer, hold out; pres. 3 sg. ola, 2499. [thole (arch., North., Northern Ireland Eng.); Go. ulan]

ge-olian, w2., suffer, endure; ger. geolianne, 1419; pret. 3 sg. geolode, 87, 147; --intr., abide, remain; inf., 3109.

on, see s.

on, 44, see onne, II, 2.

onan, adv., in many cases (marked *) at the end of the line, thence (motion [accord. to modern notions sometimes redundant], origin: from him 111, 1265, 1960); onan, 819*, 2061*, 2099*, 2140*, 2359, 2545*, 2956*; onon, 520, 1373, 1601*, 1632 (at the end of the a-line), 1960, 2408*; anon, 111, 123, 224, 463, 691, 763*, 844*, 853, 1265, 1292*, 1805*, 1921*; anan, 1668*, 1880*.

ge-onc, m.n., thought; dp. -um, 2332. [see encan] --Cpd.: md-.

one, see s.

onne (onne only 15 times), adv., conj. (used mostly 'where the time of an action is indefinite, and is found w/ the future, the indefinite present and the indefinite past', in Bosworth-Toller),
  I. adv., then; (time); 1484, 1741, 1745, 2032, 2041, 2063, 2446, 2460, 3062, 3107; 1106 (in that case);--(succession in narrative:) then, further; 377, 1455, 3051;--(conclusion:) then, therefore; 435, 525, 1671, 1822 (2063);--(contrast:) however, on the other hand; (gyf) onne: 1104, 1836; onne, 484 (but then).
  II. conj. (1) when, at such times as, whenever; 23, 485, 573, 880, 934, 1033, 1040, 1042, 1066, 1121, 1143, 1179, 1285, 1326, 1327, 1374, 1485, 1487 (while), 1535, 1580, 1609, 2034, 2114, 2447, 2453, 2544, 2634, 2686, 2742, 2867 (onne...oft, cp. 'Wanderer' l.39f.), 2880, 3064, 3106, 3117, 3176. (correl. onne (adv.)...onne (conj.): 484f., 1484f., 2032-37, 2446f., 3062-66; gyf onne...onne, 1104-05.) (2) than (after comp.); without following clause: 469, 505, 534, 678, 1139, 1182, 1353, 1579, 2433, 2891; w/ following clause: [70], 248, (cp. 678), 1385, 1560, 1824, 2572, 2579, [F. 40]; on, 44.

onon, see onan.

orfte, see urfan.

rg, f., time; as. (longe) rge: 54, 114, 1257;--evil time, hardship, distress; ns., 2883; as. rge, 87. [cp. Go. ragjan?] --Cpd.: earfo-.

ge-rc(*), n., press, heap; as., 3102. [see rec-wudu; md-racu]

ra-ndla*, wk.m., dire distress; ds. -ndlan, 2223. see nd.

ra-nd*, f. -i., distress, sad necessity; as., 284; dp. -um, 832.

rat, m., crowd, company, troop; ds. -e, 2406; dp. -um, 4. [threat] --Cpd.: ren-.

ratian, w2., press, harass, threaten; pret. 3 pl. ratedon, 560.

rec-wudu**, m. -u., (might-wood), spear; 1246. cp. mgen-. see gerc.

ro, num., n., three; a. ro, 2278; ro, 2174.

reottoa, num., thirteenth; 2406.

ridda, num., third; dsm. riddan, 2688.

ge-ring, n., throng, tumult; as., 2132.

ringan, III, intr., throng, press forward; pret. 3 sg. rong, 2883; 3 pl. rungon, 2960. [Go. reihan, Ger. dringen] --Cpd.: for-.

ge-ringan, III, intr., press (forward); pret. 3 sg. gerang, 1912.

ro, see ro.

rst-hdig*, adj., bold-minded, brave; 2810. [Ger. dreist]

rtig, num., n., w/ partit. gen., thirty; as., 123, 2361; gs. -es, 379.

rwian, w2., suffer; 2605, 2658; pret. 3 sg. rwade, 1589, 1721; rwode, 2594.

ge-uren*, adj. from pp., *forged, hammered; 1285.

rd-lc, see r-lc.

rym(m), m. -ja.(?), might, force; 1918; dp. rymmum (semi-adv.), 235;--greatness, glory; as. rym, 2. [cp. ON. rymr] --Cpd.: hige-.

r*, f. -i., (pl.), might, strength; dp. -um, 494. [ON. -rr, r-] see (Md)-ro(?).

r-rn**, n., mighty house, splendid hall; as., 657.

r-lc(**)(+), adj., mighty, powerful, splendid; 400, 1627. supl. acc. rdlcost, 2869.

Þrýðo, 1931, see Módþrýðo.

r-sw (sw)**, adj., strong/mighty (one?); 131, 736. (conjectured by Grein, Earle to be a noun 'great pain', w/ ref. to ON. svii 'smart from burning' (Klaeber finds this 'unconvincing'); Tripp (unpubl.) also conjectures this as a noun meaning 'God' (lit. 'mighty-powerful (one)'(?), 'mightiest of the powerful'(?))

r-word**, n., strong (brave, noble) word(s); 643.

, pers. pron., thou; 43 times, 19 times & [F. 27]; ds. 24 times, 9 times & [F. 26]; as. ec (ec), 946, 955, 1219, 1763, 1768, 1827, 1828, 2151; (), 417, 426, 517, 1221, 1722, 1833, 1994, 1998; dual git, 508, 512, 513, 516; g. incer, 584; d. inc, 510; plur. g, 237, 245, 252, 254, 333, 338, 393, 395, 2529, 2866, 3096, 3104; gp. ower, 248, 392(?), 596; dp. ow, 292, 390, 1344, 1987, 2865, 3103; ap. owic, 317, 3095.

hte, see yncan.

ge-ungen, see eon, I.

unian, w2., (thunder), creak, groan; pret. 3 sg. unede, 1906 [cf. OE. þunor 'thunder (god)', ON. Þórr < ON. Þunarr 'thunder (god)', MDu. doner, donder 'thunder' < Gmc. *thunaraz < IE. *stnh- < IE. *stenh2- (Watkins 86:(s)ten9-/Pokorny 1. (s)ten- 1022); cf. L. tonáre 'to thunder' (> MnE. tornado, astonish, detonate, stun) < IE. *tonh-].

*urfan, pret-pres., (in negat. clauses,) need, have good cause/reason; pres. 2 sg. earft, 445, 450, 1674; 3 sg. earf, 595, 2006, 2741; opt. 3 sg. urfe, 2495; pret. 3 sg. orfte, 157, 1026, 1071, 2874, 2995; 3 pl. orfton, [2363]. [Go. arban]

urh, prep., w/ acc., through; local: 2661; means, instrument: 276(?), 558, 699, 940, 1693, 1695, 1979, 2045, 2405; cause, motive, through, from, because of: 267, 278, 1726(?), 1101(?), 3068; state, manner, accompanying circumstances, in, with, by way of: 184, 276, 1335, 2454; 267(?), 278(?), 1101, 1726. [Go. arh, Ger. durch < Gmc. *thurh < IE. *trh-kwe < IE. *tr(h)- < IE. *terh2- 'to cross over, pass through, overcome' (Watkins 91:ter9-2/Pokorny 5. ter- 1076); cf. OE. þyr(e)l 'hole' (see below); cf. L. tráns 'across, over, beyond, through', Hit. tarh- 'to overcome' > Hit. Tarhunnaç 'name of Hittite storm god, who slays a dragon' (see further Watkins-Dragon)]

urh-brecan(**), IV, break through; pret. 3 sg. -brc, 2792.

urh-dfan(**), II, (dive) swim through; pret. 3 sg. -daf, 1619.

urh-etan(*), V, eat through; pp. np. urhetone, 3049.

urh-fn(**), redup., penetrate; 1504.

urh-ton, II, bring about, effect; 1140.

urh-wadan(*), VI, go through, penetrate; pret. 3 sg. -wd, 890, 1567.

us, adv., thus, so; 238, 337, 430.

send, num., n., thousand; as., 3050; ap. (seofan) sendo, 2195; senda, 1829; (hund) senda, 2994. [Go. sendi]

ge-ware, adj. -ja., harmonious, united, loyal; npm, 1230. [geweran 'stir', 'mix together'] see mon-ware.

, see s.

yder (ider), adv., thither; yder, 378, 2970, 3086.

htig(**), adj., strong, firm; asn., 1558. [on, I.] --Cpd.: hige-.

ge-yld, f. -i., patience; as., 1395; dp. geyldum, steadily, 1705. [olian; Ger. Geduld]

yle(**)(+), m. -i., ("thyle"), orator, spokesman, official entertainer; 1165, 1456. [ON. ulr]

yncan, w1., seem, appear; impers. (marked*), w/ dat., methinks, etc.; incean, 1341*; pres. 3 sg. ynce, 2653*, ince 1748; 3 pl. incea, 368; opt. 3 sg. ince, 687*; pret. 3 sg. hte, 842, 2461, 3057*; 3 pl. hton, 866. [Go. ugkjan; cp. OE. encan] --Cpd.: of-.

yrel, rel, adj., pierced through; r[e]l, [F. 45]. [urh]

yrs, m. -i., troll, ogre, giant; ds. -e, 426. [ON. urs]

ys-lc, adj., such, thusly; nsf. yslicu, 2635. [us]

s, ysne, ysses, yssum, see es, s.

stru, wk.f., darkness; dp. strum, 87. [ostre]

wan, on, w1., oppress, threaten; n, 2736; pres. 3 pl. wa, 1827. (Siev. 117.2 & n., 409 n.12 & 18).

ge-we(**)+, adj. -ja., customary, usual; nsn., 2332. [aw]