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Beowulf on Steorarume

Liber Monstrorum: Monsters of Beowulf
    (and selected epithets)

(please refer to main Glossary page for key/explanation for layout, abbreviations, etc.)

compiled by
(thanks to Ken Whapples for suggesting this idea)


[note: 'major' monsters in large-face type, less specific words & epithets in smaller type]



ág-laéca, aég-laéca, *, wk.m., demon, fiend, monster; wretch; fierce combatant (cp. aglác, n., misery, grief, sorrow, trouble, torment); aéglaéca, 159, 432, atol ~, 591, 815 ( = Grendel); áglaéca, 738, 999, 1271, atol ~ , 731 ( = Grendel); gs. áhlaécan 988 ( = Grendel), áglaécean 2558 ( = the Dragon); ds. áglaécan 424 ( = Grendel), áhlaécan 645 ( = Grendel), áglaécean 2521, 2535 (as.?), 2906 ( = the Dragon); as. áglaécan 555 ( = a Sea-Serpent), áglaécean 2535 (?) ( = the Dragon); np. áglaécan, 1513 ( = Grendel's Mother). [-warrior, hero; ns. áglaéca, 892; gs. áglaécan, 1514 (?); np. áglaécean, 2593 (referring to the two combatants: Béowulf and the Dragon)].

ág-laéc-wíf**, n., female fiend/monster/demon ( = Grendel's Mother); 1261.

attor-sceaða*, wk.m., poisonous enemy/criminal; gs. sceaðan, 2840 ( = the Dragon). [cp. attor 'poison, venom']

aég-laéca, see ág-laéca.

æl-with*, f. -i. (n.), alien being, strange creature; gp. -a 1502 ( = Grendel's Mother). [cp. ellor-gást; ON. alvitr]

brim-wylf**, f. -j., She-Wolf of the Sea/Lake (i.e., Grendel's Mother); brim-wylf, 1508; brimwylf, 1601. see grund-wyrgen.

brga, wk.m., terror, horror; 1293 ( = Grendel's Mother), 2325 ( = the Dragon), 2566 ( = the Dragon and Beowulf); as. or ap. (cp. 482b) brgan, 582. [OHG. brógo] --Cpds.: gryre-, here-.

cwealm-cuma**, wk.m., murderous visitor; as. -cuman, 791 ( = Grendel).

da-scua(*), wk.m., death-shadow; 160 ( = Grendel).

Cin, m., biblical person: first son of Adam & Eve, brother (and slayer) of bel; gs. Cines (altered fr. cames), 107. [l. 1263 MS camp 'strife'(?) often emended to ns. Cin]

Grendel, m., name of the monstrous fen-dwelling being slain by Bowulf; 102, 151, 473, [590], 677, 710, 818, 1053, 1255, 1268, 1778, 2081; gs. Grendles, 127, 195, 384, 408, 477, 482, 526, 835, 926, 1260, 1284, 1393, 1540, 1641, 1650, 2005; Grendeles, 2009, 2121, 2142, 2354; ds. Grendle, 665, 929, 1579, 2522; as. Grendel, 423, 1336, 1356, 1588, 2000, 2073. [perh. fr. OE. grindan 'grind' ('destroy')?; or OE. *grandial fr. OE. *grand 'sand'? 'bottom of a body of water'?; or fr. OE. *grandor 'evil', 'injury' (cf. ON. grand 'injury')?; or fr. OE. grindel 'bar' (cf. OHG. grindel, krintil)?; or rel. to ON. grindill 'storm'? - see further n102 to online dual-language edition]

dol-sceaa**, wk.m., mad ravager, desperate foe; as. -sceaan, 478 ( = Grendel). see dol-lc.

draca, wk.m., Dragon; 891, 2214, [F. 3]; gs. dracan, 2091, 2291, 2550; as. ~, 2403, 3133. [fr. Lat. draco; drake; dragon fr. OFr., fr. Lat.; cp. OHG. tracho, Ger. drache, Ice. dreki; Gr. δρκων 'dragon' fr. δερκομαι 'to flash, gleam'] --Cpds.: eor-, fr-, lg-, n-, sa-. see wyrm.

eald-gewinna**, wk.m., old adversary; 1779 ( = Grendel).

ealdor-gewinna*, wk.m., life-enemy, deadly enemy; dire foe; 2904 ( = the Dragon).

earm-sceapen, adj. (pp.), wretched, miserable; 1353 (1353b-4a: 'earmsceapen on weres wstmum': horribly-shaped in the form of a man = Grendel).

ellen-gast**, m. -i., powerful or bold Spirit/Demon; 86 ( = Grendel).

ellor-gst, -gast, **, m. -a., m. -i., alien spirit; -gst, 806( = Grendel), 1623 ( = monsters), -gast 1619 ( = Grendel's Mother); ap. -gastas, 1351 ( = Grendel and his Mother).

ent, m. -i., a Giant; gp. enta (geweorc), 2718, 2775, similarly, 1671.

entisc**, adj., made by Giants; Giant(ish?); asm. -ne 2930.

eor-draca**, wk.m., Earth-Dragon; 2713, 2826.

eoten(**)(+), m., Giant, Ettin/Eten (obs., dial.); 760 ( = Grendel); np. -as, 112; gp. -a, 420, 882. [ON. iotunn] [cp. etan(?)]

eotenisc**, adj., made by Giants, Giantish; asn. (-sweord) ~: 1560, etonisc 2617, eotonisc 2980.

eoton-weard**, f., watch against Giants; as. -weard, 667.

etonisc, see eotenisc.

fond-scaa*, wk.m., enemy, hostile criminal; robber; 553 ( = a Sea Serpent). see sceaa.

ffel-cyn(n)**, n. -ja., race of Monsters, Giants, Sea-Monsters(?); gs. ffelcynnes, 104. [cp. ON. ffl]

fr-draca**, wk.m., (Fire-Drake), -Dragon; 2690.

gst, gast, m. -a., m. -i., a Ghost, Spirit, Demon; creature; gast, 102 ( = Grendel), 2076(?) ( = Grendel's Mother), 2313(??) ( = the Dragon); gs. (wergan) gstes, 133 ( = Grendel), 1750 ( = the Devil?); as. gst, 1276 ( = Grendel); gp. gsta 1359, gasta 1122 (fire). (note: it is sometimes difficult to decide whether (-)gst (gist) or (-)gast was intended) [cf. Go. usgaisjan 'terrify'] Cpds.: ellen-, ellor-, gesceaft-, wl-.

gst-bona**, wk.m., Soul-Slayer (or Demon-Slayer?), Demon, Devil (the name of a particular being?); 177.

gast, see gst.

ggant, m., a Giant; np. -as, 113; gp. -a, 1564, 1692. [fr. Lat. (Gr.) gigas, acc. gigantem]

grund-hyrde**, m. -ja., guardian of the earth, warden of the deep ( = Grendel); as., 2139.

grund-wyrgen**, f. -j, accursed (female) monster of the deep; wolf of the deep ( = Grendel's Mother); as., -wyrgenne, 1520. see werho.

gryre-giest**, m. -i., dreadful stranger; 3043 ( = the Dragon); ds. -e, 2561 ( = the Dragon).

g-sceaa**, wk.m., enemy, destroyer; 2319 ( = the Dragon).

hel(l), f. -jó, hell, (Hel, [goddess of the underworld]-??); hel, 851; gs. helle, 787, 1276; ds. ~, 101, 587; as. ~, 179. [Go. halja]

hell-bend**, f. -jó., (m. -i.), bond of hell; dp. -um, 3074.

hel-rúne(**)+, wk.f., one skilled in the mysteries of hell, Necromancer; Demon; np. -rúnan, 163 ( = Grendel). cp. rún.

heoro-wearh**, m., accursed foe, savage outcast; 1269 ( = Grendel). see werhðo.

hord-weard*, m., guardian of treasure; hordweard ( = the Dragon): ns., 2294, 2303, 2555, 2594 [hordweard hæleþa ('king'): ns., 1046, as., 1855).

hring-boga**, wk.m., coiled creature (dragon); gs.(ds.?) -bogan, 2562 ( = the Dragon). [ring; búgan]

hron-fisc(**)(+), m., whale(-fish, cp. Ger. Walfisch); ap. -fixas, 539. [Celt. rhon?]

inwit-gst**, m., malicious (stranger or) foe; 2671 ( = the Dragon). (or -gast? see gst)

l-getona**, wk.m., loathly spoiler, evil-doer; 973 ( = Grendel); np. -getonan, 558 ( = Sea Serpents).

lod-sceaa*, wk.m., harmer of a people, people's enemy; ds. -sceaan, 2096 ( = Grendel).

lg-draca**, wk.m., Fire-Dragon; 2334; lg-, 3042. cp. fr-.

lyft-floga**, wk.m., air-flier; 2316 ( = the Dragon).

mn-for-dadla**, wk.m., wicked destroyer, doer of evil deeds; np. -fordadlan, 562 ( = Grendel). [dad]

mn-scaa*, wk.m., wicked ravager, wicked criminal; 711, 736 ( = Grendel); 1341 ( = Grendel's mother); -sceaa, 2515 ( = the Dragon).

mere-dor**, n., Sea-Beast; as., 557. [deer; Ger. Tier]

mere-wf**, n., mere-woman, water-witch ( = Grendel's Mother); as., 1521.

m-bona**, wk.m., one who destroys with the mouth, devourer; ds. -bonan, 2082 ( = Grendel).

nicor(**)+, m., water-monster, ("Nicker" (arch.)), Sea-Serpent; gp. nicera, 844; ap. niceras, 421, 574, nicras 1429. [OHG. nihhus, Ger. Nix(e)]

nicor-hs**, n., abode of water-monsters; gp. -a, 1413.

niht-bealu**, n. -wa., night-evil; gp. -bealwa, 193 ( = Grendel).

n-draca**, wk.m., hostile/malicious Dragon; 2274.

n-gst*, m. -i., malicious (stranger or) for; as., 2700 ( = the Dragon). (or -gast?)

orc-nas**, m.p., Evil Spirits, (sea?) monsters, zombies(?), draugr(??); (orcs [from Tolkien's fantasy writing]); np. -ns, 112. [fr. Lat. orcus(?) 'god of the underworld' (> ogre); cp. Go. naus; cp. Ice. rkn 'a kind of seal']

sa-dor(**)+, n., Sea-Beast, Sea-Serpent; 1512. see mere-.

sa-draca(**)(+), wk.m., Sea-Serpent; ap. -dracan, 1428.

scinna(*), wk.m., Spectre, Evil Spirit, Demon, ("Shine"); dp. scinnum, 938. [Go. skeinan]

scucca, wk.m., Demon, Devil; dp. scuccum, 938. [shuck, (old) Shock (dial. - East Anglia) 'barguest']

syn-scaa(*), wk.m., sin-scather, malefactor, miscreant, sinful criminal; 706 ( = Grendel), as. -scaan, 800 ( = Grendel). cp. mn-.

od-sceaa, wk.m., people's foe/scather; 2279 ( = the Dragon), 2689( = the Dragon).

yrs, m. -i., Troll, Ogre; Giant; ds. -e, 425 ( = Grendel). [ON. urs]

ht-floga**, wk.m., twilight-, dusk-, night-flier; gs. -flogan, 2761 ( = the Dragon).

ht-sceaa**, wk.m., depredator (scather) at dusk/twilight; 2272 ( = the Dragon).

un-halo(**)+, wk.f., **evil, destruction; gs., 120 ('wiht unhaélo' = Grendel). [hl]

un-tdre**, m. -ja., evil brood, evil offspring; np. -tdras, 111. [tdor]

wl-gast**, m. -i. murderous spirit; 1333 ( = Grendel's Mother); as., 1998 ( = Grendel). see gst.

werga (wrga?), wk.adj., accursed, evil; gsm. wergan (gstes): 133 ( = Grendel), 1750 (. see werho.

wildor [wild-dor], n., wild beast; ap., 1432. [deer; cf. Siev. 289]

wyrm, m. -i., Serpent; ap. -as, 1432; Dragon, (Wyrm, Worm): ns., 896, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630, 2670, 2746, 2828; gs. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; ds. wyrme, 2308, 2401, 2520; as. wyrm, 885, 890, 2706, 3041, 3134. [(IE. *urmis), Go. warms, ON. ormr, OS. OHG. wurm, Lat. uermis] see draca.

wyrm-cyn(n), n. -ja., the race of serpents; gs. -cynnes, 1427.

wyrm-hord**, n., dragon's (wyrm's) hoard; wk.gs.(?), (?)wyrmhordan, or (?)wyrmhorda (gp.?), or (?)wyrmhordas (gs. : -as as reverse spelling as usu. gs. -es, Kberl, pers. comm.), [2224].

ylfe, m.-i.p., Elves; 112. [Ger. Elbe] see lf-here.