black text = note on Old English text
red text = gloss of kennings

blue text = explanatory commentary on a section


[1] Cosijn suggests that the speaker is the heroine, Hildegığ

[2] the -s of Welande{s} is no longer visable in the MS, though it is required by the syntax. restoration from various editors.

[2] 'Weland's work' is the sword Mimming, mentioned in the next line. On Weland, see esp. Deor n.1 and Beowulf n.454[more to be added]

[4] MS hearne (with a dot below the n). interpretation of MS form as heard{n}e from Bugge (1868-9).

[5] MS sec

[6] t no longer visable in MS

[7] no gap in MS, apparently defective. Sedgefield suggests feallan ; Grein deor and domgeorn ; Holthausen adds şinne before dryhtscipe and deormod hæle! following; Cosijn simply omits to dæge.

[8] gap in MS, restor. from Bugge (1868-9)

[10] MS

[13] MS sweord wlegan.

[25] MS gifede eoce

[29] some editors have suggested alteration to bega ('both') so that beaga doesn't alliterate with itself. this seems unnecessary in view of the sense.

[31] MS has the runic symbol ethel


[1] MS shows only ..ce ; Norman restores to <swil>ce , taking the letters swil- from the narrow fragment of text attached to fol. 1r as the beginning of this word. Klaeber further restores to <ne geseah ic æfre swil>ce.

[4] MS ic ; em. from Rieger; Trautmann suggests hine

[4] Theodric = king of the Ostrogoths, 454-526. Cf. Deor. Widia = Weland's son by Beadohild, Nithhad's daughter. Widia went into Theodric's service.

[8] Nithhad (whose name means 'enmity, hostility') captured Weland (the smith) and, in order to retain his services, had him hamstrung - for more discussion, see Deor

[10] MS gefe.ld ; Sedgefield retains reconstructed gefeald and suggests 'dwelling place?'.

[12] MS hilde frore - em. from Müllenhoff

[13] MS guğbilla gripe - em. from Trautmann

[18] MS standağ - em. from Müllenhoff

[21] MS had

[22] MS he - em. from Stephens

[23] MS illegible - restor. from Trautmann; Schücking restores to nu; Holthausen restores to mec

[30] MS mtoten