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Hwt! W Grdena      in gardagum


Listen! We --of the Spear-Danes      in the days of yore,
odcyninga      rym gefrnon


of those clan-kings--      heard of their glory.
h elingas      ellen fremedon.


how those nobles      performed courageous deeds.
Oft Scyld Scfing      sceaena ratum


Often Scyld, Scef's son,      from enemy hosts
monegum magum      meodosetla oftah


from many peoples      seized mead-benches;
egsode Eorle      syan arest wear


and terrorised the fearsome Heruli      after first he was
fasceaft funden      h s frfre gebd


found helpless and destitute,      he then knew recompense for that:-
wox under wolcnum      weormyndum h


he waxed under the clouds,      throve in honours,
o t him aghwylc      ra ymbsittendra


until to him each      of the bordering tribes
ofer hronrde      hran scolde,


beyond the whale-road      had to submit,
gomban gyldan      t ws gd cyning.


and yield tribute:-      that was a good king!
am eafera ws      fter cenned


To him a heir was      born then
geong in geardum      one god sende


young in the yards,      God sent him
folce t frfre      fyrenearfe ongeat


to comfort the people;      He had seen the dire distress
t he ar drugon      aldorlase


that they suffered before,      leader-less
lange hwle      him s lffr


a long while;      them for that the Life-Lord,
wuldres wealdend      woroldre forgeaf:


Ruler of Glory,      granted honour on earth:
Bowulf ws brme      --blad wde sprang--


Beowulf (Beaw) was famed      --his renown spread wide--
Scyldes eafera      Scedelandum in.


Scyld's heir,      in Northern lands.
Sw sceal geong guma      gde gewyrcean


So ought a young man      by good deeds deserve,
fromum feohgiftum      on fder bearme


(and) by fine treasure-gifts,      while in his father's keeping,
t hine on ylde      eft gewunigen


that him in old age      shall again stand by,
wilgesas      onne wg cume


willing companions,      when war comes,
lode gelasten:      lofdadum sceal


people serve him:      by glorious deeds must,
in maga gehware      man gen.


amongst his people, everywhere,      one prosper.
Him Scyld gewt      t gescphwle


Then Scyld departed      at the destined time,
felahrr fran      on fran ware


still in his full-strength, to fare      in the protection of the Lord Frea;
h hyne tbaron      t brimes faroe


he they carried      to the sea's surf,
swase gesas      sw h selfa bd


his dear comrades,      as he himself had bid,
enden wordum wold      wine Scyldinga


when he yet wielded words,      that friend of the Scyldings,
lof landfruma      lange hte


beloved ruler of the land,      had ruled for a long time;
ar t he std      hringedstefna


there at the harbour stood      with a ringed-prow,
sig ond tfs      elinges fr


icy and keen to sail,      a hero's vessel;
ldon      lofne oden


they then laid down      the beloved prince,
baga bryttan      on bearm scipes


the giver of rings and treasure,      in the bosom of the boat,
marne be mste      ar ws mdma fela


the mighty by the mast;      many riches were there,
of feorwegum      frtwa geladed


from far-off lands      ornate armour and baubles were brought;
ne hrde ic cmlcor      col gegyrwan


I have not heard of a comelier      keel adorned
hildewapnum      ond heaowadum


with weapons of battle      and war-dress,
billum ond byrnum      him on bearme lg


bill-blades and byrnies;      there lay on his breast
mdma mnigo      him mid scoldon


many treasures,      which with him must,
on fldes aht      feor gewtan


in the power of the waves,      drift far off;
nals h hine lassan      lcum todan


in no way had they upon him fewer      gifts bestowed
odgestronum      onne dydon


with the wealth of a nation,      than those did
e hine t frumsceafte      for onsendon


who him in the beginning      had sent forth
anne ofer e      umborwesende


alone upon the waves      being but a child;
gt he him setton      segen gyldenne


yet then they set up      the standard of gold,
hah ofer hafod      lton holm beran


high over head;      they let the sea bear,
gafon on grsecg      him ws gemor sefa


gave to the ocean,      in them were troubled hearts,
murnende md      men ne cunnon


mourning minds;      men cannot
secgan t se      seleradenne


say for certain,      (neither) court-counsellors
hle under heofenum      hw am hlste onfng.


(nor) heroes under heaven,      who received that cargo.



ws on burgum      Bowulf Scyldinga


Then was in boroughs,      Beowulf the Scylding (Beaw),
lof lodcyning      longe rge


beloved king of the people      a long age
folcum gefrage      --fder ellor hwearf


famed among the folk      --his father having gone elsewhere,
aldor of earde--      o t him eft onwc


elder on earth--      until unto him in turn was born
hah Healfdene      hold enden lifde


high Half-Dane,      he ruled so long as he lived
gamol ond grouw      glde Scyldingas


old and battle-fierce,      the glad Scyldings;
am fower bearn      forgermed


to him four sons      in succession
in worold wcun      weoroda raswan:


woke in the world,      the leader of the legions:
Heorogr ond Hrgr      ond Hlga til


Heorogar and Hrothgar      and good Halga;
hrde ic t rse      ws Onelan cwn


I heard that Yrse      was Onela's queen,
Heao-Scilfingas      healsgebedda.


the War-Scylfing's      belovd embraced in bed.
ws Hrgre      herespd gyfen


Then was to Hrothgar      success in warcraft given,
wges weormynd      t him his winemgas


honour in war,      so that his retainers
georne hrdon      o t so geogo gewox


eagerly served him      until the young war-band grew
magodriht micel      him on md bearn


into a mighty battalion;      it came into his mind
t healreced      htan wolde


that a hall-house,      he wished to command,
medorn micel      men gewyrcean


a grand mead-hall,      be built by men
one yldo bearn      afre gefrnon


which the sons of men      should hear of forever,
ond ar on innan      eall gedalan


and there within      share out all
geongum ond ealdum      swylc him god sealde


to young and old,      such as God gave him,
bton folcscare      ond feorum gumena


except the common land      and the lives of men;
a ic wde gefrgn      weorc gebannan


Then, I heard, widely      was the work commissioned
manigre mage      geond isne middangeard


from many peoples      throughout this middle-earth,
folcstede frtwan.      Him on fyrste gelomp


to furnish this hall of the folk.      For him in time it came to pass,
adre mid yldum      t hit wear ealgearo


early, through the men,      that it was fully finished,
healrna mast      scp him Heort naman


the best of royal halls;      he named it Heorot,
s e his wordes geweald      wde hfde


he whose words weight      had everywhere;
h bot ne lh      bagas dalde


he did not lie when he boasted;      rings he dealt out,
sinc t symle.      Sele hlfade


riches at his feasts.      The hall towered,
hah ond horngap      heaowylma bd


high and horn-gabled;      it awaited the cruel surges
lan lges      ne ws hit lenge gn


of hateful flames;      nor was the time yet nigh
t se ecghete      umsworan


that the furious edge-malice      of son-in-law and father-in-law,
fter wlne      wcnan scolde.


arising from deadly enmity      would inevitably awaken.
se ellengast      earfolce


Then the bold spirit,      impatiently
rge geolode      s e in strum bd


endured dreary time,      he who dwelt in darkness,
t h dgora gehwm      dram gehrde


he that every day      heard noise of revelry
hldne in healle      ar ws hearpan swg


loud in the hall;      there was the harmony of the harp,
swutol sang scopes      sgde s e ce


the sweet song of the poet;      he spoke who knew how
frumsceaft fra      feorran reccan


the origin of men      to narrate from afar;
cw t se lmihtiga      eoran worhte


said he that the almighty one      wrought the earth,
wlitebeorhtne wang      sw wter bebge


(that) fair, sublime field      bounded by water;
gesette sigehrig      sunnan ond mnan


set up triumphant      the sun and moon,
loman t lohte      land-bendum


luminaries as lamps      for the land-dwellers
ond gefrtwade      foldan scatas


and adorned      the corners of the earth
leomum ond lafum      lf ac gescep


with limbs and leaves;      life too He formed
cynna gehwylcum      ra e cwice hwyrfa


for each of the species      which lives and moves.
Sw drihtguman      dramum lifdon


So the lord's men      lived in joys,
adiglice      o t n ongan


happily,      until one began
fyrene fremman      fond on helle


to execute atrocities,      a fiend in hell;
ws se grimma gast      Grendel hten


this ghastly demon was      named Grendel,
mare mearcstapa      s e mras hold


infamous stalker in the marches,      he who held the moors,
fen ond fsten      ffelcynnes eard


fen and desolate strong-hold;      the land of marsh-monsters,
wonsal wer      weardode hwle


the wretched creature      ruled for a time
sian him scyppend      forscrifen hfde


since him the Creator      had condemned
in Caines cynne      one cwealm gewrc


with the kin of Cain;      that killing avenged
ce drihten      s e h bel slg


the eternal Lord,      in which he slew Abel;
ne gefeah h are fahe      ac h hine feor forwrc


this feud he did not enjoy,      for He drove him far away,
metod for mne      mancynne fram


the Ruler, for this crime,      from mankind;
anon untdras      ealle onwcon


thence unspeakable offspring      all awoke:
eotenas ond ylfe      ond orcns


ogres and elves      and spirits from the underworld;
swylce ggantas      wi gode wunnon


also giants,      who strove with God
lange rge      h him s lan forgeald.


for an interminable season;      He gave them their reward for that.



Gewt nosian      syan niht becm


He then went to visit and see      --when night came--
hn hses      h hit Hring-Dene


the high house      how it, the Ring-Danes
fter borege      gebn hfdon


after the beer-feast,      had occupied;
fand ar inne      elinga gedriht


he found then therein      the nobles' company
swefan fter symble      sorge ne con


slumbering after the feast;      they did not know sorrow,
wonsceaft wera      wiht unhalo


misery of men;      that damned creature,
grim ond gradig      gearo sna ws


grim and greedy,      soon was ready,
roc ond re      ond on rste genam


savage and cruel      and from their rest seized
rtig egna      anon eft gewt


thirty thanes;      thence back he went
he hrmig      t hm faran


proud in plunder      to his home, faring
mid are wlfylle      wca nosan.


with the banquet of bodies      to seek his shelter.
ws on htan      mid ardge


Then was in the dark of dawn      before the day
Grendles gcrft      gumum undyrne


Grendle's war-might      revealed to the men;
ws fter wiste      wp up hafen


then it was after their feasting      they raised up lament
micel morgenswg.      Mare oden


in a great morning-cry.      The mighty chieftain,
eling argod      unble st


the prince, old and good,      sat in sorrow,
olode rsw      egnsorge drah


The great mighty one suffered,      anguish of thane-loss   oppressed him
syan he s lan      lst scawedon,


when they the foe's      tracks beheld,
wergan gstes      ws t gewin t strang


of the wicked ghoul;      that strife was too strong,
l ond longsum.      Ns hit lengra fyrst


loathsome and lingering.      Nor was it a longer time
ac ymb ne niht      eft gefremede


but after a single night      again he perpetuated
morbeala mre      ond n mearn fore,


more brutal slaughter,      and it grieved him not,
fahe ond fyrene      ws t fst on m.


violence and viciousness,      he was too entrenched in these.
ws afynde      him elles hwar


Then was it easily found,      one who would somewhere else,
germlcor      rste shte


further away,      seek rest:
bed fter brum      him gebacnod ws


a bed among the bowers,      when it was made clear to him,
gesgd slce      sweotolan tcne


truly told,      by an unmistakable token
healegnes hete      hold hyne syan


the enmity of the hall's occupier;      he held himself then
fyr ond fstor      s am fonde twand.


further and safer,      he who shunned that fiend.
Sw rxode      ond wi rihte wan


Thus he ruled      and challenged justice,
na wi eallum      o t del std


one against all,      until empty stood
hsa slest      ws so hwl micel,


that finest of houses;      the time was long
twelf wintra td      torn geolode


--the space of twelve winters--      that bitter anguish endured
wine Scyldenda,      wana gehwelcne


the friend, the shielder,      --every woe,   
sdra sorga      form secgum wear


immense miseries;      therefore to men became
ylda bearnum      undyrne c,


to sons of men,      clearly known
gyddum gemore      tte Grendel wan


in mournful ballads,      that Grendle had contended
hwle wi Hrgr      hetenas wg


long against Hrothgar,      sustained fierce enmity,
fyrene ond fahe      fela missra,


felony and feud,      for many seasons
single sce      sibbe ne wolde


continual strife;      he did not want peace
wi manna hwone      mgenes Deniga,


with any man      of the Danish contingent,
feorhbealo feorran,      fa ingian


to desist in life-destruction,      to settle it with payment,
n ar nanig witena      wnan orfte


none of the counsellors      had any need to hope for
beorhtre bte      t banan folmum


noble recompense      from the slayer's hands,
ac se aglaca      htende ws


but the wretch      was persecuting
deorc dascua      dugue ond geogoe


--the dark death-shade--      warriors old and young;
seomade ond syrede      sinnihte hold


he lay in wait and set snares,      in the endless night he held
mistige mras      men ne cunnon


the misty moors;      men do not know
hwyder helrnan      hwyrftum scra.


where such hellish enigmas      slink in their haunts.
Sw fela fyrena      fond mancynnes


Thus many offences      that foe of mankind,
atol ngengea      oft gefremede,


that terrible lone traveller,      often committed,
heardra hna      Heorot eardode


hard humiliations;      he dwelt in Heorot,
sincfge sel      sweartum nihtum


the richly-adorned hall,      in the black nights
--n h one gifstl      grtan mste,


--by no means he the gift-throne      was compelled to approach respectfully,
mum for metode,      n his myne wisse--


the treasure, by the Maker,      nor did he feel love for it--
t ws wrac micel      wine Scyldinga,


That was great misery      for the Friend of the Scyldings,
mdes breca.      Monig oft gest


a breaking of his spirit.      Many often sat
rce t rne      rad eahtedon


the mighty at counsel;      pondered a plan,
hwt swferhum      slest ware


what by strong-minded men      would be best,
wi fargryrum      t gefremmanne


against the sudden horror,      to do;
hwlum he gehton      t hrgtrafum


sometimes they pledged      at holy temples
wgweorunga      wordum badon


sacred honouring,      in words bid
t him gstbona      goce gefremede


that them the demon-slayer      would offer succour
wi odraum      swylc ws aw hyra


from the plight of the people;      such was their habit:
haenra hyht      helle gemundon


the hope of heathens;      on hell they pondered
in mdsefan      metod he ne con


in the depths of their hearts;      the Creator they did not know,
dada dmend      ne wiston he drihten god


the Judge of deeds,      they were not aware of the Lord God,
n he hru heofena helm      herian ne con


nor yet they the Helm of the Heavens      were able to honour,
wuldres waldend.      W bi am e sceal


Glory's Wielder.      Woe be to him who must,
urh slne n      swle bescfan


through dire terror,      thrust his soul
in fres fm,      frfre ne wnan,


into fire's embrace;      hope not for relief,
wihte gewendan      wl bi am e mt


or to change at all;      well be he who may
fter dadge      drihten scean


after death-day      seek the Lord
ond t fder fmum      freoo wilnian.


and in his Father's arms      yearn towards Nirvana.



Sw malceare      maga Healfdenes


So then over the sorrow of the time      the son of Half-Dane
singla sa      ne mihte snotor hle


continually brooded;      the wise hero could not
wan onwendan      ws t gewin t sw


turn away woe;      that strife was too strong,
l ond longsum      e on lode becm,


hateful and enduring,      that on the people came
ndwracu ngrim      nihtbealwa mast.


fearfully cruel, violent trouble,      the greatest night-evil.

 syd-journey t fram hm gefrgn      Higelces egn


That from home heard      Hygelac's thane,
gd mid Gatum,      Grendles dada


a good man of the Geats,      of Grendel's deeds;
s ws moncynnes      mgenes strengest


he was of mankind      of the greatest strength,
on am dge      ysses lfes


on that day      in this life,
ele ond acen      ht him lidan


noble and mighty;      he ordered them a wave-crosser
gdne gegyrwan      cw: h gcyning


--a good one-- prepare;      he said: the war-king
ofer swanrde      scean wolde


over swan-road      he wished to seek,
marne oden      him ws manna earf


that mighty clan-chief,      since he was in need of men;
one sft him      snotere ceorlas


that adventure him,      the clear-headed chaps,
lt hwn lgon      ah h him lof ware


very little begrudged      though he was dear to them,
hwetton higerfne      hal scawedon.


they urged on the valiant-hearted one,      and observed the omens.
Hfde se gda      Gata loda


The worthy one had,      from the Geatish peoples,
cempan gecorone      ra e h cnoste


chosen champions,      those who were the boldest he
findan mihte      fftna sum


could find;      fifteen together,
sundwudu shte      secg wsade


they sought the sea-wood,      he led the warriors,
lagucrftig mon      landgemyrcu.


that sea-skilled man,      to the boundary of the shore.
Fyrst for gewt      flota ws on um


Time passed by;      the ship was on the waves,
bt under beorge      beornas gearwe


the boat under the cliffs;      the ready warriors
on stefn stigon      --stramas wundon,


stepped up into the prow      --the currents curled round,
sund wi sande--      secgas baron


sea against sand--      the men bore
on bearm nacan      beorhte frtwe


into the bosom of boat      bright arms and armour,
gsearo geatolc      guman t scufon


noble war-gear;      the fellows shoved off,
weras on wils      wudu bundenne.


men on a welcome voyage,      in a well-braced ship.
Gewt ofer wagholm      winde gefsed


Then they went over the water-waves      urged by the wind,
flota fmheals      fugle gelcost


the foamy-necked floater,      remarkably bird-like
o t ymb ntid      res dgores


until in due time,      on the second day,
wundenstefna      gewaden hfde


the curved-prow      had made the journey,
t a lende      land geswon,


so that the sailors      sighted land,

brimclifu blcan,      beorgas stape


bright sea-cliffs,      towering shores,
side sanssas      ws sund liden


wide headlands;      then was the sea traversed,
oletes t ende.      anon up hrae


their sea-voyage at an end.      Thence up quickly
Wedera lode      on wang stigon


the Wederas-warriors      stepped onto land;
sawudu saldon      syrcan hrysedon


moored their vessel;      their mail-shirts clanked
ggewado      gode ancedon


those war-garments;      they thanked God
s e him lde      ae wurdon.


that for them the wave-paths      had been smooth.
of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga


Then from the wall saw      the ward of the Scyldings,
s e holmclifu      healdan scolde


he who the sea-cliffs      had the duty to guard,
beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas


borne over the gang-plank,      bright bossed-shields,
fyrdsearu fslicu      hine fyrwyt brc


eager war-devices;      in him curiosity broke
mdgehygdum      hwt men waron


the thoughts of his heart:      what these men were;
gewt him t waroe      wicge rdan


then he went to the shore      riding his horse,
egn Hrgres      rymmum cwehte


the thane of Hrothgar;      he forcefully shook
mgenwudu mundum      meelwordum frgn:


his mighty wooden shaft,      and with formal words asked:
'Hwt syndon g      searohbbendra


'What are you      armour-wearers
byrnum werede      e us brontne col


bound in byrnies,      who thus your tall keel
ofer lagustrate      ladan cwmon


over the sea-street      leading came,
hider ofer holmas?'  


hither over the waters?'
H ws endesata      agwearde hold


He was the coast-guardian,      he held the sea-watch,
on land Dena      lra nanig


so that on Danish land      no enemies at all
mid scipherge      scean ne meahte


with a navy      would not be able to ravage.
'N hr clcor      cuman ongunnon


'Not here more openly      began to come
lindhbbende      n g lafnesword


lindenwood shield-bearers,      nor you the leave-word
gfremmendra      gearwe ne wisson


of our war-makers      certainly don't know
mga gemdu      nafre ic mran geseah


our kinsmen's consent;      never have I seen greater
eorla ofer eoran      onne is ower sum,


noble on earth      than the one that you are,
secg on searwum      nis t seldguma


warrior in armour;      this is no a mere retainer
wapnum geweorad      nfne him his wlite loge,


made worthy by weapons;      unless he is belied by his looks,
anlic ansn!      N ic ower sceal


a unique appearance!      Now I must your
frumcyn witan      ar g fyr heonan


lineage learn,      ere you far hence,
lasscaweras      on land Dena


deceiving spies      in the land of the Danes
furur fran      N g feorbend


further fare;      now you far-dwellers
merelende      mnne gehra


you sea-sailors,      hear my
nfealdne geht:      ofost is slest


one-fold thought:      speed is best
t gecanne      hwanan owre cyme syndon.'  


for reporting,      whence your comings are.'



Him se yldesta      andswarode


He the eldest      answered,
werodes wsa      wordhord onlac:


the crew's captain,      he unlocked his word-hoard:
'W synt gumcynnes      Gata lode


'We are of the tribe      of the Geat people
ond Higelces      heorgenatas


and Hygelac's      hearth-companions;

ws mn fder      folcum geced


my father was      known to the folk,
ele ordfruma      Ecgow hten


a noble vanguard-warrior,      called Edgetheow,
gebd wintra worn      ar h on weg hwurfe


who saw many winters      ere he passed away,
gamol of geardum      hine gearwe geman


old, from our courtyards;      he is readily recalled
witena wlhwylc      wde geond eoran.


by each one of the wise      widely throughout the world.
W urh holdne hige      hlford nne


We, by resolute resolve,      your lord,
sunu Healfdenes      scean cwmon


the son of Half-Dane      have come to seek,
lodgebyrgean      wes s lrena gd


that protector of the people;      be you a good guide to us;
habba w t am maran      micel arende


we have, to that grand one,      a great errand
Deniga frn      ne sceal ar dyrne sum


to the Danish lord;      there shouldn't some secret
wesan s ic wne.      wst gif hit is


be of this, I think.      You know if it is
sw w slce      secgan hrdon


as we truly      have heard said,
t mid Scyldingum      sceaona ic nt hwylc


that amongst the Scyldings,      some enemy, I know not what,
dogol dadhata      deorcum nihtum


a furtive despoiler,      in dark nights,
awe urh egsan      uncne n


sickeningly reveals      unknown enmity,
hnu ond hrfyl.      Ic s Hrgr mg


suffering and slaughter.      I can on this matter, to Hrothgar,
urh rmne sefan      rad gelaran


from a spacious spirit,      give counsel,
h h frd ond gd,      fond oferswe--


how he, wise and good,      overcome the fiend--
gyf him edwendan      afre scolde


if for him a change      ever should,
bealuwa bisigu      bt eft cuman--


from this suffering of miseries      to remedy, come after--
ond cearwylmas      clran wura


and his hot wellings of melancholic care      grow cooler;
oe syan      earforge


or else ever after,      a time of torment,
rand ola      enden ar wuna


horrible hardship he will endure,      so long as there remains,
on hahstede      hsa slest.'


in its high place,      that best of houses.
Weard maelode      ar on wicge st


The guard made a speech,      sitting there on his horse,
ombeht unforht:      'Aghwres sceal


--the unhesistating officer:      'He will --every
scearp scyldwiga      gescd witan


sharp shield-warrior--      know the distinction
worda ond worca      s e wl ence.


between words and works,      he who reasons rightly.
Ic t gehre      t is is hold weorod


I hear it,      that this is a legion loyal
fran Scyldinga      gewta for beran


to the lord of the Scyldings;      go forth bearing
wapen ond gewadu      ic ow wsige


weapons and armour;      I shall guide you;
swylce ic maguegnas      mne hte


likewise, I  the kin-thanes      of mine will order,
wi fonda gehwone      flotan owerne


against any foes      your vessel,
nwtyrwydne      nacan on sande


--newly tarred,      ship on the sand--
rum healdan      o t eft byre


to guard in honour,      until it bears back,
ofer lagustramas      lofne mannan


over the sea-streams,      the dear man,
wudu wundenhals      t Wedermearce


--the swoop-necked wood --      to Wedermark;
gdfremmendra      swylcum gifee bi


those who perform noble deeds--      to such as these it shall be granted
t one hilderas      hl gedge.'


that the battle-rush      he survive in one piece.'
Gewiton him fran      --flota stille bd


Then they went faring      --the boat at rest awaited,
seomode on sole      sidfamed scip


it rode on the sand      the broad-bosomed ship,
on ancre fst--      eoforlc scionon


on anchor fast--      boar-figures shone
ofer hlorberan      gehroden golde   atop cheekguards      adorned with gold;
fh ond frheard      ferhwearde hold


glittering and fire-hard;      life-guard they held;
gmd grummon      guman netton


war-spirits raised;      the men hastened,
sigon tsomne      o t h sltimbred


marched forward together,      until they the timbered hall,
geatolc ond goldfh      ongyton mihton


glorious and gold-trimmed,      were able to glimpse;
t ws foremarost      foldbendum


that was the foremost      --for earth-dwellers--
receda under roderum      on am se rca bd


of halls under the heavens,      in it the ruler dwelt;
lxte se loma      ofer landa fela.


its light glimmered      over many lands.
Him hildedor      hof mdigra


Then to them the fierce fellow     --to that court of great men
torht getahte      t he him t mihton


glorious-- he lead,      that they to it could
gegnum gangan      gbeorna sum


go directly;      the worthy warrior
wicg gewende      word fter cw:


turned his horse,      thereupon spoke words:
'Mal is m t fran.      Fder alwalda


'Time it is for me to go.      The Father all-ruling,
mid rstafum      owic gehealde


with grace      may He hold you
sa gesunde!      Ic t sa wille


sound on your sojourns!      I will to the sea,
wi wr werod      wearde healdan.'


against brutal dacoits      keep watch.'



Strat ws stnfh      stg wsode


The street was paved with stones,      the path guided
gumum tgdere      gbyrne scn


the men together;      war-byrnie shone
heard hondlocen      hringren scr


harsh, linked by hand,      ring-iron glittering,
song in searwum      he t sele furum


they sang in their arms,      as they to the hall straight
in hyra gryregeatwum      gangan cwmon


in their grim gear      came marching;
setton same      sde scyldas


they set down, sea-weary,      their wide shields,
rondas regnhearde      wi s recedes weal


the rims wondrous-hard      against the wall of the hall,
bugon t bence      byrnan hringdon


and bent down then to a bench;      corslets rang--
gsearo gumena      gras stdon


the war-clothes of warriors;      spears stood,
samanna searo      samod tgdere


seamen's weapons,      all together,
scholt ufan grag      ws se renrat


silvery above a grove of ash;      the iron-clad troop was
wapnum gewurad      ar wlonc hle


honoured in weapons;      then a proud noble
retmecgas      fter hleum frgn:


the elite soldiers      asked about the heroes:
'Hwanon ferigea g      fatte scyldas


'Whence ferry you      plated shields,
grage syrcan      ond grmhelmas


steel-hued shirts of mail      and masked-helms,
heresceafta hap?      Ic eom Hrgres


this host of army-shafts?      I am Hrothgar's
r ond ombiht      ne seah ic elodige


herald and officer;      I have not seen from a foreign land
us manige men      mdiglcran


this many men      looking braver in spirit;
wn' ic t g for wlenco      nalles for wracsum


I expect that you from valour,      not from exile,
ac for higerymmum      Hrgr shton.'


but from greatness of heart      have sought out Hrothgar.'
Him ellenrf      andswarode


Then him the renowned one      answered
wlanc Wedera lod      word fter sprc


--that proud prince of the Wedera nation--      spoke thereafter words,
heard under helme:      'W synt Higelces


severe beneath his helmet:      'We are Hygelac's
bodgenatas      Bowulf is mn nama


companions at table;      Beowulf  is my name;
wille ic secgan      sunu Healfdenes


I wish to proclaim to      the son of Half-Dane,
marum odne      min arende


--that famed sovereign--      my errand
aldre num      gif h s geunnan wile


to your lord,      if he wishes to grant us
t w hine sw gdne      grtan mton.'


that we him, the virtuous one,      might greet.'
Wulfgr maelode      --t ws Wendla lod


Wulfgar began to speak      --he was the Wendels' leader,
ws his mdsefa      manegum geced


his courage was      well-known to many,
wg ond wsdm--:      'Ic s wine Deniga


war-skill and wisdom--:      'I this from friend of the Danes,
fran Scildinga      frnan wille


lord of the Scyldings,      will inquire,
baga bryttan      sw bna eart


from the giver of rings,      --as you are petitioners--
oden marne      ymb nne s


from that famed sovereign      about your quest,
ond andsware      adre gecan


and to you the answer      promptly make known
e m se gda      gifan ence.'


which to me the virtuous one      sees fit to give.'
Hwearf hrdlce      ar Hrgr st


He turned then quickly      to where Hrothgar sat,
eald ond anhr      mid his eorla gedriht


old and very grey,      amid his company of earls;
ode ellenrf      t h for eaxlum gestd


he strode grandly      so that he stood by the shoulders
Deniga frn:      ce h dugue aw


of the Danes' lord:      he knew the custom of veteran-warriors;
Wulfgr maelode      t his winedrihtne:


Wulfgar made this speech      to his friend and lord:
'Hr syndon geferede      feorran cumene


'Here have ventured,      come from far away,
ofer geofenes begang      Gata lode


over the expanse of the sea,      men of the Geats;
one yldestan      retmecgas


the eldest one      of these elite warriors
Bowulf nemna      h bnan synt


is called Beowulf;      they are asking
t he, oden min,      wi mton


that they, my lord,      with you might
wordum wrixlan      n him wearne getoh


exchange words;      give them not refusal
nra gegncwida,      gldman Hrgr


from your answers,      gracious Hrothgar;
h on wggetwum      wyre incea


they by their war-gear      seem worthy
eorla gehtlan      hru se aldor dah


of the esteem of nobles;      indeed, the prince is powerful,
s am heaorincum      hider wsade.'


who the warriors      led hither.'



Hrgr maelode      helm Scyldinga:


Hrothgar spoke,      --the Helm of the Scyldings--:
'Ic hine ce      cnihtwesende


'I knew him      when he was a youth;

ws his ealdfder      Ecgo hten


his old father was      called Ecgtheow,
am t hm forgeaf      Hrel Gata


to whom gave into his home      Hrethel of the Geats
ngan dohtor      is his eaforan n


his only daughter;      now his heir is
heard hr cumen      shte holdne wine.


come here bravely,      seeking a steadfast friend.
onne sgdon t      salende


Further, it has been said by      sea-farers,
e gifsceattas      Gata fyredon


they who our gifts of coins      ferried for the Geats
yder t ance      t h rtiges


thither in thanks,      that he thirty   
manna mgencrft      on his mundgripe


men's strength      in the grip of his hand,
heaorf hbbe      hine hlig god


renowned in war, has;      him holy God,
for rstafum      s onsende


in benevolence,      has sent to us,
t West-Denum      s ic wn hbbe


to the West-Danes,      of this I have hope,
wi Grendles gryre      ic am gdan sceal


against Grendel's terror;      I the good man must
for his mdrce      mdmas bodan.


for his great daring      offer precious treasures.
Bo on ofeste      ht in gn


Be you in haste,      order to come in
son sibbegedriht      samod tgdere


to see me the noble band of kinsmen      all together;
gesaga him ac wordum      t he sint wilcuman


Say to them also in words,      that they are welcome
Deniga lodum.'     


to the Danish land.'     
                             Word inne bad:


                             A word from within announced:
'ow ht secgan      sigedrihten mn


'To you I am commanded to say      by my valorous lord,
aldor ast-Dena      t h ower elu can


the leader of the East Danes,      that he knows your noble history,
ond g him syndon      ofer sawylmas


and you are to him,      over sea-swells,
heardhicgende      hider wilcuman


--bold in thought--      welcome hither;
n g mton gangan      in owrum ggeatwum


now you may enter      in your war-gear,
under heregrman      Hrgr geseon


under visored-helmets,      to see Hrothgar;
lata hildebord      hr onbidan,


let battle-boards      here await,
wuduwlsceaftas,      worda geinges.'


and wooden slaughter-shafts,      the result of words.'
rs se rca,      ymb hine rinc manig


Then the mighty one arose,      about him many warriors,
rlc egna hap      sume ar bidon


the glorious troop of thanes;      some waited there,
heaoraf holdon      sw him se hearda bebad


guarding the gear of war      as the hardy leader bade;
snyredon tsomne      secg wsode


they hurried together;      the hero led the way for them
under Heorotes hrf


under Heorot's roof,
heard under helme      t h on hoe gestd.


severe under his helmet,      until he stood in the hall.
Bowulf maelode      --on him byrne scn


Beowulf spoke      --on him a mail-coat gleamed,
searonet seowed      smies orancum--:


a net of armour woven      by smith's skilful art--:
'Ws , Hrgr, hl.      Ic eom Higelces


'Be you, Hrothgar, whole.       I am Hygelace's
mag ond magoegn      hbbe ic mara fela


kinsman and retainer;      I have many great labours
ongunnen on geogoe      m wear Grendles ing


undertaken in my youth;      Grendel's enterprises have to me become,
on mnre eltyrf      undyrne c:


on my native soil,      clearly known:
secga salend      t s sele stande


it is said by sea-farers      that in this hall stands,
reced slesta      rinca gehwylcum


--the best of buildings--      for each and every man,
del ond unnyt      sian afenloht


idle and useless,      after evening-light
under heofenes hdor      beholen weore.


under the firmament of heaven      goes to hide.
m t gelardon      lode mne


Then I was advised that,      by my people,
slestan      snotere ceorlas,


the best ones,      the clever chaps,
oden Hrgr,      t ic shte


sovereign Hrothgar,      that it were thee I should seek,
for an he mgenes crft      mne con


for that they the force of the strength      of mine knew;
selfe oferswon      ic of searwum cwm


themselves had looked on,      when I returned from battle,
fh from fondum      ar ic ffe geband


stained with the blood of foes,      where I bound five,
de eotena cyn      ond on um slg


destroyed ogrish kin,      and amid the waves slew
niceras nihtes      nearoearfe drah


nicors by night;      I weathered distress in many a tight corner,
wrc Wedera n      --wan hsodon--


avenged injury done the Wederas      --they sought woe--
forgrand gramum      ond n wi Grendel sceal


the foes I crushed,      and now against Grendel I am bound,
wi m glacan      na gehgan


with that terrible creature,      alone,   to settle
ing wi yrse.      Ic n ,


the affair with the troll.      I now then you,
brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,


prince of the Bright-Danes,      want to request,
eodor Scyldinga,      nre bne:


O protector of the Scyldings,      one boon:
t m ne forwyrne,      wgendra hlo


that you not refuse me,      O shield of warriors,
frowine folca,      n ic us feorran cm


liege and comrade of the folk,      now that I have come thus far;
t ic mte na,      mnra eorla gedryht


that I might alone,      with my company of nobles
ond es hearda hap,      Heorot falsian


and this hardy horde of warriors,      clense Heorot;
hbbe ic ac ge-hsod      t s aglaca


I have also heard      that the evil creature
for his wonhdum      wapna ne recce


in his recklessness      heeds not weapons;
ic t onne forhicge      --sw m Higelc se


then I it scorn      --so that for me Hygelac may be
mn mondrihten      mdes ble--


my liege-lord      blithe in his heart--
t ic sweord bere      oe sdne scyld


that I bear a sword      or broad shield,
geolorand t ge      ac ic mid grpe sceal


yellow-rim to war,      but I with my grip shall
fn wi fonde      ond ymb feorh sacan,


fight with this fiend      and over life strive,
l wi lum      ar gelfan sceal


enemy against enemy;      there must trust in
dryhtnes dme      s e hine da nime


the judgement of the Lord,      whichever one that Death takes;
wn' ic t h wille      gif h wealdan mt


I expect that he will wish,      if he can compass it,
in am gsele      Gotena lode


in the war-hall,      the Geatish people
etan unforhte      sw h oft dyde,


to devour fearlessly,      as he often did,
mgenhr manna.      N mnne earft


the force of glorious warriors.      You will have no need for my
hafalan hdan      ac h m habban wile


head to shroud,      but rather he will have me
dore fahne      gif mec da nime


fiercely stained with gore,      if me Death takes,
byre bldig wl      byrgean ence


he will bear my bloody corpse;      he aims to bite,
ete ngenga      unmurnlce


the lone prowler eats      unmournfully,
mearca mrhopu      n ymb mnes ne earft


marking the limits of his moor enclosures;      nor will you for the needs of my
lces feorme      leng sorgian.


body's funeral-provisions      have any further concern.
Onsend Higelce      gif mec hild nime


Send to Hygelac,      if I am taken by battle,
beaduscrda betst      t mne brost were,


the best of battle-shrouds,      the one that protects my breast,
hrgla slest      t is Hradlan lf


choicest of garments;      that is Hrethel's relic,
Wlandes geweorc.      Ga wyrd sw ho scel.'


Wayland's work.        Fate goes always as She must.'



Hrgr maelode      helm Scyldinga:


Hrothgar spoke,      the helm of the Scyldings:
'Fre fyhtum, ,      wine mn Bowulf,


'Fit to fight, you,      my friend Beowulf,
ond for rstafum      sic shtest.


and for honour      us have sought.
Geslh n fder      fahe maste:


Your father by striking began      the greatest feud:
wear h Heaolfe      t handbonan


he was Heatholaf's      slayer by his own hand
mid Wilfingum      hine gra cyn


of the Wylfings;      then him his spear-kin
for herebrgan      habban ne mihte


for dread of troops      could not shelter;
anon h geshte      S-Dena folc


thence he sought      the South-Danes' folk
ofer a gewealc,      r-Scyldinga


over the welling of the waves,      the Honour-Scyldings;
ic furum wold      folce Deninga


at that time I had just begun to rule      the Danish folk
ond on geogoe hold      gimmerce


and in my youth held      the precious kingdom,
hordburh hlea      ws Heregr dad


the treasure-keep of heroes;      then was Heregar dead,
mn yldra mag      unlifigende


my elder brother      unliving,
bearn Healfdenes      s ws betera onne ic.


the son of Half-Dane;      he was better than I.
Sian fahe      fo ingode


Then the feud      I settled with fees;
sende ic Wylfingum      ofer wteres hrycg


I sent the Wylfings      across the water's ridge
ealde mdmas      h m as swr.


ancient treasures;      he swore oaths to me.
Sorh is m t secganne      on sefan mnum


It sorrows me to say      in my heart
gumena angum      hwt m Grendel hafa


to any man      Grendel has caused me what
hno on Heorote      mid his heteancum


humiliations in Heorot      with his thoughts of hatred,
farna gefremed      is mn fletwerod


carried out lightning-quick attacks;      my hall-troop is
wghap gewanod      he wyrd forswop


waned, that war-band;      they have been swept aside by Fate
on Grendles gryre      god ae mg


in Grendel's horrid violence;      God can easily
one dolsceaan      dada getwafan.


the rash ravager's      deeds put an end to.
Ful oft gebotedon      bore druncne


Full oft have vowed,      having drunk beer,
ofer ealowage      retmecgas


over ale-flagons,      battle-men,
t he in borsele      bdan woldon


that they in the beer-hall      would await
Grendles ge      mid gryrum ecga.


Grendel's onslaught      with vicious edges.
onne ws os medoheal      on morgentd


Then, this mead-hall was      in the morning
drihtsele drorfh      onne dg lixte,


this noble hall stained with gore      when the day lightened,
eal bencelu      blde bestmed


all of the benches      smeared with blood
heall heoru-drore      hte ic holdra las,


the hall battle-gory;      I had friends the fewer,
dorre dugue      da fornam.


cherished old battle-retinue,      for these Death took them away.
Site n t symle      ond onsal meoto


Sit now to feast      and untie your thoughts
sigehr secgum      sw n sefa hwette.'


of your glorious victories to the soldiers,      as your heart urges.'
ws Gatmcgum      geador tsomne


Then the Geatish men were      gathered together
on borsele      benc germed


in the beer-hall,      room was made on a bench,
ar swferhe      sittan odon


there the strong-souled      went to sit down,
rum dealle      egn nytte behold


proud in prowess      a thane performed his office,
s e on handa br      hroden ealowage


he who in his hands bore      an ornate ale-cup,
scencte scr wered      scop hwlum sang


decanted pure sweet mead;      a bard sang from time to time
hdor on Heorote      ar ws hlea dram,


clear in Heorot;      there was joy of heroes,
dugu unltel      Dena ond Wedera.


no small host      of Danes and Wederas.


Hunfer maelode      Ecglfes bearn
Unferth spoke,      the son of Edgelaf,
e t ftum st      fran Scyldinga who sat at the feet      of the lord of the Scyldings;
onband beadurne      --ws him Bowulfes s


he unbound battle-runes      --for him was the venture of Beowulf,
mdges merefaran      micel funca


brave seafarer's,      a source of great displeasure,
foron e h ne e      t anig er man


because he did not grant      that any other man
afre mara on m      middangeardes


ever glorious deeds the more      on middle-earth
gehdde under heofenum      onne h sylfa--:


heeded under the heavens      than he himself--:
'Eart s Bowulf      s e wi Brecan wunne


'Are you the Beowulf,      who contested against Breca          
on sdne sa      ymb sund flite?


on the broad sea,      contended around the ocean-sound?
ar git for wlence      wada cunnedon


Where you for bravado      tempted the waters
ond for dolgilpe      on dop wter


and for a foolish boast      in deep sea
aldrum ndon      n inc anig mon


risked your lives,      you no man
n lof n l      belan mihte


--neither friend nor foe--      could dissuade
sorhfullne s      a git on sund rn


from that sorrowful jaunt,      when you rowed into the strait;
ar git agorstram      earmum ehton


there you sea-currents      in your arms embraced,
maton merestrata      mundum brugdon


traversed the ocean-roads,      with hands wove,
glidon ofer grsecg      geofon um


gliding over the sea;      the ocean in waves
wol wintrys wylm      git on wteres aht


welled, in winter's swells;      you in the water's grasp
seofon niht swuncon      h t sunde oferflt


toiled for seven nights;      he got the better of you on the sea,
hfde mre mgen.      hine on morgentd


he had more might.      Then he in the morning
on Heao-Rames      holm up tbr


on Heatho-Reams' shore      was cast up by the sea;
onon h geshte      swasne el,


thence he sought      his own homeland,
lof his lodum,      lond Brondinga


dear to his people,      the land of the Brondings,
freooburh fgere      ar h folc hte


the fair citadel,      he had folk there,
burh ond bagas      bot eal wi


boroughs and rings;      the entire boast with you
sunu Banstnes      se gelaste.


the son of Beanstan      truly fulfilled.
onne wne ic t      wyrsan geingea


I expect then for you      worse results,
ah heaorasa      gehwar dohte


though you in war-assaults      everywhere prevailed,
grimre ge      gif Grendles dearst


grim combat,      if you for Grendel dare
nihtlongne fyrst      nn bdan.'


the space of a night      nearby wait.'
Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Hwt, worn fela,      wine mn Hunfer,


'Listen, you a great deal      --Unferth, my friend,
bore druncen      ymb Brecan sprace


drunk on beer--      have spoken about Breca,
sgdest from his se.      S ic talige


told of his journey.      Truth I claim
t ic merestrengo      mran hte


that I sea-strength      greater had,
earfeo on um      onne anig er man


hardship on the waves,      than any other man;
wit t gecwadon      cnihtwesende


we had it agreed,      being lads,
ond gebotedon      --waron bgen git


and vowed      --being both then still
on geogofore--      t wit on grsecg t


in the years of youth--      that we out on the ocean
aldrum ndon      ond t gefndon sw.


our lives would risk,      and thus that we did.
Hfdon swurd nacod      wit on sund rn


We had naked swords      when we rowed on the ocean-sound,
heard on handa:      wit unc wi hronfixas


hard in our hands:      we ourselves against whales
werian hton      n h wiht fram m


planned to defend;      not a whit from me was he
fldum feor      flotan meahte


on the sea-waves far      able to float,
hraor on holme      n ic fram him wolde


swifter on water,      nor did I wish to part from him;
wit tsomne      on sa waron


then we together      were on the sea,
ff nihta fyrst      o t unc fld tdrf


for the space of five nights,      until the sea-waves drove us apart,
wado weallende      wedera cealdost


the water welling,      the coldest of weathers,
npende niht      ond noranwind


the darkening night      and the north wind
heaogrim ondhwearf      hro waron a


fierce turned against us;      wild were the waves;
ws merefixa      md onhrred


then was the sea-fishes'      wrath roused;
ar m wi lum      lcsyrce mn


there me against foes      my body-shirt
heard hondlocen      helpe gefremede


strong and hand-linked,      did me help,
beadohrgl brden      on brostum lg


my battle-garment braided      lay on my breast,
golde gegyrwed      m t grunde tah


adorned with gold;      to the bottom of the sea I was drawn
fh fondscaa      fste hfde


by the hostile foe-scather,      it held me fast,
grim on grpe      hwre m gyfee wear


cruel in grip;      however, to it was granted
t ic glacan      orde gerahte


that I the monster      reached with my point,
hildebille      heaoras fornam


with battle-bill;      in the battle-rush I destroyed
mihtig meredor      urh mne hand.


the mighty sea-beast      with my hand.



Sw mec gelme      lgetonan


Thus me often      hateful attackers
ratedon earle      ic him node


pressed sorely;      I served them
doran sweorde      sw hit gedfe ws


with my dear sword,      as it was fitting;
ns he are fylle      gefan hfdon


they the feast did not      have rejoicing,
mnfordadlan      t he m gon


those perpetrators of crime,      that they partook of me,
symbel ymbsaton      sagrunde nah


sitting round a banquet      near the sea-bed
ac on mergenne      mcum wunde


but in the morning      by maiche-swords wounded,
be lfe      uppe lagon


along what is left by the waves      up they lay
sweordum swefede      t syan n


put to sleep by swords,      so that never since
ymb brontne ford      brimlende


on the high waterway      sea-travellers
lde ne letton.      Loht astan cm


way did not hinder.      Light came from the east,
beorht bacen godes      brimu swaredon


bright beacon of God,      the sea became still,
t ic sanssas      geson mihte


so that I the headlands      was able to see,
windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nere


windswept walls.      Fate often spares
unfagne eorl      onne his ellen dah.


the hero not fated to die      when his courage endures.
Hwere m gesalde      t ic mid sweorde ofslh


However it was my good fortune      that I with my sword slew
niceras nigene      n ic on niht gefrgn


nine of the nicors;      I have not heard by night
under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan


under heaven's vault      of a more grievous fight,
n on gstramum      earmran mannon


nor on the water-streams      of a more wretched man;
hwaere ic fra feng      fore gedgde


yet I the foes' grasp      survived with my life,
sies wrig      mec sa obr


weary from my venture;      then the sea bore me off
fld fter faroe      on Finna land


flood following current      onto the land of the Lapps,
wudu weallendu.      N ic wiht fram


the tossing boat.      Not a whit of thee
swylcra searona      secgan hrde


in such strife of conflict      have I heard told,
billa brgan      Breca nafre gt


of bill-blade terror;      Breca never yet
t heaolce      n gehwer incer


at battle-play,      nor either of you,
sw dorlce      dad gefremede


so boldly      performed a deed
fgum sweordum      --n ic s gylpe--


with bright swords      --I do not boast of this--
ah num brrum      t banan wurde


nevertheless, you your brothers'      killer were,
hafodmagum      s in helle scealt


near relatives;      for that you must with Hel
werho dreogan      ah n wit duge


suffer torment,      though your mind is strong;
secge ic to se,      sunu Ecglfes,


I say to you in truth,      son of Edgelaf,
t nafre Grendel sw fela      gryra gefremede


that Grendel would have never so many      atrocities committed,
atol aglaca      ealdre num,


--that terrible demon--      to your leader,
hno on Heorote      gif n hige ware


humiliation on Heorot,      if your heart were,
sefa sw searogrim      sw self talast


and your spirit so battle-fierce      as you yourself tell
ac h hafa onfunden      t h fahe ne earf


but he has found      that the fight he needs not,
atole ecgrce      ower lode


that terrible storm of sword-edges      of your nation,
swe onsittan      Sige-Scyldinga


greatly to dread,      of the Victory-Scyldings;
nyme ndbde      nanegum ra


he takes a forced toll,      spares none
lode Deniga      ac h lust wige


of the Danish people,      but he carries on his delight,
swefe ond sende      secce ne wne


slaying and despatching,      he does not expect contest
t Gr-Denum.      Ac ic him Gata sceal


from the Spear-Danes.      But I shall him the Geats'
eafo ond ellen      ungera n


might and courage,      before long now,
ge gebodan      ga eft, s e mt


offer in war;      a man will be able to go back,
t medo mdig      sian morgenloht


to mead bravely,      when the morning-light
ofer ylda bearn      res dgores


over the sons of men      of another day,
sunne sweglwered      san scne.'


the sun clad in radiance,      shines from the south.'
ws on slum      sinces brytta


Then was joyful      the dispenser of treasures,
gamolfeax ond grf      goce gelfde


with wizened hair and brave in battle      for support he trusted
brego Beorht-Dena      gehrde on Bowulfe


the lord of the Bright-Danes      heard in Beowulf
folces hyrde      fstradne geht


the guardian of the folk,      firmly-resolved intent;
ar ws hlea hleahtor      hlyn swynsode


There was the laughter of heroes,      the noise made melody,
word waron wynsume.      ode Wealhow for


words were joyful.      Wealhtheow came forth,
cwn Hrgres      cynna gemyndig


Hrothgar's queen,      mindful of etiquette,
grtte goldhroden      guman on healle


greeted, gold-adorned,      the men in the hall
ond frolc wf      ful gesealde


and then the noble lady      gave out full cups,
arest ast-Dena      elwearde


first to the East-Danes      homeland-guardian,
bd hine blne      t are borege


bade him be blithe      at the partaking of beer,
lodum lofne      h on lust geeah


beloved by the people;      he took in delight
symbel ond seleful      sigerf kyning


feast-food and hall-cup,      the victorious king;
ymb-ode      ides Helminga


then she went among them,      the lady of the Helmings,
dugue ond geogoe      dal aghwylcne


to veteran and youth      a portion to each,
sincfato sealde      o t sal lamp


gave rich cups,      until the time came
t ho Bowulfe,      baghroden cwn


that she to Beowulf,      the ring-adorned queen,
mde geungen      medoful tbr


blossoming in spirit,      carried a mead-cup;
grtte Gata lod      gode ancode


she greeted the Geatish prince,      thanked God,
wsfst wordum      s e hire se willa gelamp


wise in her words,      for that her wish was to be fulfilled,
t ho on anigne      eorl gelfde


that she in any      noble man could count on
fyrena frfre.      H t ful geeah


relief from wickedness.      He took that full-cup,
wlrow wiga      t Wealhn


the slaughter-fierce warrior      from Wealhtheow,
ond gyddode      ge gefsed


and then spoke solemnly,      made eager for war;
Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Ic t hogode      ic on holm gesth


'I resolved that,      when I mounted the water,
sabt gest      mid mnra secga gedriht


sat down in the sea-boat      amid my company of warriors,
at ic nunga      owra loda


that I forthwith      your people's
willan geworhte      oe on wl crunge


will would work,      or fall in slaughter,
fondgrpum fst      ic gefremman sceal


fast in the fiend's grasp;      I must perform
eorlc ellen      oe endedg


this daring act of courage      or the last day
on isse meoduhealle      mnne gebdan.'


in this mead-hall      of mine await.'
m wfe word      wl lcodon


The woman these words      liked well,
gilpcwide Gates      ode goldhroden


the vow-speech of the Geat;      went gold-adorned,
frolicu folccwn      t hire fran sittan.


the noble queen of the folk,      to sit by her lord.
ws eft sw ar      inne on healle


Then were again, as before,      in the hall,
rword sprecen,      od on salum,


bold words spoken,      the people full of joy,
sigefolca swg      o t semninga


--victory-folk's clamour--      until presently
sunu Healfdenes      scean wolde


the son of Half-Dane      wished to seek
afenrste      wiste am hlacan


evening-rest;      he knew that the ogre
t am hahsele      hilde geinged


for the high hall      had plotted an attack,
sian he sunnan loht      geson meahton


ever since when they the sun's light      could see;
oe npende      niht ofer ealle


and darkening      night all over,
scaduhelma gesceapu      scran cwman


shadow-helm's shapes      came slithering,
wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall rs


black beneath the skies.      The troop all arose;
gegrtte guma      guman erne


greeted then the man      the other man,
Hrgr Bowulf      ond him hal bad


Hrothgar Beowulf,      and bid him health,
wnrnes geweald      ond t word cw:


the wine-hall's ruler,      and spoke these words:
'Nafre ic anegum men      ar lfde


'I never to any man      before entrusted,
sian ic hond ond rond      hebban mihte


since I hand and shield      was able to raise,
rrn Dena      bton n


this strong-hall of the Danes,      save to thee now;
hafa n ond geheald      hsa slest


have now and hold      this best of houses,
gemyne maro      mgenellen c


focus on glory,      show great valour,
waca wi wrum      ne bi wilna gd


keep watch against the enemy;      there shall be no dearth of your desires
gif t ellenweorc      aldre gedgest.'


if this courage-work you      survive with your life.'



him Hrgr gewt      mid his hlea gedryht   Then Hrothgar went      with his band of heroes,
eodur Scyldinga      t of healle   the protector of the Scyldings,      out of the hall;
wolde wgfruma      Wealho scan


he wished      to seek Wealhtheow,
cwn t gebeddan      hfde kyningwuldor


the queen as companion in bed;      the glory of kings had,
Grendle tganes      sw guman gefrungon


against Grendel,      --so men heard--
seleweard seted:      sundornytte behold


the hall-guard posted:      special duty he held
ymb aldor Dena      eotonweard' bad.


for the chief of the Danes,      ogre-watch he kept.
Hru Gata lod      georne trwode


Indeed the prince of the Geats      keenly trusted
mdgan mgnes,      metodes hyldo


in his prodigious power,      his Maker's favour,
h him of dyde      sernbyrnan


then he from himself took      iron-byrnie,
helm of hafelan      sealde his hyrsted sweord


helm from head,      gave his adorned sword,
rena cyst      ombihtegne


the choicest of irons,      to his retainer,
ond gehealdan ht      hildegeatwe


and commanded him ward      his battle-gear;
gesprc se gda      gylpworda sum


the good man spoke then      some promise-words,
Bowulf Gata      ar h on bed stige:


Beowulf of the Geats,      before he stepped into bed:
'N ic m an herewsmun      hngran talige


'I myself in martial-stature do not      tally poorer
ggeweorca      onne Grendel hine


in works of war      then Grendel himself;
foran ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,


therefore him with my sword I      shall not slay,
aldre benotan      ah ic eal mge


deprive of life,      though I fully am able;
nt h ra gda      t h m ongan sl


he knows not the finer skills      that he may strike me back,
rand gehawe      ah e h rf se


hew my rimmed-shield,      although he is renowned
ngeweorca      ac wit on niht sculon


for malicious works      but we at night must
secge ofersittan      gif h gescean dear


relinquish short sword      if he dares to seek
wg ofer wapen      ond sian wtig god


war without weapons,      and then wise God,
on sw hwere hond      hlig dryhten


on whichever hand,      the holy Lord
maro dme      sw him gemet ince.'


will allot glory,      as seems fitting to Him.'
Hylde hine heaodor      --hlorbolster onfng


The war-bold one then bent himself down      --the cheek-bolster received
eorles andwlitan--      ond hine ymb monig


the earl's face--      and round him many
snellc sarinc      selereste gebah


brave seaman      sank down in hall-slumber;
nanig heora hte      t h anon scolde


none of them thought      that he thence would
eft eardlufan      afre gescean


his dear home again      ever visit,
folc oe froburh      ar h fded ws


his folk or his noble citadel,      where he was nurtured
ac he hfdon gefrnen      t he ar t fela micles


for they had heard      that far too many of them already
in am wnsele      wlda fornam


in that wine-hall      slaughtering Death had carried off
Denigea lode.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf


of the Danish people.      But to them the Lord granted
wgspda gewiofu       Wedera lodum


the woven-destiny of war-luck      to the Wederas' men,
frfor ond fultum      t he fond heora


solace and support,      that they their foe,
urh nes crft      ealle ofercmon


through the strength of one,      all overcame,
selfes mihtum      s is geced,


by his own might;      truth is known
t mihtig god      manna cynnes


that mighty God      mankind
weold wdeferh.      Cm on wanre niht


has ruled forever.      In the colourless night came
scran sceadugenga      scotend swafon


slinking the shadow-wanderer;      the shooters slept,
t hornreced      healdan scoldon


they that the horned-house      were obliged to guard,
ealle bton num      --t ws yldum c


all but one      --it was known to men
t he ne mste      metod nolde


that they could not,      when the Maker did not wish it,
se synscaa      under sceadu bregdan--


by the malefactor      be drawn under the shadows--
ac h wccende      wrum on andan


but he watching      in angry indignation
bd bolgenmd      beadwa geinges.


bided in rising rage      for the result of battle.



cm of mre      under misthleoum


Then came from the moor      under the misty cliffs
Grendel gongan      godes yrre br


Grendel walking,      God's wrath he bore;

mynte se mnscaa      manna cynnes


the vile ravager meant      from mankind
sumne besyrwan      in sele m han


a sample to snare      in the high hall;
wd under wolcnum      t s e h wnreced


he waded under the clouds      until he the wine-hall,
goldsele gumena      gearwost wisse


--the gold-hall of men--      mostly-certainly saw,
fattum fhne      ne ws t forma s


shining gold;      it was not the first time
t h Hrgres      hm geshte


that he Hrothgar's      home had sought;
nafre h on aldordagum      ar ne sian


he never in the days of his life,      ere nor after,
heardran hale      healegnas fand.


harder luck      or hall-thanes found.
  Cm to recede      rinc sian


  He came then to the hall      the fighter journeying,
dramum bedaled      duru sna onarn


cut-off from merriment;      the door soon rushed open,
frbendum fst      syan h hire folmum thrn


firm with fire-forged bands,      when he tapped it with his hands
onbrad bealohdig      h gebolgen ws,


plotting evil then he tore open,      now that he was enraged,
recedes man      rae fter on


the mouth of the building;      straight after that
on fgne flr      fond treddode


on the tessellated floor      the fiend treaded,
ode yrremd      him of agum std


advanced angrily;      from his eyes issued,
ligge gelcost      loht unfager


most like a flame,      a distorted light;
geseah h in recede      rinca manige


he saw in the hall      many warriors
swefan sibbegedriht      samod tgdere


a sleeping company of kinsmen      gathered together
magorinca hap.      his md hlg:


a great host of warriors.      Then his heart laughed:  
mynte t h gedalde      ar on dg cwme


he intended to deprive,      ere the day came,
atol glaca      nra gehwylces


the cruel beast,      from each one
lf wi lce      him lumpen ws


life from body,      now had befallen him
wistfylle wn.      Ne ws t wyrd gn


a hope of a full feast.      It was not his fate again
t h m mste      manna cynnes


that he might more      of mankind
icgean ofer niht      rsw behold


partake of after that night;      the mighty man beheld,
mag Higelces      h se mnscaa


the kinsman of Hygelac,      how the cruel killer
under fargripum      gefaran wolde.


by means of a sudden attack      wished to proceed.
N t se glaca      yldan hte


That the monster did not      think to delay,
ac h gefng hrae      forman se


but he quickly grasped,      at the first occasion,
slapendne rinc      slt unwearnum


a sleeping warrior,      rended without restraint,
bt bnlocan      bld drum dranc


bit into the bone-locks,      from the veins drank blood,
synsnadum swealh      sna hfde


swallowed great chunks;      soon he had
unlyfigendes      ealgefeormod


the unliving one      all devoured,
ft ond folma      for nar tstp


feet and hands;      nearer he stepped forth,
nam mid handa      higehtigne


taking then with his hands      a stout-hearted
rinc on rste      rahte ongan


warrior from his rest,      reached towards him
fond mid folme      h onfng hrae


the foe with his palm;      quickly he grasped
inwitancum      ond wi earm gest.


the malice thoughts      and clamped down on the arm.
Sna t onfunde      fyrena hyrde


At once he found,      the shepherd of atrocities,
t h ne mtte      middangeardes


that he had not met      in middle-earth,
eoran scatta      on elran men


in the expanse of the world,      in another man
mundgripe mran      h on mde wear


a greater hand-grip;      he in his heart grew
forht on ferhe      n ar fram meahte


fearing for life;      none the sooner could he away;
hyge ws him hinfs      wolde on heolster flon,


eager-to-go-hence was the thought in him,      he wanted to flee into the darkness,
scan dofla gedrg      ne ws his drohto ar


to seek the devils' concourse;      his situation there was not
swylce h on ealderdagum      ar gemtte.


like he in the days of his life      ever had met.

Gemunde se gda      mag Higelces


The good man then recalled,      the kinsman of Hygelac,
afensprace      uplang std


his evening-speech;      upright he stood
ond him fste wifng      fingras burston


and laid hold of him tight;      fingers burst;
eoten ws tweard      eorl furur stp.


the troll was striving to move outward,      the earl stepped forward.
Mynte se mara      hwar h meahte sw


The infamous one meant,      anywhere he so was able,
wdre gewindan      ond on weg anon


farther escape      and away thence
flon on fenhopu     wiste his fingra geweald


flee to his secret places in the fen;      he knew his fingers' control
on grames grpum      t he ws gocors


in his enemy's grip,      that was a bitter journey he
t s hearmscaa      to Heorute tah.


that the harm-warrior      had taken to Heorot.
Dryhtsele dynede      Denum eallum wear


The noble hall broke into a din;      the Danes all were,
ceasterbendum      cnra gehwylcum


--the citadel-dwellers--      each of the bold,
eorlum ealuscerwen      yrre waron bgen


earls in the flood of bitter drink;      enraged were both
re renweardas      reced hlynsode.


fierce hall-wards;      the hall resounded.
ws wundor micel      t se wnsele


Then it was a great wonder      that the wine-hall
wihfde heaodorum      t h on hrsan ne fol


withstood the war-fighters,      that it did not fall to the ground,

fager foldbold      ac h s fste ws


the fair mansion      but it so firm was
innan ond tan      renbendum


inside and out      with iron-bands
searooncum besmiod      ar fram sylle bag


skilfully smithed;      there from the floor broke away
medubenc monig      mne gefrage


many mead-benches,      I heard,
golde geregnad      ar graman wunnon


adorned with gold,      where the enemies struggled;
s ne wndon ar      witan Scyldinga


it was not thought before,      by the sages of the Scyldings,
t hit mid gemete      manna anig


that it ever by means      any men
betlc ond bnfg      tbrecan meahte,


splendid and bone-adorned,      could break it up,
listum tlcan      nyme lges fm


cleverly cleave asunder,      not unless fire's embrace
swulge on swaule.      Swg up stg


swallowed it in inferno.      Sound ascended up,
nwe geneahhe      Nor-Denum std


new, nearby:      the North-Danes stood
atelc egesa      nra gehwylcum


in ghastly horror,      in each one of

ra e of wealle      wp gehrdon,


them who from the wall      weeping heard,
gryrelo galan      godes andsacan


terrible screaming,      God's adversary,
sigelasne sang,      sr wnigean


a victoryless song,      bewailing his wound,
helle hfton      hold hine fste


Hel's prisoner;      he held him fast,
s e manna ws      mgene strengest


he who was of men      in might strongest
on am dge      ysses lfes.


on that day      in this life.



sydaudio Nolde eorla hlo      anige inga


The protector of earls had no wish      for any reason

one cwealmcuman      cwicne forlatan


the murderous guest      to release alive,
n his lfdagas      loda anigum


nor his life-days      to any people
nytte tealde.      r genehost brgd


counted as advantage.      There many brandished
eorl Bowulfes      ealde lfe


warriors of Beowulf,      old heirlooms,
wolde fradrihtnes      feorh ealgian


they wished prince-lord's      life defend,
mares odnes      ar he meahton sw


the legendary leader's,      if they could do so;
he t ne wiston      he gewin drugon


they did not know that,      when they joined the fray,
heardhicgende      hildemecgas


the bold-minded      battle-men,
ond on healfa gehwone      hawan hton,


and on each side      thought to heaw,
swle scan:      one synscaan


to seek the soul:      that the sin-scather
anig ofer eoran      renna cyst


any on earth,      of the choicest of irons,
gbilla nn      grtan nolde


of war-bills, none,      could not at all greet him
ac h sigewapnum      forsworen hfde


but he victory-weapons      had forsworn,
ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldorgedl


every blade-edge.      His life-severing was bound to
on am dge      ysses lfes


on that day      in this life
earmlc wuran      ond se ellorgst


be wretched,      and the alien-spirit
on fonda geweald      feor sian


into the administration of fiends      would journey far away;
t onfunde      s e fela aror


then he found,      he who before many,
mdes myre      manna cynne


miseries in his mind,      on mankind
fyrene gefremede      --he, fg wi god--


atrocities committed      --he, who fought with God--
t him se lchoma      lastan nolde


that him his body-shell      would not obey,
ac hine se mdega      mag Hygelces


but him the daring      kinsman of Hygelac
hfde be honda      ws gehwer rum


had by the hand;      each was by the other
lifigende l      lcsr gebd


loathed while living;      body-pain he felt,
atol aglaca      him on eaxle wear


the awful ogre;      on his shoulder was
syndolh sweotol      seonowe onsprungon


a great wound apparent,      sinows sprang asunder,
burston bnlocan      Bowulfe wear


bone-locks burst;      to Beowulf was
ghr gyfee      scolde Grendel onan


war-glory given;      thence Grendel had to
feorhsoc fln      under fenhleou,


flee sick unto death      under the hills of the fen,
scean wynlas wc      wiste geornor


to seek his joyless abode;      he knew it more surely
t his aldres ws      ende gegongen


that was his life's      end arrived,
dgera dgrm.      Denum eallum wear


the day-count of his days.      For the Danes were all,
fter m wlrase      willa gelumpen:


after that slaughter-storm,      wishes come to pass:
hfde gefalsod      s e ar feorran cm


he had then cleansed,      he who had before come from afar,
snotor ond swferh      sele Hrgres,


shrewd and strong-minded,      the hall of Hrothgar,
genered wi ne      nihtweorce gefeh


rescued from ruin;      in his night's work he rejoiced,
ellenmarum      hfde ast-Denum


in valour from great deeds;      to the East-Danes had
Gatmecga lod      gilp gelsted


the Geatmen's leader,      his oath fulfilled;
swylce once      ealle gebtte


so too anguish      all remedied,
inwidsorge      he ar drugon


grievous sorrow,      that they had ere endured,
ond for randum      olian scoldon


and in hard distress      had to suffer,
torn unltel      t ws tcen sweotol


no small misery;      that was a clear sign,
syan hildedor      hond legde


when the battle-bold one      the hand placed,
earm ond eaxle      --ar ws eal geador


arm and shoulder      --there was all together
Grendles grpe--      under gapne hrf.


the grip of Grendel--      under the gaping roof.



ws on morgen      mne gefrage


Then was in the morning,      as I heard tell,
ymb gifhealle      grinc monig


about the gift-hall      many warriors,
frdon folctogan      feorran ond nn


folk-chiefs arrived      from far and near
geond wdwegas      wundor scawian


across wide regions      to behold the wonder,
les lstas      n his lfgedl


the foe's foot-prints;      his parting from life did not
srlc hte      secga anegum


seem mournful      to any man
ra e trlases      trode scawode


of those who the gloryless foe's      track observed,
h h wrigmd      on weg anon


how he weary      away thence,
na ofercumen      on nicera mere


vanquished by violence,      to the nicors' mere
fage ond geflmed      feorhlstas br.


doomed and driven back      left behind life-trails.
ar ws on blde      brim weallende,


There with blood was      the water seething,
atol a geswing      eal gemenged


terrible swirling of swells      all mingled
hton heolfre      heorodrore wol


with boiling gore,      with sword-blood it welled,
dafage dog      sian drama las


doomed to die he hid himself,      then, bereft of pleasure,
in fenfreoo      feorh legde


in his fen-refuge      he laid down his life,
haene swle      ar him hel onfng. his heathen soul;      there Hel embraced him.
anon eft gewiton      ealdgesas


Thence returned      old companions,
swylce geong manig      of gomenwe


also many young,      from the sport-chase,
fram mere mdge      marum rdan


from the mere full-spirited,      riding horses,
beornas on blancum      ar ws Bowulfes


warriors on fair steeds,      there was Beowulf's
maro maned      monig oft gecw


glory proclaimed;      many often said
tte s n nor      be sam twonum


that neither south nor north      between the seas
ofer eormengrund      er nanig


over the whole vast earth,      no other
under swegles begong      slra nare


under the sky's expanse      was ne're better
rondhbbendra,      rces wyrra


shield-bearer,      of a worthier kingdom;
n he hru winedrihten      wiht ne lgon


nor, however, the friend and lord,      did they blame at all,
gldne Hrgr      ac t ws gd cyning.


gracious Hrothgar,      for he was a good king.
Hwlum heaorfe      hlapan lton


At times the brave warriors      let leap,
on geflit faran      fealwe maras


in a contest raced      fallow horses,
ar him foldwegas      fgere hton


where to them the earth-roads      seemed suitable,
cystum ce.      Hwlum cyninges egn


and known to be the best.      At times the king's thane,
guma gilphlden      gidda gemyndig


a man laden with fine speech,      remembering songs,
s e ealfela      ealdgesegena


he who very many      of ancient traditions
worn gemunde      word er fand


recalled scores,      found new words
se gebunden      secg eft ongan


bound in truth;      the man then began
s Bowulfes      snyttrum styrian


Beowulf's exploit      skilfully to recite,
ond on spd wrecan      spel gerde,


and artfully utter      an adept tale,
wordum wrixlan      wlhwylc gecw


varying his words;      he spoke of almost everything
t h fram Sigemunde      secgan hyrde


that he of Sigmund      had heard said,
ellendadum:      unces fela


of his deeds of glory:      many uncanny things,
Wlsinges gewin      wde sas


the striving of Wael's son,      his great journeys;
ra e gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston


those things of which the childen of men      by no means knew,
fahe ond fyrena      bton Fitela mid hine,


feuds and feats of arms,      only Fitela with him,
onne h swulces hwt      secgan wolde


then he of such matters      was wont to speak of,
m his nefan      sw he waron


uncle to his nephew,      as they always were
t na gehwm      ndgesteallan


in every conflict      comrades in need;
hfdon ealfela      eotena cynnes


they had a great many      of the giantkind
sweordum gesaged      Sigemunde gesprong


laid low with swords;      for Sigmund arose,
fter dadge      dm unltel


after the day of his death,      no little fame,
syan wges heard      wyrm cwealde


since the fierce warrior      had quelled the great serpent,
hordes hyrde      h under hrne stn


the keeper of a hoard;      beneath the hoary grey stone he,
elinges bearn      na gende


the prince's son,      alone ventured
frcne dade      ne was him Fitela mid


a dangerous deed,      Fitela was not with him;
hwre him gesalde      t t swurd urhwd


however it was granted him      that the sword pierced
wratlcne wyrm      t hit on wealle tstd


the wondrous wyrm,      so that it stood fixed in the wall,
dryhtlc ren      draca morre swealt


the noble iron;      the dragon perished in the slaughter;
hfde glaca      elne gegongen


the fearsome one had      ensured by courage
t h bahhordes      brcan mste


that he the ring-hoard      might possess
selfes dme      sabt gehlod


at his own chosing;      he loaded the sea-boat,
br on bearm scipes      beorhte frtwa


bore in the bosom of his ship      the gleaming treasures,
Wlses eafera      --wyrm ht gemealt--


Wael's son      --the wyrm in its heat melted--
s ws wreccena      wde marost


he was of adventurers      the most widely famed
ofer werode      wgendra hlo


among nations,      the warriors' protector,
ellendadum      --h s ar onh--


for deeds of valour      --he had prospered by this--
sian Heremdes      hild swerode,


since Heremod's      skirmishing had abated,
earfo ond ellen      he mid eotenum wear


affliction and spirit;      he among the Etins was
on fonda geweald      for forlcen


into enemy hands      given up,
snde forsended      hine sorhwylmas


quickly despatched;      the surgings of sorrow him
lemede t lange      h his lodum wear


hindered too long;      he to his people became,
eallum ellingum      t aldorceare


to all of the nobels,      a great mortal sorrow;
swylce oft bemearn      arran malum


moreover they often mourned,      for in earlier times,
swferhes s      snotor ceorl monig


the departure of the stouted-hearted king,      many learnd sages
s e him bealwa      t bte gelfde


who to him for miseries'      remedy had trusted and believed
t t odnes bearn      geon scolde,


that that prince's son      must prosper,
fderelum onfn,      folc gehealdan


take up his father's rank,      rule the folk,
hord ond hloburh      hlea rce


their treasury and citadel,      the heroes' kingdom,
el Scyldinga      h ar eallum wear


homeland of the Scyldings;      he by all became,
mag Higelces      manna cynne


the kinsman of Hygelac,      by mankind,
frondum gefgra      hine fyren onwd.


more esteemed;      wickedness undid him.
Hwlum fltende      fealwe strate


Now and then racing,      dusky streets
marum maton.      was morgenloht


on their mounts they traversed.      Then was the morning light
scofen ond scynded      ode scealc monig


hurried and hastened;      many retainers went
swhicgende      t sele m han


determined      to the high hall
searowundor son      swylce self cyning


to see the strange wonder;      the king himself too
of brdbre      bahhorda weard


from his wife's bower,      the ward of the ring-hoard,
tryddode trfst      getrume micle


stepped out splendid      with his great troop,
cystum geced      ond his cwn mid him


famed for his excellence,      and his queen with him,
medostigge mt      mga hse.


passed down the meadhall-path,      accompanied by maidens.



Hrgr maelode      --h to halle gong


Hrothgar spoke      --he went to the hall,
std on stapole     geseah stapne hrf


stood on the steps,      observed the steep roof
golde fhne      ond Grendles hond--:


adorned with gold      and Grendel's hand--:
'isse ansne      alwealdan anc


'For this sight      Thanks to the All-Ruler
lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic les gebd,


be swiftly forthcoming!      I have suffered many injuries,
grynna t Grendle      mg god wyrcan


griefs from Grendel;      God can always work
wunder fter wundre,      wuldres hyrde.


wonder after wonder,      glory's Keeper.
at ws ungera      t ic anigra m


It was not long past      that I for me any
wana ne wnde      t wdan feore


for woes not hoped      for the bredth of my life,
bte gebdan      onne blde fh


to experience remedy      when adorned with blood
hsa slest      heorodrorig std:


the most splendid house      stood battle-gory:
wa wdscofen      witena gehwylcne


woe widespread      for each of the sages
ra e ne wndon      t he wdeferh


those who did not hope      that in the span of their lives
loda landgeweorc      lum beweredon


the nation's fortress      from foes they could protect,
scuccum ond scinnum      n scealc hafa


from shucks and shines;      now a warrior has,
urh drihtnes miht      dad gefremede


through the Lord's power,      performed a deed
e w ealle      ar ne meahton


which we all      before could not
snyttrum besyrwan      hwt, t secgan mg


with schemes contrive;      listen, that may say
efne sw hwylc mga      sw one magan cende


even so whichever woman      as that begot this man,
fter gumcynnum      gyf ho gt lyfa


among mankind,      if she yet lives,
t hyre ealdmetod      ste ware


that to her the Old Measurer of Fate      was gracious
bearngebyrdo.      N ic, Bowulf, ec,


in child-bearing.      Now, I, Beowulf, you,
secg betosta,      m for sunu wylle


the best of men,      for me like a son would
frogan on ferhe      heald for tela


love in life;      keep well henceforth
nwe sibbe      ne bi anigre gd


this new kinship;      there will not be any want
worolde wilna      ic geweald hbbe


of worldly wishes      while I have power;
ful oft ic for lassan      lan teohhode


full oft I for less      rewards have bestowed,
hordweorunge      hnhran rince


honouring with treasure      a humbler man,
samran t scce      self hafast


lesser at fighting;      you for yourself have
dadum gefremed      t n dm lyfa


by deeds ensured,      that your fame lives
wa t aldre      alwalda ec


for ever and ever;      may the All-Ruler you
gde forgylde      sw h n gt dyde!'


reward with good,      as He has now yet done!'
Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'W t ellenweorc      stum miclum


'We the courage-works      with great pleasure,
feohtan fremedon      frcne gendon


endeavoured to fight,      boldly risked
eafo unces.      e ic swor


the strength of an unknown foe.      I would rather
t hine selfne      geson mste


that you him himself      might have seen,
fond on frtewum      fylwrigne


the fiend in his full gear      wearied by death;
ic him hrdlce      heardan clammum


I him quickly      in hard clasp
on wlbedde      wran hte


on the bed of slaughter      thought to fetter,
t h for handgripe      mnum scolde


that he because of the hand-grip      of mine must
licgean lfbysig      btan his lc swice


lie struggling for life,      lest his body slip away;
ic hine ne mihte      metod nolde


I him could not,      when the Measurer of Fate did not wish it,
ganges getwaman      n ic him s georne tfealh


hinder departing;      nor I so readily kept him close,
feorhgenlan      ws t foremihtig


that mortal foe;      he was too overpowering,
fond on fe      hwere, h his folme forlt


the fiend in departing;      however, he left his hand
t lfwrae      lst weardian,


to save his life,      remaining behind,
earm ond eaxle      n ar anige sw ah


arm and shoulder;      not with it though any
fasceaft guma      frfre gebohte


the worthless creature,      relief purchased;
n leng leofa      lgetona


not the longer does he live,      the hateful spoiler,
synnum geswenced      ac hyne sr hafa


struck down by sins      but him the wound has
in ngripe      nearwe befongen


with violent grip      narrowly enclosed
balwon bendum      ar bdan sceal


in baleful bonds,      there he must await,
maga mne fh      miclan dmes


the creature stained with crimes,      the great judgement,
h him scr metod      scrfan wille.'


how him the glorious Measure of Fate      wishes to decree.'
ws swgra secg      sunu Ecglfes


Then the man was more silent,      the son of Edgelaf,
on gylpsprace      ggeweorca


in boast-speech      of war-works
sian elingas      eorles crfte


when the noble men,      by the strength of the prince
ofer hanne hrf      hand scawedon


over the high roof      saw the hand,
feondes fingras      foran aghwylc ws


the fiend's fingers;      on the front of each was,
steda ngla gehwylc      stle gelcost


in the place of each nail      very much like steel
haenes handsporu      hilderinces


heathenish hand-spurs,      the war-creature's
egl unhoru      aghwylc gecw


ungentle talon;      everyone said
t him heardra nn      hrnan wolde


that him no hard weapon      would strike,
ren argd,      t s hlacan


pre-eminent iron,      that of them (none) the demon's
bldge beadufolme      onberan wolde.


bloody battle-hand      would injure.



ws hten hree      Heort innanweard


Then the order was promptly given      the interior of Heorot
folmum gefrtwod      fela ara ws


to furnish by hands;      many there were,
wera ond wfa      e t wnreced


of men and women,      who the wine-hall,
gestsele gyredon      goldfg scinon


the guest-hall prepared;      gold-glittering shone
web fter wgum      wundorsona fela


woven tapestries along the walls,      many wondrous sights
secga gehwylcum      ra e on swylc stara


for each of the men,      who on such stared;

ws t beorhte bold      tbrocen swe


that bright building was      badly broken up
eal inneweard      renbendum fst,


all inside      secure with iron-bands,
heorras thlidene      hrf na gens


hinges sprung open;      the roof alone remained
ealles ansund      se glaca


entirely sound,      when the ogre,
fyrendadum fg      on flam gewand


guilty of wicked deeds      turned in flight,
aldres orwna.      N t e by


despairing of life.      That is not easy
to beflnne      --fremme s e wille--


to flee from      --try he who will--
ac gesacan sceal      swlberendra


but he must gain by strife,      those who have souls,
nde gendde,      nia bearna


compelled by necessity,      the mens' sons',
grundbendra      gearwe stwe


the ground-dwellers'      ready place,
ar his lchoma      legerbedde fst


there his body,      fast in his death-bed,
swefe fter symle.      ws sal ond mal


sleeps after feasting.      Then it was the time and occasion
t t healle gang      Healfdenes sunu


that to the hall went      Half-Dane's son;
wolde self cyning      symbel icgan


the king himself wished      to partake of the feast;
ne gefrgen ic mage      mran weorode


I have not heard when a tribe      in a greater force
ymb hyra sincgyfan      sl gebaran


around their treasure-giver      comported themselves better;
bugon t bence      bladgande


they then sank down on the bench,      the fame-bearers,
fylle gefagon      fgere geagon


rejoicing at the feast;      they graciously received
medoful manig      mgas ra


many full goblets of mead,      their kinsmen,
swhicgende      on sele m han


stout-hearted,      in the high hall
Hrgr ond Hrulf      Heorot innan ws


Hrothgar and Hrothulf      the interior of Heorot was
frondum fylled      nalles fcenstafas


filled with friends;      no treacherous-strokes
od-Scyldingas      enden fremedon.


the Folk-Scyldings      made as yet.
Forgeaf Bowulfe      brand Healfdenes


Then Beowulf was given      the brand of Half-Dane,
segen gyldenne      sigores t lane


the golden banner      in reward of victory,
hroden hiltecumbor,      helm ond byrnan


the adorned standard,      helm and byrnie;
mare mumsweord      manige geswon


the renowned treasure-sword      many saw
beforan beorn beran      Bowulf geah


brought before the hero;      Beowulf took
ful on flette      n h are feohgyfte


the full flagon from the floor;      of the reward-gift he did not,
for sctenum      scamigan orfte


as payment,      need to be ashamed;
ne gefrgn ic frondlcor      fower mdmas


I have not heard that more graciously      four treasures,
golde gegyrede      gummanna fela


adorned with gold,      many men
in ealobence      rum gesellan


on ale-bench      have given to others;
ymb s helmes hrf      hafodbeorge


around the helmet's roof      --the head-guard--
wrum bewunden      walan tan hold


was wound with wires      the re-inforced crest guarded from without,
t him fla lf      frcne ne meahton


that him what the files have left      could not savagely,
scrheard scean      onne scyldfreca


(could not) harm the wondrously-tempered (helm),      when the shield-fighter
ongan gramum      gangan scolde.


against enemies      had to go.
Heht eorla hlo       eahta maras


The defender of earls then ordered      eight horses,
fatedhlore      on flet tn


with decorated head-gear,      led onto the hall-floor
in under eoderas      ra num std


in under the ramparts;      one of them stood,
sadol searwum fh      since gewurad


saddle skilfully adorned,      ennobled with jewels;
t ws hildesetl      hahcyninges


that was the battle-seat      of the high king,
onne sweorda gelc      sunu Healfdenes


when in sword-play      the son of Half-Dane
efnan wolde      nafre on re lg


wished to engage;      in the vanguard it never failed
wdces wg      onne walu follon


his warskill well-known,      when the slain were falling;
ond Bowulfe      bga gehwres


and then to Beowulf      both of the treasures
eodor Ingwina      onweald getah


the protector of the Friends of Ing      bestowed possession,
wicga ond wapna      ht hine wl brcan


horses and weapons;      he ordered him to make good use of (them);
sw manlce      mare oden


so in a manly manner      the famed chieftain,
hordweard hlea      heaorasas geald


the hoard-ward of heroes,      paid for war-clashes
marum ond mdmum      sw h nafre man lyh


in horses and treasures;      thus, one can never find fault in them
s e secgan wile      s fter rihte.


he who wishes to tell      the truth according to what is right.



gt aghwylcum      eorla drihten


Then, furthermore, to each one      of the earl's company
ra e mid Bowulfe      brimlade teah


those with Beowulf      travelled the sea-path,
on re medubence      mum gesealde


on the mead-bench      he gave treasures,
yrfelfe      ond one anne heht


inherited relics,      and the one man decreed
golde forgyldan      one e Grendel ar


to requite in gold      whom Grendel first
mne cwealde      sw h hyra m wolde


in wickedness quelled,      as he would have more of them
nefne him wtig god      wyrd forstde


except for them wise God      that fate had prevented,
ond s mannes md.      Metod eallum wold


and this man's courage.      The Measure of Fate controlled all
gumena cynnes,      sw h n gt d


for mankind,      as he now still does;
foran bi andgit      aghwar slest


therefore understanding is      best everywhere,
ferhes foreanc      fela sceal gebdan


the forethought of mind;      he must abide much
lofes ond les      s e longe hr


love and much hate      he who long here
on yssum windagum      worolde brce.


in these days of strife      would enjoy the world.
ar ws sang ond swg      samod tgdere


There was song and sound      at the same time all together
fore Healfdenes      hildewsan,


before Half-Dane's      battle-plotter,
gomenwudu grted,      gid oft wrecen


the glee-wood plucked,      a lay often recited
onne healgamen      Hrgres scop


when a hall-performance      Hrothgar's bard
fter medobence      manan scolde:


before the mead-bench      was obliged to utter:
Finnes eaferum      he se far begeat


concerning Finn's heirs, with whom,      when disaster struck them,
hle Healfdena      Hnf Scyldinga


the hero of Half-Danes,      Hnaef the Scylding,
in Frswle      feallan scolde.


on the Frisian battle-field      was fated to fall.
N hru Hildeburh      herian orfte


Truly, Hildeburh did not      have need to praise
eotena trowe      unsynnum wear


the good faith of the Eotens;      she was guiltless,
beloren lofum      t m hildplegan


bereft of her dear ones:      --in the war-play--
bearnum ond brrum      he on gebyrd hruron


her son and brother;      they fell, in accorance with Fate,
gre wunde      t ws gemuru ides.


wounded by spear;      that was a mournful woman.
Nalles hlinga      Hces dohtor


Not without reason did      Hoc's daughter
meotodsceaft bemearn      syan morgen cm


grieve over Fate's decree,      when the morning came,
ho under swegle      geson meahte


then she under the sky      could see
mororbealo mga      ar h ar maste hold


the baleful slaughter of kinsmen,      where before he had held the most
worolde wynne      wg ealle fornam


joy in the world,      war took all
Finnes egnas      nemne faum num


of Finn's thanes,      except a few alone,
t h ne mehte      on am meelstede


so that he could not      in that meeting-place
wg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan


the clash with Hengest      conclude at all,
n walfe      wge forringan


nor the woeful remnant      by battle dislodge from their position,
odnes egne      ac hig him geingo budon:


the prince's thane,      so they offered them settlement:
t he him er flet      eal germdon


that they for them the other dwelling      would completely clear,
healle ond hahsetl      t he healfre geweald


hall and high seat,      that they would half of it control
wi eotena bearn      gan mston


with the Eotens' sons      might have,
ond t feohgyftum      Folcwaldan sunu


and at the giving of treasure      Folcwalden's son
dgra gehwylce      Dene weorode


each day      the Danes would honour,
Hengestes hap      hringum wenede


Hengest's company      would revere with rings,
efne sw swe      sincgestronum


with even as much      precious possesions
fattan goldes      sw h Frsena cyn


of ornate gold      exactly as he the Frisian kind
on borsele      byldan wolde.


in the beer-hall      would wish to embolden.
he getruwedon      on tw healfa


Then they pledged      on both sides
fste friouware      Fin Hengeste


firm compact of peace;      Finn to Hengest
elne unflitme      um benemde


with incontestable earnestness      proclaimed an oath
t h walfe      weotena dme


that he the woeful remnant,      by sages' judgement,
rum holde      t ar anig mon


would hold in honour,      that there any man
wordum n worcum      ware ne brace


by word nor by deed      would not break the treaty,
n urh inwitsearo      afre gemanden


nor in malicious artifice      ever complain,
ah he hira baggyfan      banan folgedon


though they their ring-giver's      killer followed,
odenlase,      him sw geearfod ws


leaderless,      and were thus forced by necessity;
gyf onne Frsna hwylc      frcnen sprace


if then any Frisian      by audacious speech
s mororhtes      myndgiend ware


the murderous feud      were to remind (them),
onne hit sweordes ecg      syan scolde.


then it by sword's edge      must be thereafter.
d ws gefned      ond incge gold


The funeral fire was prepared,      and Ingui's gold,
hfen of horde      Here-Scyldinga


raised from the hoard;      the War-Scyldings'
betst beadorinca      ws on bal gearu


best battle-man      was ready on the bier;
t am de ws      gesne


at the funeral-pyre was      easily seen
swtfh syrce      swn ealgylden


the blood-stained mail-shirt,      the swine all-golden,
eofer renheard      eling manig


the boar hard as iron,      the prince had many
wundum wyrded      sume on wle crungon


destroyed by wounds;      great men had fallen in slaughter;
ht Hildeburh      t Hnfes de


then Hildeburh ordered      at Hnaef's pier
hire selfre sunu      sweoloe befstan,


her own sun      committed to the fire,
bnfatu brnan      ond on bal dn


the body-vessel burned,      and put on the bier,
earme on eaxle      ides gnornode


the wretched woman at his shoulder,      the lady lamented,
gemrode giddum      grinc sth


sorrowed with songs;      the warrior was laid out,
wand t wolcnum      wlfra mast


spiralled into the clouds      the greatest fire of the slain
hlynode for hlwe      hafelan multon


roared before the mound;      heads melted,
bengeato burston      onne bld tspranc,


the wound-gates burst open,      then blood sprang out,
lbite lces      lg ealle forswealg,


from the hate-bites of the body;      the blaze swallowed all up,
gasta gfrost,      ra e ar g fornam


--the greediest guest--      those who there were taken by battle
bga folces      ws hira blad scacen.


from both peoples;      their vigour was dispersed.



Gewiton him wgend      wca nosian


The warriors returned then      to seek their houses,
frondum befeallen,      Frsland geson,


bereft of friends,      to see Frisia,
hmas ond haburh      Hengest gt


their homes and high fort;      yet Hengest
wlfgne winter      wunode mid Finn


the death-stained winter      spent with Finn,
eal unhlitine      eard gemunde


in a place with no fellowship at all;      he remembered his land,
ah e ne meahte      on mere drfan


though he could not      drive on the sea
hringedstefnan:      holm storme wol


the ring-prowed ship:      the sea welled in storm,
won wi winde      winter e belac


fought against the wind;      the winter locked the waves
sgebinde      o t er cm


in icy bonds,      until came another
gar in geardas      sw n gt d


year to the courtyards,      as it still does now,
e syngles      sle bewitia


those which continuously      carry out their seasons,
wuldortorhtan weder.      ws winter scacen,


gloriously bright weathers.      Then winter was gone,
fger foldan bearm      fundode wrecca


fair was the Earth's breast;      the exile was anxious to go,
gist of geardum      h t gyrnwrce


the guest of the dwellings;      he of vengeance for grief
swor hte      onne t salde


sooner thought      than of sea-path,
gif h torngemt      urhton mihte


and whether he a bitter encounter      could bring about,
t h eotena bearn      inne gemunde


for that he of the Eotens' sons      inwardly remembered;
sw h ne forwyrnde      woroldradenne


so he did not refuse      the worldly practice,
onne him Hnlfing,      hildeloman


when to him Hunlafing      the battle-light,
billa slest      on bearm dyde


the finest blade      he placed on (Hnaef's) lap;
s waron mid eotenum      ecge ce.


among the Eotens its      edges were known.
Swylce ferhfrecan      Fin eft begeat


So too his mortal enemy's      --Finn in turn received--
sweordbealo slen      t his selfes hm


dire sword-onslaught      in his own home,
sian grimne gripe      Glf ond slf


when concerning the fierce attack      Guthlaf and Oslaf,
fter sase      sorge mandon


following their sea-journey,      declared their grief,
twiton wana dal      ne meahte wafre md


blamed for their share of woes;      he could not his restless spirit
forhabban in hrere      ws heal hroden


contain in his breast;      then the hall were decorated
fonda forum      swilce Fin slgen


with the foes' lives,      so too Finn was slain,
cyning on corre      ond so cwn numen


the king amid his troop,      and the queen was seized;
scotend Scyldinga      t scypon feredon


Scylding shooters      ferried to the ships
eal ingesteald      eorcyninges


all of the house-goods      of the nation's king,
swylce he t Finnes hm      findan meahton


which they at Finn's estate      could find:
sigla searogimma      he on salde


shining jewels and well-cut gems;      they on the sea-path
drihtlce wf      t Denum feredon


the noble lady      ferried to the Danes,
laddon t lodum.      Lo ws sungen


led to the people.      The lay was sung,
glomannes gyd      gamen eft sth


the gleeman's tale;      joy again sprang up,
beorhtode bencswg      byrelas sealdon


music rang out from the bench,      cup-bearers served
wn of wunderfatum.      cwm Wealho for


wine from wondrous vessels.      Then Wealhtheow came forth,
gn under gyldnum bage      ar gdan twgen


walking in a golden neck-ring      to where the good pair
ston suhtergefderan      gt ws hiera sib tgdere,


sat, uncle and nephew;      then their kinship was still together,
aghwylc rum trwe     swylce ar Hunfer yle


each to the other true;      Unferth the yle was also there
t ftum st fran Scyldinga    gehwylc hiora his ferhe trowde


sitting at the feet of the Scylding lord;     each of them trusted his spirit,
t h hfde md micel      ah e h his mgum nare


and that he had great courage,      though he to his kin was not
rfst t ecga gelcum      sprc ides Scyldinga:


honourable in clash of blades;      the Scylding lady then spoke:
'Onfh issum fulle,      frodrihten mn,


'Receive this full cup,      my noble lord,
sinces brytta      on salum wes,


dispenser of treasure;      you--be joyful,
goldwine gumena,      ond t Gatum sprc


gold-friend of men,      and to the Geats speak
mildum wordum      sw sceal man dn


with gentle words      so ought a man to do;
bo wi Gatas gld,      geofena gemyndig


be gracious with the Geats,      mindful of gifts
nan ond feorran      n hafast


which from near and far      you now have;
m man sgde      t for sunu wolde


it has been said to me      that you wish for a son,
hereric habban      Heorot is gefalsod


to have this leader of armies;      Heorot is cleansed,
bahsele beorhta      brc enden mte


the bright ring-hall;      enjoy, while you may,
manigra mdo      ond num mgum laf


many rewards,      and leave to your kinsmen
folc ond rce      onne for scyle


folk and kingdom      when you must go forth
metodsceaft sn      ic mnne can


to meet what is fated;      I know my
gldne Hrulf      t h geogoe wile


gracious Hrothulf,      that he the youths wishes
rum healdan      gyf ar onne h,


to hold in honour,      if you earlier than he,
wine Scildinga,      worold oflatest


friend of the Scyldings,      leave behind the world,
wne ic t h mid gde      gyldan wille


I think that he with good      will repay
uncran eaferan      gif h t eal gemon


our children,      if he that at all remembers,
hwt wit t willan      ond t wormyndum


what we for his sake      and for his worldly renown,
umborwesendum ar      rna gefremedon.'


before, in his youth,      bestowed our favours.'
Hwearf b bence      ar hyre byre waron


She turned then by the bench,      where her boys were,
Hrrc ond Hrmund      ond hlea bearn   Hrethric and Hrothmund,      and heroes' sons,
giogo t gdere      ar se gda st


the young company all together;      there sat the good
Bowulf Gata      be am gebrrum twam.


Beowulf of the Geats      by the two brothers.



Him ws ful boren      ond frondlau


The full cup was brought to him,      and a friendly invitation
wordum bewgned      ond wundengold


proffered in words,      and twisted gold
stum geawed:      earmrade tw


kindly offered:      two arm-ornaments,
hrgl ond hringas,      healsbaga mast


robe and rings,      the largest necklace
ra e ic on foldan      gefrgen hbbe


of those which I on earth      have heard of;
nanigne ic under swegle      slran hrde


none under the sky I      have heard of better
hordmdmum hlea      syan Hma twg


from hoard-treasures of heroes,      since Hama carried off
t herebyrhtan byrig      Brsinga mene


to the battle-bright stronghold      the Brosings' necklet,
sigle ond sincft      searonas fealh


jewel and precious setting;      he fled the cunning enmity
Eormenrces      gecas cne rad


of Eormenric,      chose eternal benefit;
one hring hfde      Higelc Gata


That ring had      Hygelac of the Geats,
nefa Swertinges      nhstan se


grandson of Swerting,      on his last adventure,
sian h under segne      sinc ealgode


when under the banner he      defended riches,
wlraf werede      hyne wyrd fornam


warded slaughter-spoils;      him Fate took away,
syan h for wlenco      wan hsode


after he from pride      sought misery,
fahe t Frsum      h frtwe wg


feud with the Frisians;      he then wore the ornament,
eorclanstnas      ofer a ful


the mysterious stone      over the waves' cup,
rce oden      h under rande gecranc.


the mighty prince;      he fell under the rimmed-shield.
Gehwearf in Francna fm      feorh cyninges


Passed then into the Franks' grasp      the body of the king,
brostgewadu      ond se bah somod


mail-coat      and the ring together;
wyrsan wgfrecan      wl rafeden


lesser warrior      rifled the corpses
fter gsceare      Gata lode


after the slaughter of battle;      the people of the Geats
hrawc holdon.      Heal swge onfng


filled the field of corpses.      The hall resounded with noise;
Wealho maelode      ho fore am werede sprc:


Wealhtheow spoke;      she spoke before the retinue:
'Brc isses bages,      Bowulf lofa


'Make use of this ring,      belovd Beowulf,
hyse, mid hale      ond isses hrgles not


young man, with good fortune,      and take benefit from this corslet,
od gestreona      ond geoh tela


the wealth of a nation,      and prosper well,
cen ec mid crfte      ond yssum cnyhtum wes


prove yourself with strength,      and to these lads be
lra le      ic s lan geman


gentle in teaching;      I shall remember you for this requital;
hafast gefred      t feor ond nah


you have brought it about      that you far and near
ealne wdeferh      weras ehtiga


always and forever      men will praise,
efne sw sde      sw sa bebge,


even as widely      as the sea surrounds
windgeard, weallas      wes enden lifige,


the home of the wind, walls;      be while you live,
eling, adig      ic an tela


prince, happy;      I wish thee well,
sincgestrona      bo suna mnum


and rich in treasure;      be you to my sons
dadum gedfe,      dramhealdende


indulgent in deeds,      possessing joy;
hr is aghwylc eorl      rum getrwe


here is each of the men      true to the others
mdes milde      mandrihtne hlo


generous in mind,      in the protetion of their liege-lord;
egnas syndon geware      od ealgearo


the thanes are united,      the people alert,
druncne dryhtguman      d sw ic bidde.'


the warrior-retinue cheered by drink      do as I bid.'
ode t setle      ar ws symbla cyst


She went then to her seat;      there was the finest feast,
druncon wn weras      wyrd ne con


the men drank wine;      they did not know their fate,
gesceaft grimme      sw hit gangen wear


horrific destiny,      as it had happened
eorla manegum      syan afen cwm


to many heroes,      after evening came,
ond him Hrgr gewt      t hofe snum


and Hrothgar went      to his quarters,
rce t rste      reced weardode


the ruler to rest,      the hall guarded
unrm eorla      sw he oft ar dydon


countless earls,      as they often had done before,
bencelu beredon      hit geondbraded wear


they cleared away the benches from the floor;      over it was spread
beddum ond bolstrum      borscealca sum


bedding and bolsters;      one of the beer-drinkers,
fs ond fage      fletrste gebag


eager and doomed,      lay down in his hall-couch;
setton him t hafdon      hilderandas


they set at their heads      battle-bossed shields,
bordwudu beorhtan      ar on bence ws


bright linden-wood;      there on the bench was
ofer elinge      gesne


over each nobleman      easily seen
heaostapa helm      hringed byrne


a battle-steep helm,      ringed byrnie,
recwudu rymlc      ws aw hyra


(and) glorious mighty shaft;      their custom was
t he oft waron      an wg gearwe


that they were often      ready for a battle
g t hm g on herge      g gehwer ra


both at home and out harrying,      and either of these,
efne swylce mala      swylce hira mandryhtne


for just such times      as for their liege-lord
earf gesalde      ws so od tilu.


the need arose;      they were a good platoon.



Sigon t slape      sum sre angeald 


They sank then into sleep;      one paid sorely
fenrste      sw him ful oft gelamp


for his evening rest,      as had quite often happened,
sian goldsele      Grendel warode


when the gold-hall      Grendel warded,
unriht fnde      o t ende becwm,


inflict wrong      until the end came,
swylt fter synnum.      t gesne wear


death for crimes.      That became manifest,
wdc werum      tte wrecend gt


widely known by men,      that an avenger still
lifde fter lum      lange rge


lived after the misfortunes,      for a long time
fter gceare      Grendles mdor


after the war-trouble,      Grendel's mother,
ides glacwf      yrme gemunde


lady troll-wife,      remembered misery,
s e wteregesan      wunian scolde


she who the dreadful water      had to inhabit,
cealde stramas     sian camp him wear


the cold currents,      after strife arose through him,
t ecgbanan      ngan brer


a sword-slayer to      an only brother,
fderenmage      h fg gewt


father's kin;      he went then stained,
morre gemearcod      mandram fln


marked by the murder,      fled human pleasures,
wsten warode.      anon wc fela


lived in the wilds.      Then awoke many
gesceaftgsta      ws ara Grendel sum,


fated spirits;      Grendel was one of these,
heorowearh hetelc      s t Heorote fand


the hateful sword-outlaw,      who found at Heorot
wccendne wer      wges bidan


a watching man      biding for battle;
ar him glaca      tgrepe wear


there with him the troll      came at close grips;
hwre h gemunde      mgenes strenge


yet he remembered      the great strength,
gimfste gife      e him god sealde


generous gift,      which God gave him,
ond him t anwaldan      re gelfde


and he on the One-Ruler's      favour relied,
frfre ond fultum      h one fond ofercwm


comfort and support;      by this he overcame the fiend,
gehnagde helle gst      h han gewt


subdued the spirit of hell;      then wretched he went,
drame bedaled      dawc sn,


deprived of joy,      to see his place of death,
mancynnes fond.      Ond his mdor gt


that foe of mankind.      And his mother even now,
gfre ond galgmd      gegn wolde


greedy and gloomy-hearted      wished to go forth,
sorhfulne s,      sunu do wrecan


a sorrowful journey,      to avenge her son's death;
cm to Heorote      ar Hring-Dene


she came then to Heorot,      where the Ring-Danes
geond t sld swafun      ar sna wear


slept throught the hall;      then there at once came about
edhwyrft eorlum      sian inne fealh


the earl's reversal of fortune,      when inside passed
Grendles mdor      ws se gryre lassa


Grendel's mother;      the horror was less
efne sw micle      sw bi mga crft


by even so much,      as is maid's strength,
wggryre wfes      bewapned men


--the war-violence of woman--      from an armed man,
onne heoru bunden      hamere geuren


when adorned blade,      by hammer forged,
sweord swte fh      swn ofer helme


--sword stained with blood--      the boar-crest
ecgum dyhttig      andweard scire.


by edges firm,      the opposing (helmet) is sheared.
ws on healle      heardecg togen


Then in the hall was drawn a hard-edged
sweord ofer setlum,      sdrand manig


sword above the seats,      many a broad bossed-shield
hafen handa fst      helm ne gemunde


held fast in hand;      helmet was not heeded,
byrnan sde      hine se brga angeat


(nor) broad byrnie,      when the horror perceived him;
ho ws on ofste      wolde t anon,


she was in haste,      wanted out of there,
fore beorgan      ho onfunden ws


to protect her life,      when she was discovered;
hrae ho elinga      nne hfde


quickly she a noble      one had
fste befangen      ho t fenne gang


seized tightly,      then she went to the fen;
s ws Hrgre      hlea lofost


he was to Hrothgar      the best-loved hero
on geses hd      be sam twonum


in the retinue's rank      between the two seas
rce randwiga      one e ho on rste brat


mighty shield-warrior,      whom she ripped from his rest,
bladfstne beorn      --ns Bowulf ar


the glorious man      --Beowulf was not there,
ac ws er in      ar geteohhod


but was in the other lodging      assigned earlier
fter mumgife      marum Gate--


after the treasure-giving      to the mighty Geat--
hram wear in Heorote      ho under heolfre genam


a cry was in Heorot;      she took from its gore
ce folme      cearu ws genwod,


a well-known arm;      sorrow was renewed,
geworden in wcun      ne ws t gewrixle til


it returned to their dwellings;      that exchange was not good,
t he on b healfa      bicgan scoldon


which they on both sides      were obliged to pay for
fronda forum      ws frd cyning


with the lives of friends;      then was the wise king,
hr hilderinc      on hronmde


the grey battle-man,      in a troubled spirit,
syan h aldoregn      unlyfigendne


when he the lordly thane      unliving,
one dorestan      dadne wisse.


the dearest one,      knew was dead.
Hrae ws t bre      Bowulf fetod


Quickly to the bower was      Beowulf fetched
sigoradig secg      samod ardge


the victorious warrior;      at day-break
ode eorla sum      ele cempa


the notable earl went      --noble champion--
self mid gesum      ar se snotera bd


himself with his companions      where the wise one awaited
hwre him Alfwalda      afre wille


whether for him the Ruler of Elves      ever would wish,
fter waspelle      wyrpe gefremman


after the news of woe,      to bring about a change for the better;
gang fter flre      fyrdwyre man


then over the floor went      the war-worthy man
mid his handscale      --healwudu dynede--


with his crowd of companions      --the wood of the hall resounded--
t h one wsan      wordum hngde


he the wise (king)      humbled with words:
fran Ingwina      frgn gif him ware


--the lord of the Ingwins--      asked if it had been for him,
fter nodlau      niht getase.


according to his hopes,      a pleasing night.



Hrgr maelode      helm Scyldinga:


Hrothgar spoke,      the Helm of the Scyldings:
'Ne frn fter salum      sorh is genwod


'Do not you ask after pleasures;      sorrow is renewed
Denigea lodum      dad is schere


for the Danish nation;      schere is dead,
Yrmenlfes      yldra bror


Yrmenlaf's      elder brother,
mn rnwita      ond mn radbora


my confident      and my chief counsellor,
eaxlgestealla      onne w on orlege


shoulder-companion,      when we in war
hafelan weredon      onne hniton fan


protected the head,      when clashed with foot-soldiers,
eoferas cnysedan      swylc eorl scolde


dashed boars (atop helmets);      so ought a man
wesan argd      swylc schere ws.


be experienced and noble,      as schere was.
Wear him on Heorote      t handbanan


In Heorot for him was      a hand-slayer,
wlgast wafre      ic ne wt hwer


restless death-spirit;      I know not whether,
atol ase wlanc      eftsas tah


glorying in the carcass,      she undertook a return journey,
fylle gefragnod      ho fahe wrc


contented by her feast;      she avenged the feud
e gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest


in which you yester-night      Grendel quelled
urh hastne hd      heardum clammum


through violent means      in harsh embrace,
foran h t lange      lode mne


because he for too long      my people
wanode ond wyrde      h t wge gecrang


diminished and destroyed,      he fell in the fight,
ealdres scyldig      ond n er cwm


having forfeited his life,      and now the other has come,
mihtig mnscaa      wolde hyre mag wrecan


the mighty crime-wreaker,      she wants to avenge her kinsman,
g feor hafa      fahe gestaled


and has very far      carried her feud,
s e incean mg      egne monegum


as it must seem      to many a thane,
s e fter sincgyfan      on sefan grote:


who for the treasure-giver      weeps in his heart:
hreerbealo hearde      n so hand lige


hard mind-grief!      now the hand has fallen away,
s e ow wlhwylcra      wilna dohte.


which in all of you      had sustained wishes.
Ic t londbend      lode mne


I it, land-dwellers,      my people,
seleradende      secgan hrde


hall-counsellors      have heard tell
t he geswon      swylce twgen


that they saw      two such
micle mearcstapan      mras healdan,


massive marchers of no-man's land      haunting the moors,
ellorgastas      ara er ws


alien spirits;      one of them was,
s e he gewislcost      gewitan meahton


as they most certainly      were able to discern,
idese onlcns      er earmsceapen


of the likeness of a woman;      the other one wretchedly shaped
on weres wstmum      wraclstas trd


in the form of a man      trod in the tracks of an exile,
nfne h ws mra      onne anig man er


except he was larger      than any other man;
one on gardagum      Grendel nemdon


in days of yore him      'Grendel' named
foldbende      n he fder cunnon


the earth-dwellers;      they did not know of his father,
hwer him anig ws      ar cenned


whether of them any were      born previously
dyrnra gsta.      He dgel lond


of obscure spirits.      They a secret land
warigea wulfhleou      windige nssas


inhabited, wolf-slopes,      windy water-capes,
frcne fengeld      ar fyrgenstram


a dangerous passage over the fen-waters,      where mountain-stream
under nssa genipu      nier gewte


under the darkness of the headlands      descended downward,
fld under foldan      nis t feor heonon


the flood under the earth;      it is not that far hence
mlgemearces      t se mere stande


in mile-marks,      that the mere stands;
ofer am hongia      hrmge bearwas


over it hangs      frost-covered groves,
wudu wyrtum fst      wter oferhelma


tree held fast by its roots      overshadows the water;
ar mg nihta gehwam      nwundor son


there one may every night      a horrible marvel see:
fr on flde      n s frd leofa


fire on the water;      not even the wise of them lives,
gumena bearna      t one grund wite.


of men's sons,      that knows the bottom.
ah e hastapa      hundum geswenced


Though the heath-stepper      harrassed by hounds,
heorot hornum trum      holtwudu sce


the hart with strong horns,      seeks the forest,
feorran geflmed      ar h feorh sele


put to flight from far,      first he will give up his life,
aldor on fre      ar h in wille


existence on the shore,      before he will (leap) in
hafelan helan      nis t horu stw


to hide his head;      it is not a pleasant place;
onon geblond      p stge


thence a maelstrm of the waves      rises up,
won t wolcnum      onne wind styre


dark to the clouds,      when the wind stirs
l gewidru      o t lyft drysma


grievous storms,      until the air grows dark,
roderas rota.      N is se rad gelang


the skies weep.      Now is the remedy dependent upon
eft t num      eard gt ne const


you alone once again;      you do not know the region yet,
frcne stwe      ar findan miht


terrible place      where you might find
felasinnigne secg      sc gif dyrre


the much-sinning creature;      seek if you dare;
ic fahe      fo lanige


for the feud you I      would reward with wealth,
ealdgestronum      sw ic ar dyde,


with old treasures,      as I did before,
wundungolde      gyf on weg cymest.'


with twisted-gold,      if you come away.'



Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Ne sorga, snotor guma      slre bi aghwam


'Do not sorrow, wise man      it is better for everyone
t h his frond wrece      onne h fela murne


that he his friend avenge,      than he mourn over-much;
re aghwylc sceal      ende gebdan


each of us must      await the end
worolde lfes:      wyrce s e mte


in the world of life:      gain he who may
dmes ar dae      t bi drihtguman,


glory before death;      that is for the warrior,
unlifgendum      fter slest.


unliving,      afterwards the best.
rs, rces weard,      uton hrae fran


Arise, O guardian of the kingdom,      let us go quickly,
Grendles mgan      gang scawigan


Grendel's kin's      trail survey;
ic hit gehte:      n h on helm losa


I swear it to thee:      she will not be lost in the cover,
n on foldan fm      n on fyrgenholt


nor in the embrace of the earth,      nor in the mountain wood,
n on gyfenes grund      g ar h wille


nor in the ocean's depth,      go where she will;
s dgor      geyld hafa


this day you      must have patience
wana gehwylces      sw ic wne t.'


in each of the woes,      as I expect you to.'
hlop se gomela,      gode ancode


The agd one leapt up,      thanked God,
mihtigan drihtne      s se man gesprc


mighty Lord,      for what the man spoke;
ws Hrgre      hors gebated


then was for Hrothgar      a horse was bridled,
wicg wundenfeax      wsa fengel


a mount with braided mane;      the wise ruler
geatolc gende      gumfa stp


rode well-equipped;      the foot-soldiers marched
lindhbbendra      lstas waron


linden-wood bearers;      tracks were
fter waldswaum      wde gesne,


along the forest-track      widely seen,
gang ofer grundas      gegnum for


the trail over the grounds,      went straight-forward
ofer myrcan mr      magoegna br


over the murky moor,      she carried of the kin-thanes
one slestan      swollasne


the finest      --without his soul--
ra e mid Hrgre        hm eahtode.


of those who with Hrothgar      had defended their home.
Oferode      elinga bearn


Traversed then      the nobles' son
stap stnhlio      stge nearwe


the steep stone slopes,      the narrow ways,
enge npaas      unc geld


the tight single-file paths,      the unknown, uncertain water-crossings,
neowle nssas      nicorhsa fela


the precipitous headlands,      the many homes of nicors;
h fara sum      beforan gengde


he with a few      went ahead
wsra monna      wong scawian


wise men      surveying the field,
o t h faringa      fyrgenbamas


until he by chance      mountain-trees
ofer hrne stn      hleonian funde


over a silvery-grey stone      found hanging,
wynlasne wudu      wter under std


the joyless forest;      water stood below,
drorig ond gedrfed      Denum eallum ws


bloody and stirred-up;      for all of the Danes was,
winum Scyldinga      wrce on mde


for the friends of the Scyldings,     suffering in the heart
t geolianne,      egne monegum


to endure,      for many thanes,
onc eorla gehwam      syan scheres


awakening grief in each of the nobles,      when schere's
on m holmclife      hafelan mtton.


--on the sea-cliff--      head encountered.
Fld blde wol      --folc t sagon--


The flood welled bloody      --the folk stared at it--
htan heolfre      horn stundum song


with flaming gore;      rapidly the horn sang,
fslc forlo      fa eal gest


urgent song of departure;      the troop all sat down;
geswon fter wtere      wyrmcynnes fela


they saw then through the water      many of the race of serpents,
sellice sadracan      sund cunnian,


strange sea-dragon      exploring the lake,
swylce on nshleoum      nicras licgean


also on the cape-slopes      were lounging nicors,
on undernmal      oft bewitiga


they in mid-morning      often carry out
sorhfulne s      on seglrde,


grievous sorties      on the sail-road,
wyrmas ond wildor      he on weg hruron


serpents and wild beasts;      they rushed away
bitere ond gebolgne      bearhtm ongaton


bitter and swollen with rage;      they perceived the clear note,
ghorn galan      sumne Gata lod


war-horn wailing;      one of the Geats' men
of flnbogan      fores getwafde


with a shaft and bow      separated it from life,
gewinnes      t him on aldre std


of wave-struggle      that in its heart stood,
herestral hearda      h on holme ws


a strong war-arrow;      it in the water was
sundes sanra      hyne swylt fornam


swimming the slower,      when Death seized it;
hre wear on um      mid eofersprotum


fast it was in the waves      against boar-pikes
heorohcyhtum      hearde genearwod,


savagely-hooked      hard pressed,
na genaged      ond on ns togen


viciously attacked,      and from the cape dragged out,
wundorlc wagbora      weras scawedon


wondrous spawn of the waves;      men stared at
gryrelcne gist.      Gyrede hine Bowulf


the gruesome guest.      Beowulf armed himself
eorlgewadum      nalles for ealdre mearn


in noble garments,      feared not at all for his life;
scolde herebyrne      hondum gebrden


it was necessary that his army-byrnie,      braided by hands,
sd ond searofh      sund cunnian


broad and cunningly adorned,      explore the lake,
so e bncofan      beorgan ce


it the bone-chamber      could protect,
t him hildegrp      hrere ne mihte


that him the battle-grip      could not his heart,     
eorres inwitfeng      aldre gescean


nor angry grasp of malice      his life scathe,
ac se hwta helm      hafelan werede


moreover the shining helm      warded his head,
s e meregrundas      mengan scolde,


that which the mere-depths      must stir up,
scan sundgebland      since geweorad


seek the mingling of waters      adorned with riches,
befongen frawrsnum      sw hine fyrndagum


encircled with lordly-bands      as in far-days it
worhte wapna smi      wundrum tode


was wrought by weapons' smith,      wonderfully lengthened,
besette swnlcum      t hine syan n


beset with swine-forms,      so that it then no
brond n beadomcas      btan ne meahton.


brond-blade nor battle-maiches      to bite were not able.
Ns t onne matost      mgenfultuma


Not the least then of      his mighty supports,
t him on earfe lh      yle Hrgres


that him in need lent      Hrothgar's yle
--ws am hftmce      Hrunting nama--


--was the long-hilted maiche-sword's      name Hrunting--
t ws n foran      ealdgestrona


it was one above      of ancient treasures;
ecg ws ren      tertnum fh


edge was iron,      with poison-twigs patterned,
hyrded heaoswte      nafre hit t hilde ne swc


hardened with battle-blood;      never had it in a fight failed
manna angum      ra e hit mid mundum bewand


any man,      who it in hands brandished,
s e gryresas      gegn dorste


he who terrifying journeys      dared to enter upon,
folcstede fra      ns t forma s


the domain of foes;      it was not the first time
t hit ellenweorc      fnan scolde.


that it courage-work      had been obliged to perform.
Hru ne gemunde      mago Ecglfes


Indeed he could not have recalled,      the kin of Ecgelaf,
eafoes crftig      t h ar gesprc


mighty in strength,      that which he had said before,
wne druncen      h s wapnes onlh


drunk on wine,      when he lent that the weapon
slran sweordfrecan      selfa ne dorste


to a better swordsman,      he himself did not dare
under a gewin      aldre genan,


under the waves' turmoil      to risk his life,
drihtscype drogan      ar h dme forlas


to carry out bravery;      there he forfeited glory,
ellenmarum      ne ws am rum sw     


fame from valour;      it was not so for the other,
syan h hine t ge      gegyred hfde.


when he himself for war      had equipped.



Bowulf maelode      bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,      the son of Edgetheow:
'Geenc n, se mara      maga Healfdenes


'Think now, glorious      kinsman of Half-Dane,
snottra fengel      n ic eom ses fs


wise chieftain,      now I am eager for the adventure,
goldwine gumena,      hwt wit go spracon:


gold-friend of man,      what we spoke of earlier:
gif ic t earfe      nre scolde


if I in employment      of yours should
aldre linnan      t m ware


be parted from life,      that you for me ever would be,
forgewitenum      on fder stale


having passed on,      in the place of a father;
wes mundbora mnum      magoegnum


be you hand-bearer to my      young retainers,
hondgesellum      gif mec hild nime


hand-companions,      if battle takes me,
swylce mdmas,      m sealdest,


so too you the treasures,      those which you gave me,
Hrgr lofa,      Higelce onsend


beloved Hrothgar,      send on to Hygelac;
mg onne on am golde ongitan      Gata dryhten,


he then will able to in the gold observe,      the lord of the Geats,
geson sunu Hradles      onne h on t sinc stara


to perceive, the son of Hrethel,      when he on that treasures stares,
t ic gumcystum      gdne funde


that I one of noble virtues,      a good king, had found,
baga bryttan      brac onne mste.


dispenser of rings,      enjoyed while I could.
Ond Hunfer lat      ealde lfe


And let Unferth      the old heirloom,
wratlc wagsweord      wdcne man


the glorious wave-sword,      (let) the widely-known man
heardecg habban      ic m mid Hruntinge


have that hard-edged (sword);      I for myself with Hrunting
dm gewyrce      oe mec da nime.'


will gain glory,      unless Death takes me.'
fter am wordum      Weder-Gata lod


After these words      the man of the Weder-Geats
efste mid elne      nalas andsware


hastened with courage;      not in the least for a reply
bdan wolde      brimwylm onfeng


did he wish to await;      the surging-lake enfolded
hilderince.      ws hwl dges,


the battle-warrior.      Then it was a long part of a day,
ar h one grundwong      ongytan mehte


ere he the bottom      could perceive,
sna t onfunde      s e flda begong


at once she found it out,      --she who the floods' expanse,
heorogfre behold      hund missra


fiercely-ravenous, held      a hundred half-years,
grim ond gradig      t ar gumena sum


wrathful and greedy--      that there one of the humans
lwihta eard      ufan cunnode


the realm of strange being      explored from above;
grp tganes      grinc gefng


then she groped towards,      seized the warrior
atolan clommum      n ar in gescd


in terrible clasps;      Not the sooner she crushed inside
hlan lce      hring tan ymbbearh


his hale body;      the ring-mail gave him protection from without,
t ho one fyrdhom      urhfn ne mihte


that she the soldier-garment      could not penetrate,
locene leoosyrcan      lan fingrum.


the interlocked limb-coat,      with her loathsome fingers.
Br so brimwylf      ho t botme cm


Then the sea-wolf bore,      when she had come to the bottom,
hringa engel      t hofe snum


the lord of those rings      to her court,
sw h ne mihte      --n h s mdig ws--


so he could not      --no matter how brave he was--
wapna gewealdan      ac hine wundra s fela


wield his weapon,      but him so many bizarre things
swecte on sunde      sador monig


smelled in the deep,      many sea-beasts
hildetxum      heresyrcan brc


with battle-tusks      tore at his army-mail,
hton glacan.      se eorl ongeat


the horrors attacked.      Then the earl saw
t h nsele      nthwylcum ws


that he in a hall of hatred      --I know not which-- was,
ar him nanig wter      wihte ne sceede


where not any water him      oppressed at all,
n him for hrfsele      hrnan ne mehte


nor him, due to the the hall's roof,      was not able to reach
fargripe fldes      frloht geseah,


the sudden onrush of the flood;      he saw firelight,
blcne loman      beorhte scnan


a pale light      shining vividly;
ongeat se gda      grundwyrgenne


then the good man saw      the accursd one of the deep,
merewf mihtig      mgenras forgeaf


the mighty mere-wife;      he gave a powerful thrust
hildebille      hondswenge ne oftah


to the battle-bill,      did not withhold the swing of his hand,
t hire on hafelan      hringmal gl


so that on her head      the ring-marked sang out
gradig glo      se gist onfand


a greedy war-song;      then the guest discovered
t se beadoloma      btan nolde,


that the battle-brand      did not wish to bite,
aldre scean      ac so ecg geswc


to crush life,      rather the edge failed
odne t earfe      olode ar fela


the noble in his need;      it had endured already many
hondgemta      helm oft gescr


hand-to-hand encounters,      often split helm,
fages fyrdhrgl      ws forma s


the war-garments of the doomed;      this was the first time
dorum mdme      t his dm lg.


for the precious treasure      that its glory failed.
Eft ws anrad,      nalas elnes lt


Again was resolute,      not at all slackening in courage,
mara gemyndig      mag Hglces


mindful of fame      the kinsman of Hygelac
wearp wundenmal      wrattum gebunden


then he threw aside the twisting pattern (sword),      adorned with ornaments,
yrre retta      t hit on eoran lg


the angry warrior,      so that it lay on the earth,
st ond stlecg      strenge getrwode,


firm and steel-edged;      he trusted to strength,
mundgripe mgenes      sw sceal man don


his hand-grip of might;      so must a man do,
onne h t ge      gegn ence


when he in war      intends to gain
longsumne lof      n ymb his lf ceara.


long-lasting praise;      he cares not for his life.
sydaudioGefng be eaxle      --nalas for fahe mearn--


Grabbed her then by the shoulder      --not in the least regretting the feud--
G-Gata lod,      Grendles mdor


the prince of the War-Geats,      Grendel's mother;
brgd beadwe heard      h gebolgen ws


the hard man of conflict then heaved,      now that he was enraged,
feorhgenlan      t ho on flet gebah


the deadly foe,      so that she fell to the floor;
ho him eft hrae      handlean forgeald


she again him quickly      gave hand-reward
grimman grpum      ond him tganes fng


with wrathful grips      and clutched him against herself;
oferwearp wrigmd      wigena strengest


then, weary in spirit, he stumbled,      the strongest man,
fecempa      t h on fylle wear


warrior on foot,      so that he was in a fall;
ofst one selegyst      ond hyre seax getah


then she bestrode the guest in her hall,      and drew her seax,
brd ond brnecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan


broad and bright-edged;      she wished to avenge her son,
ngan eaferan      him on eaxle lg


only offspring;      on his shoulder lay
brostnet brden;      t gebearh fore


woven breast-net;      it protected life,
wi ord ond wi ecge      ingang forstd.


against point and against edge      it withstood entry.
Hfde forsod      sunu Ecgowes


Then he would have perished,      the son of Edgetheow,
under gynne grund      Gata cempa


under the yawning ground,      the champion of the Geats,
nemne him heaobyrne      helpe gefremede


except that him the war-byrnie      provided help,
herenet hearde--      ond hlig god


firm army-net--      and holy God
gewold wgsigor      wtig drihten


controlled the war-victory;      the wise Lord,
rodera radend      hit on ryht gescd


the Ruler of the heavens,      decided it rightly,
elce      syan h eft std.


easily,      thereupon he stood up again.



Geseah on searwum     sigeadig bil


He saw then among the arms     a victory-blessed bill,
ealdsweord eotenisc    ecgum htig


an old giantish sword    with firm edges,
wigena weormynd    t ws wapna cyst


an honour of warriors,    it was the choicest weapon,
bton hit ws mre    onne anig mon er


but it was more    than any other man
t beadulce    tberan meahte


to battle-play    could carry,
gd ond geatolc    gganta geweorc


good and stately,    the work of giants;
h gefng fetelhilt    freca Scyldinga


he seized then the ring-hilt,    champion of the Scyldings
hroh ond heorogrim    hringmal gebrgd


wild and furiously battle-fierce,    he drew the ring-marked (sword)
aldres orwna    yrringa slh


without hope of life,    angrily struck,
t hire wi halse    heard grpode


so that through her neck    it clutched hard,
bnhringas brc    bil eal urhwd


broke bone-rings;     the bill passed entirely through
fagne flaschoman    ho on flet gecrong


the doomed cloak of flesh;    she fell on the floor;
sweord ws swtig    secg weorce gefeh.


the sword was bloody,    the warrior rejoiced in his work.
Lxte se loma    loht inne std


The gleam flashed,     the light stood within,
efne sw of hefene    hdre scne


even as from heaven    shines brightly
rodores candel    h fter recede wlt


the sky's candle;    he looked about the hall;
hwearf be wealle    wapen hafenade


moved along the wall,    weapon raised
heard be hiltum    Higelces egn


fierce with hilts,    Hygelac's thane,
yrre ond anrad    ns so ecg fracod


angry and single-minded;    nor was that edge useless
hilderince    ac h hrae wolde


to the battle-man,    but he quickly wished
Grendle forgyldan    grasa fela


to repay Grendel    for the many war-raids
ra e h geworhte    t West-Denum


which he had carried out    on the West-Danes
oftor micle     onne on anne s


much more often    than on a single venture,
onne h Hrgres     heorgenatas


when he Hrothgar's    hearth-companions
slh on sweofote    slapende frat


slaughter in their slumber,    devoured in their sleep,
folces Denigea    fftne men


of the folk of the Danes    fifteen men,
ond er swylc    t offerede


and other such    had he carried out and off
llicu lc sydaudio     h him s lan forgeald


hideous haul;    he paid him the reward of that,
re cempa    t s e h on rste geseah


the fierce fighter,    in that he saw in repose
gwrigne     Grendel licgan


war-weary    Grendel lying,
aldorlasne    sw him ar gescd


lifeless,     as he had injured him earlier
hild t Heorote    --hr wde sprong


in the conflict at Heorot    --the corpse burst wide open,
syan h fter dae     drepe rwade


when it after death    suffered a blow,
heorosweng heardne--    ond hine hafde becearf.


a hard sword-stroke--    and then its head he cut off.
Sna t geswon     snottre ceorlas


Suddenly that saw     the wise fellows,
e mid Hrgre    on holm wliton


who with Hrothgar    looked at the lake,
t ws geblond    eal gemenged


that was turmoil of waves    all stirred up
brim blde fh    blondenfeaxe


the water coloured with blood;    with blended-hair,
gomele ymb gdne    ongeador spracon


aged, about the good man,    together they spoke,
t hig s elinges     eft ne wndon


that they that noble one    did not expect again
t h sigehrig     scean cme


that he, triumphing in victory,    would come to seek
marne oden     s monige gewear


the glorious ruler;    then it many agreed,
t hine so brimwylf    breoten hfde.


that the sea-wolf him    had destroyed.
cm nn dges    ns ofgafon


Then came then ninth hour of the day;    they abandoned the cape,
hwate Scyldingas    gewt him hm onon


the brave Scyldings;    he went home hence,
goldwine gumena    gistas scan


the gold-friend of men;    the guests looked about
mdes soce    ond on mere staredon


sick at heart,    and stared into the mere,
wston, ond ne wndon    t he heora winedrihten


wished, and did not expect,    that they their lord and friend
selfne geswon.     t sweord ongan


himself would see.    Then that sword began
fter heaoswte    hildegicelum


caused by the gore of battle    in icycles of battle,
wgbil wanian    t ws wundra sum


the war-bill to wane;    that was a great wonder
t hit eal gemealt    se gelcost


that it all melted,    so like ice,
onne forstes bend    fder onlate


when frost's bond    the Father loosens,
onwinde walrpas    s geweald hafa


unwinds water-ropes,    who has control
sala ond mala    t is s metod.


of times and seaons;    that is the true Creator.
Ne nm h in am wcum     Weder-Gata lod


He did not take into those dwelling,    the leader of the Weder-Geats,
mmahta m    h h ar monige geseah


more treasures,    though he there saw a great number,
bton one hafelan    ond hilt somod


but that head    and the hilt as well
since fge    sweord ar gemealt


shining with ornament;    the sword had already melted,
forbarn brdenmal    ws t bld t s ht,


burned up the wavy-patterned (blade);     that blood was so hot,
ttren ellorgast    s ar inne swealt.


the venomous foreign spirit    who had perished there inside.
Sna ws on sunde    s e ar t scce gebd


Straightaway he was in the water,    he who survived in strife,
wghryre wrra    wter p urhdaf


the enemies' fall in war;    he dove up through the water,
waron gebland    eal gefalsod


the turmoil of waves was    all cleared,
acne eardas     se ellorgst


the vast regions,    where the alien ghosts
oflt lfdagas    ond s lanan gesceaft


gave up their life-days    and this borrowed world;
cm to lande    lidmanna helm


he came then to the land,    the seafarer's leader,
swmd swymman    salce gefeah


swimming stout-hearted;    he rejoiced in the sea-loot,
mgenbyrenne,     ra e h him mid hfde.


the great burden,    which he had with him.
odon him tganes    gode ancodon


They went towards him,    thanked God,
rlc egna hap     odnes gefgon


the mighty band of thanes,    they rejoiced for their lord,
s e h hyne gesundne     geson mston


that they him sound    were able to see;
ws of am hrran    helm ond byrne


then the vigorous man was from    helm and byrnie
lungre lsed    --lagu drsade,


quickly loosened    --the water grew still,
wter under wolcnum    wldrore fg--


the lake under the clouds,    stained with the gore of death--
frdon for onon     felstum


they fared forth thence     along foot-paths
ferhum fgne    foldweg maton


happy in their hearts,    traversed the trail over the earth,
ce strate    cyningbalde men


the familiar streets;    the men, bold as kings,
from am holmclife    hafelan baron


from that lake-cliff    bore the head
earfolce    heora aghwrum


arduously,    for all of them,
felamdigra     --fower scoldon


full of spirit    --four had to
on am wlstenge    wrcum geferian


on the pole of the slain    to carry with difficulty
t am goldsele    Grendles hafod--


to the gold-hall    Grendel's head--
o t semninga    t sele cmon


until presently    they came to the hall,
frome fyrdhwate    fowertne


brave army-keen    fourteen
Gata gongan    gumdryhten mid


of the Geats moving,    with their lord of men,
mdig on gemonge    meodowongas trd.


proud in the throng,    trod on the plain near the mead-hall.
cm in gan    ealdor egna


Then came in marching     the lord of the thanes,
dadcne mon    dme gewurad


the deed-bold man    exalted by glory,
hle hildedor    Hrgr grtan


the battle-brave hero,    to greet Hrothgar;
ws be feaxe    on flet boren


then it was by the hair    borne to the floor
Grendles hafod    ar guman druncon,


the head of Grendel,    where men were drinking,
egeslc for eorlum    ond are idese mid,


dreadful for the earls,    and the ladies with them,
wliteson wratlc    weras onswon.


a wondrous spectacle;    the men stared.



Bowulf maelode    bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
'Hwt, w s salc,    sunu Healfdenes


'Listen, we you these sea-spoils,    son of Half-Dane,
lod Scyldinga,    lustum brhton


lord of the Scyldings,    gladly brought
tres t tcne     hr t lcast.


as token of glory,    which you look at here.
Ic t unsfte    ealdre gedgde


I it not easily    survived with my life,
wigge under wtere    weorc gende


war under water,    work risked
earfolce     trihte ws


with trouble;    at once was
g getwafed    nyme mec god scylde


the warfare at an end,    unless God shielded me;
ne meahte ic t hilde    mid Hruntinge


I could not in the battle    with Hrunting
wiht gewyrcan    ah t wapen duge


bring about anything,    though that weapon is excellent
ac m gee    ylda waldend


but to me granted    men's Ruler
t ic on wge geseah    wlitig hangian


that I saw on the wall    hanging fair
ealdsweord acen    --oftost wsode


a mighty ancient sword    --most often He has guided
winigea lasum--    t ic wapne gebrad


the one deprived of friend--    that I the weapon drew,
ofslh t are scce     m sal ageald


slew then in the strife,    when an opportunity was yielded to me,
hses hyrdas     t hildebil


the house's guardians;    then that battle-bill
forbarn brogdenmal    sw t bld gesprang


burned up, wavy-patterned,     as the blood leapt out,
htost heaoswta    ic t hilt anan


the hottest sweat of war;    I that hilt thence
fondum tferede    fyrendada wrc


carried back from the fiends,    foul-deeds avenged,
dacwealm Denigea    sw hit gedfe ws.


deadly slaughter of Danes,    as it was fitting.
Ic hit onne gehte    t on Heorote mst


I promise it to you then,    that you in Heorot may
sorhlas swefan    mid nra secga gedryht


sleep without sorrow    with your company of soldiers,
ond egna gehwylc    nra loda


and each thane    of your nation,
dugue ond iogoe      t him ondradan ne earft,


veterans and youths,    that you for them need not dread,
oden Scyldinga,    on healfe


chieftain of the Scyldings,    on that side,
aldorbealu eorlum    sw ar dydest.'


life-bale for earls,    as you did before.'
ws gyldenhilt    gamelum rince


Then was the golden hilt    to the old king
hrum hildfruman    on hand gyfen


to the grey battle-leader,    given into his hand,
enta argeweorc    hit on aht gehwearf


the ancient work of giants;    it had passed into the possession
fter dofla hryre    Denigea frn


after the devils' fall    of the lord of the Danes,
wundorsmia geweorc    ond s worold ofgeaf


the work of wondersmiths,    and then this world gave up
gromheort guma    godes andsaca


the angry-hearted creature,    God's adversary
morres scyldig    ond his mdor ac


guilty of murder,    and his mother also;
on geweald gehwearf    woroldcyninga


it passed into the power    of the earthly kings
am slestan       be sam twonum


the finest ones    between the two seas,
ra e on Scedenigge    sceattas dalde.


of those who in Scandinavia     dealt out riches.
Hrgr maelode    hylt scawode


Hrothgor spoke;    he examined the hilt,
ealde lafe    on am ws r writen


the old heirloom,    on which was engraved the origin
fyrngewinnes    syan fld ofslh


of ancient strife,    when the flood slew
gifen gotende    gganta cyn--


the pouring ocean,    the race of giants--
frcne gefrdon    t ws fremde od


they fared terribly;    that was a tribe foreign
cean dryhtne    him s endelan


to the eternal Lord;    them the end-reward
urh wteres wylm    waldend sealde--


through the surging of waters    the Ruler granted--
sw ws on am scennum    scran goldes


also was on the sword-hilt    of shining gold
urh rnstafas    rihte gemearcod


in rune-staves    rightly marked,
geseted ond gesad    hwm t sweord geworht


it was set down and said,    for whom the sword wrought,
rena cyst    arest ware


--choicest of irons--     had been first,
wreoenhilt ond wyrmfh     se wsa sprc


with a twisted-hilt and serpent-patterned;    then the wise man spoke,
sunu Healfdenes     swgedon ealle:


the son of Half-Dane     all fell silent:
't, l, mg secgan     s e s ond riht


'That, indeed, may say    he who truth and right
freme on folce    feor eal gemon,


performs among the folk,    remembers all from far-back,
eald el weard    t es eorl ware


old warden of the homeland;    that this hero was
geboren betera    blad is rared


born a greater man;    the fame is established
geond wdwegas,    wine mn Bowulf,


throughout the distant regions,    Beowulf my friend,
n ofer oda gehwylce    eal hit geyldum healdest,


over each of the nations, of you;    all you it with patience hold,
mgen mid mdes snyttrum      ic sceal mne gelastan


strength with the wisdom of the heart;    to you I shall continue to give my
froe sw wit furum spracon     scealt t frfre weoran


protection, as we spoke of before;    you must be as a comfort
eal langtwdig    lodum num


all long-lasting    to your people,
hleum t helpe.    Ne wear Heremd sw


to heroes a support.    Heremod was not so
eaforum Ecgwelan    r-Scyldingum


to the sons of Edgewela,    to the Honour-Scyldings;
ne gewox h him t willan    ac t wlfealle


he grew not to their pleasure,    but for slaughter
ond t dacwalum    Deniga lodum


and for annihilation    of the people of the Danes;
brat bolgenmd    bodgenatas


he felled in a furious spirit    his companions at table,
eaxlgesteallan    o t h na hwearf


shoulder-comrades,    until he alone passed,
mare oden    mondramum from


famous king,    from the joys of man
ah e hine mihtig god    mgenes wynnum


though him mighty God    with joys of strength
eafeum stpte    ofer ealle men


powerfully exalted    over all men,
for gefremede    hwere him on ferhe grow


further advanced    yet in his heart grew to him
brosthord bldrow    nallas bagas geaf


the treasure of the breast eager for blood;     not at all did he give rings
Denum fter dme    dramlas gebd


to Danes for glory;    he lived joylessly,
t h s gewinnes    wrc rwade


so that he the strife's    pain suffered,
lodbealo longsum.     lar be on


a great evil to the people for a long time.    You learn by this,
gumcyste ongit    ic is gid be


understand human virtue;    I this tale for you
wrc wintrum frd.    Wundor is t secganne


recited, old and wise in winters.    Wonder is to say
h mihtig god    manna cynne


how mighty God    to mankind
urh sdne sefan    snyttru brytta


according to deep understanding     dispenses wisdom,
eard ond eorlscipe    h h ealra geweald   1727 land and noble qualities;    he has control of all;
hwlum h on lufan    late hworfan


at times He in delight    lets go
monnes mdgeonc    maran cynnes


the heart's thought of some man    of glorious kin
sele him on le    eoran wynne


gives to him in his own homeland    earthly bliss
t healdanne    hloburh wera


to command    a stronghold of men,
ged him sw gewealdene     worolde dalas


makes subject to him    from the world's portions,
sde rce    t h his selfa ne mg


a wide kingdom,    that he himself can not
for his unsnyttrum    ende geencean


in his ignorance    conceive the end (of his rule);
wuna h on wiste    n hine wiht dwele


he lives on in abundance;    they hinder him not a bit,
dl n yldo    n him inwitsorh


sickness nor age,    nor him evil sorrow
on sefan sweorce    n gesacu hwar


darkens in his soul,    nor strife anywhere
ecghete owe    ac him eal worold


sharp-hate appears,    but to him all the world
wende on willan    h t wyrse ne con.


turns on his pleasure;    he does not know it worse.



O t him on innan    oferhygda dal


Until within him    pride's portion
weaxe ond wrda    onne se weard swefe


grows and flourishes    then the warder sleeps,
swele hyrde    bi se slap t fst,


the soul's keeper;    the sleep is too sound,
bisgum gebunden,    bona swe nah


bound with troubles,    the killer is very near,
s e of flnbogan    fyrenum scote


he who from his shaft-bow    foully fires;
onne bi on hrere    under helm drepen


then it is in the heart    struck beneath the helm
biteran strale    --him bebeorgan ne con--


by the bitter dart    --he cannot protect himself--
wm wundorbebodum    wergan gstes


from the perversity of strange biddings    of the wicked spirit;
ince him t ltel     t h t lange hold


it seems to him too little    what he rules too long;
gtsa gromhdig    nallas on gylp sele


cruel-mindedly covets,    he in arrogance never gives
fadde bagas    ond h forgesceaft


golden rings,    and he then the future
forgyte ond forgme    s e him ar god sealde,


forgets and disregards,    that which God gave him before,
wuldres waldend,    weormynda dal


glory's Ruler,    a share of honour
hit on endestf    eft gelimpe


it in the end    finally comes to pass
t se lchoma    lane gedrose


that the body,    lent, fails;
fage gefealle    fh er t


fated to death, it falls;    another body takes up,
s e unmurnlce    mdmas dale


who without regret    shares out treasure,
eorles argestron    egesan ne gme.


the earl's ancient wealth,    and he heeds not fear.
Bebeorh one bealon,    Beowulf lofa


Guard yourself against this wicked strife,    beloved Beowulf,
secg betosta,    ond t slre gecos


finest man,    and for yourself choose the better,
ce radas    oferhda ne gm,


the eternal gains;    do not pay heed to pride,
mare cempa    n is nes mgnes blad


renowned champion;    now is the glory of your strength
ne hwle    eft sna bi


for a while;    presently in turn will be
t ec dl oe ecg     eafoes getwafe


that you sickness or edge    will part from strength,
oe fres feng    oe fldes wylm


or grasp of fire,    or surge of flood,
oe gripe mces    oe gres fliht


or bite of blade,    or flight of spear,
oe atol yldo    oe agena bearhtm


or repulsive old-age;    or the brightness of the eyes
forsite ond forsworce    semninga bi


weakens and dims;    very soon will be
t ec, dryhtguma,    da oferswe.


that you, warrior,    Death overpowers.
Sw ic Hring-Dena    hund missra


So I the Ring-Danes     a hundred seasons
wold under wolcnum    ond hig wigge belac


have ruled under the skies    and in war sheltered them,
manigum maga    geond ysne middangeard


from many tribes     throughout this middle-earth,
scum ond ecgum    t ic m anigne


from ash-shafts and sword-edges,    so that I for myself any,
under swegles begong    gesacan ne tealde.


under the expanse of the heavens,    adversary I did not account.
Hwt, m s on le    edwendan cwm,


Listen, to me in the homeland for that    a reversal came,
gyrn fter gomene    seoan Grendel wear


sorrow after joy,    since Grendel became
ealdgewinna    ingenga min


an old contender,    invader of mine,
ic are scne     singles wg


I from that persecution    endured continually
mdceare micle    s sig metode anc


great sorrow of spirit;    thanks be for that to the Measurer of Fate,
cean dryhtne    s e ic on aldre gebd


eternal Lord,    from that I survived alive,
t ic on one hafelan     heorodrorigne


so that I on the head    sword-bloodied
ofer eald gewin    agum starige!


after ancient strife     could gaze with my eyes!
G n t setle     symbelwynne droh


Go now to the bench,    join in the pleasure-banquet,
wggeweorad    unc sceal worn fela


honoured by your battle;    we must very many
mma gemanra    sian morgen bi.'


treasures share between us    when it is morning.'
Gat ws gldmd     gong sna t


The Geat was glad-hearted,    went straightaway to
setles nosan    sw se snottra heht


seek the bench,    as the wise one had commanded;
ws eft sw ar     ellenrfum


then it was again as before    for bold warriors,
fletsittendum    fgere gereorded


for those sitting in the hall    they prepared a fine feast
nowan stefne    nihthelm geswearc


once again;    the helm of night darkened,
deorc ofer dryhtgumum    dugu eal rs


dark over the company of warriors;    the veterans all arose;
wolde blondenfeax    beddes nosan,


the blended-haired one wishes    to seek his bed,
gamela Scylding    Gat unigmetes wl


the aged Scylding;    the Geat exceedingly much,
rfne randwigan    restan lyste


valiant shield-warrior,    desired rest;
sna him seleegn    ses wrgum


at once him the hall-thane    the weary journeyer
feorrancundum    or wsade


from afar    guided forth,
s for andrysnum    ealle beweotede


who for courtesy    looked after everything
egnes earfe    swylce dgore


of the hero's needs,    such as in those days
heaolende    habban scoldon


warrior-sailors    were obliged to have;
reste hine rmheort     reced hluade


rested him then, the large-hearted man;    the hall towered
gap ond goldfh    gst inne swf


vaulted and gold-adorned;    the guest slept inside
o t hrefn blaca    heofones wynne


until the black raven,    the joy of the sky
blheort bodode.     cm beorht scacan


declared glad-heartedly.    Then came bright hurrying,
scaan netton


fighters hastening;
waron elingas    eft t lodum


the nobles were    back to their people
fse t farenne    wolde feor anon


eager to fare;    he wished far thence,
cuma collenferh    coles nosan.


the high-spirited visitor,    to seek his ship.
Heht se hearda    Hrunting beran


He then directed the tough man    to wear Hrunting
sunu Ecglfes    heht his sweord niman


the son of Edgelaf,    bid him take his sword,
loflc ren    sgde him s lanes anc


beloved iron;    said thanks to him for the loan,
cw: h one gwine     gdne tealde


quoth: he the war-friend    marked well,
wgcrftigne     nales wordum lg


skilled in war;    he did not in words blame
mces ecge    t ws mdig secg.


the maiche's edge;    he was a proud man.
Ond sfrome,    searwum gearwe


And then, eager to be going,    ready in arms,
wgend waron    ode weor Denum


were the warriors,     the one honoured by the Danes went,
eling t yppan    ar se er ws


noble to the high seat,    where the other was,
hle hildedor    Hrgr grtte.


the battle-bold hero    greeted Hrothgar.



Bowulf maelode    bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
'N w salend       secgan wylla


'Now we sea-farers     wish to say
feorran cumene    t w fundia


having come from afar,    that we are anxious
Higelc scan    waron hr tela


to seek Hygelac;    we here were well
willum bewenede     s wl dohtest.


entertained in our desires;    you have treated us well.
Gif ic onne on eoran    wihte mg


If then on earth I    can (do) anything
nre mdlufan    mran tilian,


of your affections    earn more,
gumena dryhten,    onne ic gt dyde,


lord of men,    than I have done yet,
ggeweorca    ic bo gearo sna


with feats of arms,    I am ready at once,
gif ic t gefricge    ofer flda begang


if I find it out    over the flood's expanse,
t ec ymbsittend    egesan wa


that you neighbouring-tribes    oppress with terror,
sw ec hetende    hwlum dydon


as enemies to you    sometimes did,
ic senda    egna bringe


I to you a thousand    thanes will bring,
hlea t helpe.    Ic on Higelce wt,


heroes as help.    I know of Hygelac,
Gata dryhten    ah e h geong sy


the lord of the Geats,    though he is young,
folces hyrde    t h mec fremman wile


the keeper of the folk,    that he would support me
weordum ond worcum    t ic wl herige


with words and with deeds,    so that I might honour you rightly
ond t goce    grholt bere


and to you in aid     bring a forest of spears,
mgenes fultum    ar bi manna earf.


the support of strength,    where you be needful of men.
Gif him onne Hrrnc    t hofum Gata


If him, on the other hand, Hrethric    to the Geatish court
geinge odnes bearn    h mg ar fela


decides (to go), chieftain's son,    he shall there be able many
fronda findan    feorce bo


friends to find;    distant lands are
slran geshte    am e him selfa dah.'


better sought    by one who is powerful himself.'
Hrgr maelode    him on andsware:


Hrothgar spoke     to him in reply:
' wordcwydas     wigtig drihten


'To you these sayings of words    the wise Lord
on sefan sende    ne hrde ic snotorlcor


has sent into mind;    I have not heard more intelligently
on sw geongum feore    guman ingian


at such young age    man make a speech;
eart mgenes strang    ond on mde frd


you are strong in power    and wise in your heart,
ws wordcwida    wn ic talige


judicious word-speaker;    I consider it likely
gif t gegange    t e gr nyme


if it happens,    that from you the spear takes,
hild heorugrimme    Hrles eaferan,


a horrendous battle    Hrethel's heir,
dl oe ren    ealdor nne


sickness or iron    your ruler,
folces hyrde    ond n feorh hafast


the guardian of the folk,    and you have your life,
t e Sa-Gatas     slran nbben


that the Sea-Geats    could not have better
t gecosenne    cyning anigne


by choosing    any other king,
hordweard hlea    gyf healdan wylt


hoard-ward of heroes,    if you wish to rule
mga rce    m n mdsefa


your kinsman's kingdom.    Your spirit and heart me
lca leng sw wl,     lofa Bowulf


pleases so well the longer (I know them),    dear Beowulf;
hafast gefred     t m folcum sceal


you have achieved     that for the folk shall
Gata lodum    ond Gr-Denum


the people of the Geats    and the Spear-Danes
sib gemanum    ond sacu restan,


in mutual peace,    and strife subside,
inwitnas,     he ar drugon,


hostilities,     which they endured before;
wesan enden ic wealde    wdan rces


shall be, while I rule    the wide kingdom,
mmas gemane,    manig erne


wealth in common,    many an other
gdum gegrttan    ofer ganotes b


with good things will greet    over the gannet's bath;
sceal hringnaca    ofer heu bringan


the ring-prowed ship shall    bring over the high seas
lc ond luftcen    ic lode wt


offerings and tokens of friendship;    I know these nations
g wi fond g wi frond     fste geworhte


both towards foe and towards friend    firmly disposed,
aghws untale    ealde wsan.'


blameless in everything,    in the ancient manner.'
gt him eorla hlo     hine gesealde


Then again to him the protector of earls    gave to him,
mago Healfdenes    mmas twelf


the son of Half-Dane,    twelve treasures;
ht inne mid am lcum    lode swase


he commanded him with these gifts    his own dear nation
scean on gesyntum,    snde eft cuman


to seek in safety,    to return quickly;
gecyste     cyning elum gd,


kissed then,    the king the upright noble,
oden Scyldinga    egn betostan


the chieftain of the Scyldings,    the best thane
ond be healse genam    hruron him taras


and took him by the neck;    tears fell from him,
blondenfeaxum    him ws bga wn


from the silver and gold whiskers;    in him were both thoughts
ealdum infrdum,    res swor


old and deeply wise,    the second stronger,
t he seoan     geson mston


that they afterwards    might meet,
mdige on mele    ws him se man t on lof


brave in a formal summit;    the man was so dear to him
t h one brostwylm     forberan ne mehte


that he the welling of his breast    could not hold back
ac him on hrere    hygebendum fst


but him in his heart    in firm bounds of thought
fter dorum men    dyrne langa


for the dear man    a remote longing
beorn wi blde.    Him Bowulf anan


burned in his blood.    Him Beowulf thence,
grinc goldwlanc    grsmoldan trd


warrior proud with gold,    trod the grass-mound,
since hrmig    sagenga bd


triumphing in treasure.    The sea-goer awaited
gedfrn     s e on ancre rd


its lord and owner,    which rode at its anchor;
ws on gange     gifu Hrgres


later on the journey was    the gift of Hrothgar
oft gehted    t ws n cyning,


often praised;    that was one king,
aghws orleahtre    o t hine yldo benam


in everything blameless,    until age deprived him
mgenes wynnum    s e oft manegum scd.


of strength's delights,    a thing which continually harms many.



Cwm t flde    fela mdigra


They came than to the flood    full of spirit
hgstealdra    hringnet baron


of the young warriors;    ring-mail they wore
locene leoosyrcan    landweard onfand


interlocked limb-shirts;    the land-guard perceived
efts eorla,    sw h ar dyde


the return of heroes,    as he did before;
n h mid hearme    of hlies nsan


he did not with insult    from the cliff's promontory
gstas grtte    ac him tganes rd


greet the guests,    but rode towards them,
cw t wilcuman    Wedera lodum


said that welcome     to the people of the Wederas
scaan scrhame    t scipe fron


the fighters with bright covering    he went to the ship;
ws on sande    sagap naca


then was on sand    the sea-curved boat
hladen herewadum    hringedstefna


laden with war-garments    the ringed-prow
marum ond mmum    mst hlfade


with horses and treasure;    the mast towered
ofer Hrgres    hordgestronum


over Hrothgar's    hoard-wealth;
h am btwearde     bunden golde


he to the boat-guard     a bound gold
swurd gesealde    t h syan ws


sword gave,    so that he afterwards was
on meodubence    mma weorre


on the mead-bench    by the treasure the worthier,
yrfelfe.    Gewt him on nacan


by the inherited relic.    Departed him on the ship
drfan dop wter    Dena land ofgeaf


to trouble deep water;    he left the Danes' land;
ws be mste     merehrgla sum


then was by the mast    a mighty sea-garment,
segl sle fst    sundwudu unede


sail fastened by rope;    the sea-beam thundered;
n ar wgflotan    wind ofer um


there the wave-floater was not     (by) wind over the waves
ses getwafde    sagenga fr


hindered in its venture;    the sea-goers went,
flat fmigheals    for ofer e


the foamy-necked floated    forth over the waves,
bundenstefna    ofer brimstramas


bound prow    over the ocean-streams,
t he Gata clifu    ongitan meahton


until they the Geatish cliffs    could perceive,
ce nssas    col p gerang


the well-known headlands;    the keel rushed up
lyftgeswenced    on lande std.


weather-beaten,    rested on the land.
Hrae ws t holme     hweard geara


Quickly was at the water    the ready harbour-guard,
s e ar lange td    lofra manna


he who already for a long time    for the beloved men
fs t faroe    feor wltode


eager at the current    gazed far;
salde t sande    sdfme scip


moored in the sand    the broad-bosomed ship
oncearbendum fst     las hym a rym


firm with anchor-bounds,    lest the force of the waves
wudu wynsuman    forwrecan meahte


the winsome timbers    might carry away;
ht p beran    elinga gestron


he ordered then to carry up    the nobles' treasure,
frtwe ond fatgold    ns him feor anon


trappings and gold ornaments;    it was not far thence for them
t gescanne    sinces bryttan


to seek    the giver of treasures
Higelc Hrling    ar t hm wuna


Hygelac son of Hrethel,    where he dwelt at home
selfa mid gesum    sawealle nah.


himself with his companions    near the sea-wall.
Bold ws betlc,    bregorf cyning


The building was splendid,    the king of princely valour,
hhealle,    Hygd swe geong


the high hall,    Hygd very young,
ws wlungen    ah e wintra lt


wise, well-thriving,    through few winters
under burhlocan    gebiden hbbe


in the walled town    had lived,
Hrees dohtor     ns ho hnh sw ah


Haereth's daughter    was not mean though
n t gna gifa    Gata lodum


nor too grudging of gifts    to the people of the Geats,
mmgestrona.    Md ro wg


of treasure-wealth.    She showed violent arrogance,
fremu folces cwn,    firen' ondrysne


the lusty queen of the folk,    terrible crimes;
nanig t dorste    dor genan


dared not any of    the bold to risk,
swasra gesa,    nefne sinfr


of the dear companions,    except her great lord,
t hire an dges    agum starede


that on her by day    stared with his eyes
ac him wlbende    weotode tealde


but for him slaughter-bonds    he might consider prescribed,
handgewriene     hrae seoan ws


woven by hands;    quickly then was
fter mundgripe    mce geinged


after seizure    a maiche was appointed,
t hit scedenmal     scran  mste,


that it, shadow-marked,    was obliged to settle,
cwealmbealu can    ne bi swylc cwnlic aw


make known the evil of the death;    such queenly manner is not
idese t efnanne    ah e ho anlicu s


for a lady to perform,    though she be matchless,
tte freouwebbe    fores onsace


that peace-weaver    deprives life,
fter ligetorne    lofne mannan.


owing to a false injury,    of beloved man.
Hru t on hh snod     Hemninges mag


However, it was cut off at the heel     by Hemming's kinsman;
ealodrincende    er sadan


the ale-drinkers    further told
t ho lodbealewa     las gefremede


that evil for the people she    practised less,
inwitna     syan arest wear


malice and enmity,    since she first was
gyfen goldhroden    geongum cempan


given, gold-adorned,    to the young champion,
elum dore    syan ho Offan flet


of noble ancestry,    when she to Offa's hall
ofer fealone fld    be fder lre


over the dusky flood    by her father's wisdom
se geshte    ar ho syan well


sought in her journey    where she afterwards fully
in gumstle    gde mare


on the throne,    for goodness famed,
lfgesceafta    lifigende brac


the fated span of her life    her living she used well,
hold hahlufan    wi hlea brego,


held high-love    for the heroes' lord,
ealles moncynnes    mne gefrage


of all mankind,    I have heard,
s slestan    b sam twonum


the finest    between the seas,
eormencynnes     Form Offa ws


of the mighty race.    Because Offa was
geofum ond gum    grcne man


in gifts and in war,    a spear-keen man;
wde geweorod    wsdme hold


widely honoured,    ruled in wisdom
el snne    onon ongomor wc


his homeland;    then, exceedingly sad, he arose
hleum t helpe    Heminges mag


a help to heroes,    the kinsman of Hemming,
nefa Grmundes    na crftig.


grandson of Garmund,     powerful over strife.



Gewt him se hearda    mid his hondscole


Then the hardy man went    with his hand-picked retinue
sylf fter sande    sawong tredan


himself along the sand    treading the sea-plain,
wde waroas    woruldcandel scn


the wide strand;    the world-candle shone,
sigel san fs    h s drugon


the sun eagerly from the south;    they had survived the journey,
elne geodon,    t s e eorla hlo


strode quickly,    to where the Shield of Heroes,
bonan Ongenoes    burgum in innan,


--the bane of Ongentheow--      inside his citadel,
geongne gcyning    gdne gefrnon


the young war-king,    they heard (that there) the good man
hringas dalan.    Higelce ws


alloted rings.    To Hygelac was
s Bowulfes    snde geced


Beowulf's journey    promptly reported,
t ar on worig     wgendra hlo


that there in enclosed homestead,    the defender of warriors,
lindgestealla    lifigende cwm


shield-companion    (still) living came,
heaolces hl    t hofe gongan


from the war-play unharmed    going to to the court;
hrae ws germed    sw se rca bebad


quickly was cleared,    as the king bade,
fegestum    flet innanweard


for the visitors on foot    the floor within;
gest wi sylfne     s scce gens,


then he sat down with the same man,    he who had survived the fight,
mag wi mage    syan mandryhten


kinsman with kinsman,    after the liege-lord
urh hloorcwyde    holdne gegrtte


through ceremonious speech    his loyal subject had greeted,
maglum wordum    meoduscencum


in emphatic words,    mead-draughts
hwearf geond t sde reced    Hrees dohtor


passed round through that spacious room    Haereth's daughter,
lufode lode    liwage br


--she loved the people--    bore goblets
haum t handa.    Higelc ongan


to the hands of the illustrious ones.    Hygelac began
snne geseldan    in sele m han


his hall-companion     in that high hall
fgre fricgcean    hyne fyrwet brc


to question courteously,    his curiosity burst forth,
hwylce Sa-Gata    sas waron:


whatever the Sea-Geats'    adventures were:
'H lomp ow on lde,     lofa Bowulf,


'How fared you on the way,    dear Beowulf,
faringa    feorr gehogodest


when you suddenly    resolved far away
scce scean    ofer sealt wter


to seek conflict    over the salt water,
hilde t Hiorote?    Ac Hrgre


combat in Heorot?    Moreover, did you Hrothgar's
wdcne wan    wihte gebttest


widely known woes    at all ameliorate,
marum odne?    Ic s mdceare


for the famed chieftain?    I of this with anxious care of the heart
sorhwylmum sa    se ne trwode


seethed with wellings of sorrow,    I did not trust the venture
lofes mannes    ic lange bd


of my dear man;    I begged you at length,
t one wlgast    wihte ne grtte


that you the slaughter-ghast    would not challenge at all,
lte S-Dene    sylfe geweoran


let the South-Danes    settle themselves
ge wi Grendel    gode ic anc secge


the war with Grendel;    to God I speak thanks,
s e ic gesundne     geson mste.'


for that I you sound    am permitted to see.'
Bowulf maelode    bearn Ecgoes:


Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
't is undyrne,    dryhten Higelc,


'It is not secret,    lord Hygelac,
micel gemting    monegum fra


that great meeting,    to many men,
hwylc orleghwl    uncer Grendles


what a time of struggle    between the two of us, me and Grendel,
wear on m wange    ar h worna fela


occurred in that place    where he great multitudes
Sige-Scyldingum    sorge gefremede


for the Victory-Scyldings    brought about sorrows,
yrme t aldre    ic t eall gewrc


lifelong misery;    I avenged it all,
sw begylpan earf    Grendeles mga


thus there is need to boast    --of Grendel's kinsmen,
yfel ofer eoran    hthlem one


evil upon the earth--    of that clash at dawn,
s e lengest leofa    lan cynnes


he who lives the longest    of that hateful race,
fecne bifongen.    Ic ar furum cwm


enveloped in malice.    I first came there
t m hringsele    Hrgr grtan


to that ring-hall    to greet Hrothgar;
sna m se mara    mago Healfdenes


straightaway to me the famed    kinsman of Half-Dane,
syan h mdsefan    mnne ce


after he the purpose of the heart    of mine knew,
wi his sylfes sunu    setl getahte


with his own sons    he appointed a seat;
weorod ws on wynne    ne seah ic wdan feorh


The troop was joyful;    I have not seen in my whole life
under heofones hwealf    healsittendra


under heaven's vault    a hall-sitters'
medudram mran.    Hwlum maru cwn


mead-revelry greater.    At times the renowned queen,
friusibb folca    flet eall geondhwearf


the peace-pledge of peoples,    passed over all of the floor,
bdde byre geonge    oft ho bahwrian


urged on the young boys;    often twisted-rings she
secge sealde    ar he t setle gong


gave to the warriors,    before she went to her seat;
hwlum for dugue    dohtor Hrgres


from time to time before the band of experienced warriors     Hrothgar's daughter
eorlum on ende    ealuwage br


to nobles continuously to the end    bore the ale-flagon,
ic Fraware    fletsittende


those I Freawaru    the ones on the floor
nemnan hrde    ar ho ngled sinc


I heard name her,    when she the studded cup
hleum sealde    So gehten is


gave to heroes,    she is promised,
geong goldhroden,    gladum suna Frdan


young, gold-adorned,    to gracious son of Froda;
hafa s geworden    wine Scyldinga


this has arranged    the Friend of the Scyldings,
rces hyrde    ond t rad tala


the kingdom's shepherd,    and counsel reckons it
t h mid wfe     wlfaha dal


that he with this woman    a great part of the slaughter-feuds,
scca gesette.    Oft seldan hwar


conflicts will settle.    Very seldom anywhere
fter lodhryre    ltle hwle


after the fall of a leader    (even) a little while
bongr bge    ah so brd duge.


the murderous spear bends down,    though the bride be good.
Mg s onne ofyncan    oden Heao-Beardna


This then may displease     the chief of the Heatho-Bards'
ond egna gehwm    ra loda


and every thane    of that people,
onne h mid famnan    on flett ga:


when he with the maiden    walks on the floor:
dryhtbearn Dena    dugua biwenede,


that the noble sons of the Danes,    her veteran troop, are entertained,
on him gladia    gomelra lfe


on them glisten    ancient heirlooms,
heard ond hringmal    Heaa-Bearna gestron


hard and ring-adorned,    the Heatho-Bards' treasure,
enden he m wapnum    wealdan mston.


so long as they those weapons    were able to wield.



O t he forladdan    t m lindplegan


Until they had led to disaster    in the shield-play
swase gesas    ond hyra sylfra feorh.


their dear companions    and their own lives.
onne cwi t bore     s e bahgesyh


Then speaks at the beer-drinking,    he who sees a ring-precious object,
eald scwiga    s e eall geman


the old ash-warrior,    he who remembers all
grcwealm gumena    --him bi grim sefa--


the spear-death of men    --in him is a fierce heart--
onginne gomormd    geongum cempan


he begins sad-spirited    in a young champion,
urh hrera gehygd    higes cunnian,


by the musing of his heart,    to tempt his mind,
wgbealu weccean    ond t word cwy:


to awaken war-horror,    and speaks these words:
"Meaht , mn wine,     mce gecnwan


"Can you, my friend,     recognise that maiche,
one n fder    t gefeohte br


which your father    bore into the fight,
under heregrman    hindeman se,


under his army-mask    on the last campaign,
dre ren,    ar hyne Dene slgon


precious iron,    there the Danes slew him,
woldon wlstwe    syan wiergyld lg


controlled the slaying-field,    when retribution failed,
fter hlea hryre    hwate Scyldungas?


after the heroes' fall,    the fierce Scyldings?
N hr ra banena    byre nthwylces


Now here of those slayers    the son of one or other of them,
frtwum hrmig    on flet ga


exultant in trappings,    goes across the floor,
morres gylpe    ond one mum byre


boasts of murder,    and wears the treasure
one e mid rihte    radan sceoldest."


which you by right    ought to possess."
Mana sw ond myndga     mala gehwylce


Thus he incites and reminds     every time
srum wordum    o t sal cyme


with grievous words,    until that time comes
t se famnan egn    fore fder dadum


that the woman's thane    for his father's deeds
fter billes bite    bldfg swefe


from the bite of a bill-blade    sleeps, stained in blood,
ealdres scyldig    him se er onan


having forfeited life;    him the other thence
losa lifigende    con him land geare.


escapes alive,    the land is readily known to him.
onne bo brocene    on b healfe


Then are broken    on both sides
sweor eorla    syan Ingelde


the sworn oaths of earls;    then in Ingeld
wealla wlnas    ond him wflufan


murderous hate will well up     and in him the love of woman
fter cearwlmum    clran weora


surges of grief    will become cooler;
ic Heao-Beardna    hyldo ne telge


Therefore I the Heathobards'    loyalty do not consider,
dryhtsibbe dal    Denum unfacne,


the alliance's portion,    for the Danes untreacherous,
frondscipe fstne.    Ic sceal for sprecan


enduring friendship.    I ought speak further
gn ymbe Grendel    t geare cunne,


again about Grendel,    that you may readily know,
sinces brytta,    t hwan syan wear


giver of treasure,    what then happened,
hondras hlea    syan heofones gim


the hand-fight of heroes    when heaven's gem
gld ofer grundas    gast yrre cwm


had glided over the earth,    the ireful guest came,
eatol afengrom    ser nosan


terrible, fierce in the evening    to visit us,
ar w gesunde    sl weardodon


where we, unharmed,    warded the hall,
ar ws Hondsci    hilde onsage


where was for Hondscio    a sinking battle
feorhbealu fagum    h fyrmest lg


deadly evil for the doomed man;    he fell first,
gyrded cempa    him Grendel wear


the girded champion;    for him Grendel was,
marum maguegne    t mbonan


the famed thane of distinction,    a slayer by mouth,
lofes mannes    lc eall forswealg


the belovd man's     body swallowed up completely;
n ar t gn    delhende


not the sooner out yet    empty-handed,
bona bldigt    bealewa gemyndig


the slayer bloody-toothed,    wickedness in mind,
of m goldsele    gongan wolde


from the gold-hall    did he wish to go
ac h mgnes rf    mn costode


but he, famed for his strength,    tested me,
grpode gearofolm     glf hangode


gripped with an eager hand;    a pouch hung down
sd ond syllc    searobendum fst


spacious and strange,    with cleverly-wrought clasps held fast,
so ws oroncum    eall gegyrwed


it was cunningly    all devised
dofles crftum    ond dracan fellum


with devil's crafts    and dragon's skins;
h mec ar on innan    unsynnigne


he me there inside,    guiltless,
dor dadfruma    gedn wolde


the daring instigator    wished to stuff,
manigra sumne    hyt ne mihte sw


as one of many;    he could not do so,
syan ic on yrre    upprihte std.


since I in anger    stood erect.
T lang ys t reccenne    h ic m lodsceaan


It is too long to recount    how I the scourge of the people
yfla gehwylces    hondlan forgeald


for each of his evils    paid in hand-requital
ar ic, oden mn,     ne lode


where I, my lord,    your people
weorode weorcum    he on weg losade


honoured by acts;    he escaped away
ltle hwle    lfwynna brac


for a little while,    enjoyed the joy of life;
hwre him so swre     swae weardade


yet from him the right,    a vestige, remainded behind
hand on Hiorte    ond h han onan


hand in Heorot,    and he wretched thence,
mdes gemor    meregrund gefoll.


gloomy in his heart,    sank into the depths of the mere.
M one wlras    wine Scildunga


To me for the bloody battle     the Friend of the Scyldings
fattan golde    fela lanode


with objects of plated gold    in plenty rewarded,
manegum mmum    syan mergen cm


many treasures,    when morning came,
ond w t symble    geseten hfdon


and we to the feast    had sat down
ar ws gidd ond glo:    gomela Scilding


where was song and glee:    old Scylding
felafricgende    feorran rehte


who has heard tell of many things,    from long ago narrated;
hwlum hildedor    hearpan wynne


at times this battle-daring one    the harp for pleasure
gomelwudu grtte    hwlum gyd wrc


the old-wood played;    sometimes recited a song,
s ond srlc    hwlum syllc spell


true and tragic;     sometimes strange tales
rehte fter rihte    rmheort cyning


he related rightly,    the open-hearted king;
hwlum eft ongan    eldo gebunden


at times he began again,    bound in his age,
gomel gwiga    giogue cwan


the ancient war-soldier,    to mourn for his youth,
hildestrengo    hreer inne woll


his battle-strength;    his heart welled inside,
onne h wintrum frd,    worn gemunde.


when he, wise in winter,     recalled many things.
Sw w ar inne     andlangne dg


So we there inside     a whole long day
node nman    o t niht becwm


took pleasure,    until came night
er t yldum     ws eft hrae


another to men;    then was again swiftly
gearo gyrnwrce    Grendeles mdor


ready for grief-revenge     Grendel's mother,
sode sorhfull    sunu da fornam,


she journeyed full of sorrow;    Death had taken her son,
wghete Wedra    wf unhre


the war-hate of the Wederas;    the horrible woman
hyre bearn gewrc    beorn cwealde


avenged her child,    killed a warrior
ellenlce     ar ws schere


savagely;     there was from schere,
frdan fyrnwitan    feorh genge.


the old, wise lore-counsellor,    life departed.
Ner h hine ne mston     syan mergen cwm


Nor could they him,    when morning came,
dawrigne     Denia lode


weary of death    the Danish people
bronde forbrnan    n on bal hladan


cremate in fire,    nor lay on the funeral bale,
lofne mannan    ho t lc tbr


the beloved man;    she had carried off the corpse
fondes fme    under firgenstram


in fiend's embrace    beneath the mountain stream;
t ws Hrgre     hrowa tornost


that was for Hrothgar    the most bitter grief
ra e lodfruman    lange begate.


which the ruler of the people    long had received.
se oden mec     ne lfe


Then me the chieftain,    by your life,
healsode hrohmd    t ic on holma gering


implored with troubled mind,    that I in the waters' tumult
eorlscipe efnde    ealdre gende


perform a noble act,    risk life,
maro fremede    h m mde geht.


accomplish glory;    he promised me rewards.
Ic s wlmes     is wde c


Then I the welling waters',    as is widely known,
grimme gryrelcne    grundhyrde fond


wrathful ghastly    guard of the deep found;
ar unc hwle ws    hand gemane


there a while we were    sharing a hand;
holm heolfre woll    ond ic hafde becearf


the water welled with gore,    and I cut off the head
in m grundsele    Grendeles mdor


in that deep-hall    of Grendel's mother
acnum ecgum    unsfte onan


with mighty edges,    not easily thence
feorh oferede    ns ic fage gt


I carried off my life;    I was not doomed yet
ac m eorla hlo    eft gesealde


but to me the protector of heroes    again gave
mma menigeo    maga Healfdenes.'


many treasures,    the kinsman of Half-Dane.'



Sw se odkyning    awum lyfde


So the king of the people    lived according to proper custom;
nealles ic m lanum    forloren hfde


I by no means the gifts     had lost,
mgnes mde    ac h m mama geaf


strength's reward,     but he gave me treasures,
sunu Healfdenes    on mnne sylfes dm


the son of Half-Dane,    according to my own glory,
ic , beorncyning,    bringan wylle,


these I to thee, warrior-king,    wish to bring,
stum gewan    gn is eall t


graciously to offer;    still is all in thee
lissa gelong    ic lt hafo


dependent upon your favour;    I have few
hafodmga     nefne, Hygelc, ec.'


near kinsmen    except you Hygelac.'
Ht in beran    eafor hafodsegn


Then he commanded to be brought in    the boar-crested standard,
heaostapne helm    hre byrnan


the battle-steep helm,    hoar-silver byrnie,
gsweord geatolc    gyd fter wrc:


the beautiful war-sword;    the tale thereafter uttered:
'M is hildesceorp     Hrgr sealde


'To me this battle-equipment    Hrothgar gave,
snotra fengel    sume worde ht


the clever ruler;    with some words he ordered,
t ic his arest      st gesgde


that I first you its    legacy relate;
cw t hyt hfde     Hiorogr cyning


he said it owned    King Heorogar,
lod Scyldunga    lange hwle


the leader of the Scyldings    a long time;
n ar suna snum    syllan wolde


no sooner for that to his son    did he wish to give,
hwatum Heorowearde    ah h him hold ware


to bold Heoroweard,    though he was loyal to him,
brostgewadu.     Brc ealles well.'


the breast-armour.    Use it all well.'
Hrde ic t m frtwum    fower maras


I heard that with the treasure    four mares
lungre gelce    lst weardode


swift, all alike,    followed behind,
ppelfealuwe    h him st getah


apple-yellow;     he to him offered the gifts,
mara ond mma.    Sw sceal mag dn:


horses and riches.    So should a kinsman act:
nealles inwitnet    rum bregdon


not at all malice-nets    weave for others,
dyrnum crfte    da rnian


with hidden arts    contrive death
hondgesteallan.     Hygelce ws


of hand-companions.    To Hygelac was
na heardum    nefa swe hold


in fierce strife    his nephew very loyal,
ond gehwer rum    hrra gemyndig


and each the other's    benefit remembered;
hrde ic t h one healsbah    Hygde gesealde


I heard that he the neck-ring    gave to Hygd,
wratlicne wundurmum    one e him Wealho geaf


the exquisite marvel-jewel,    which Wealhtheow gave him,
odnes dohtor    ro wicg somod


chieftain's daughter,    three horses also
swancor ond sadolbeorht    hyre syan ws


supple and bright with saddles;    then was her,
fter bahege    brost geweorod.


after receiving the ring,    breast adorned.
Sw bealdode    bearn Ecgowes


Thus he was bold,    the son of Edgetheow,
guma gum c    gdum dadum


man famed in war,    for good deeds;
drah fter dme    nealles druncne slg


he led his life for glory,    never, having drunk, slew
heorgenatas     ns him hroh sefa


his hearth-companions;    a troubled heart was not in him,
ac h mancynnes    maste crfte


but he mankind's    greatest strength,
ginfstan gife     him god sealde


--that ample gift,    which God gave him--
hold hildedor.    Han ws lange


he held, battle-daring.    Long had he been abject
sw hyne Gata bearn    gdne ne tealdon


so the sons of the Geats    did not reckon him good,
n hyne on medobence    micles wyrne


nor to him on the mead-bench    much honour
drihten wereda    gedn wolde


the commander of the troops    would grant;
swe sgdon    t h slac ware


they especially said,    that he was slack,
eling unfrom    edwenden cwm


no bold noble;    a turn-around came
tradigum menn    torna gehwylces.


to the glory-blessed man    for each of these miseries.
Ht eorla hlo    in gefetian,


Then the protector of heroes ordered    to be fetched in,
heaorf cyning,    Hrles lfe


the war-noble king,    Hrethel's heirloom,
golde gegyrede    ns mid Gatum


fitted out in gold;    there was not among the Geats then
sincmum slra    on sweordes hd


a better precious treasure    in the manner of a sword;
t h on Bowulfes    bearm legde


that he in Beowulf's    lap layed,
ond him gesealde    seofan sendo,


and gave him    seven thousand hides of land,
bold ond bregostl.    Him ws bm samod


residence and ruler's seat.    Theirs was both together
on m lodscipe    lond gecynde


in that nation    inherited land,
eard elriht,    rum swor


earth by ancestral privelege,    to the second more
sde rce    m ar slra ws.


of that broad kingdom    to him who was higher.
Eft t geode    ufaran dgrum


After that it came to pass    in later days
hildehlmmum     syan Hygelc lg


in battle-clashes,    when Hygelac lay dead,
ond Heardrde    hildemceas


and for Heardred     battle-maiches,
under bordhroan    t bonan wurdon


under the cover of his shield,    became the instruments of his death,
hyne geshtan    on sigeode


when they sought him out    in the victory-tribe,
hearde hildefrecan    Heao-Scilfingas


the fierce battle-ready warriors,    the Battle-Scilfings,
na genagdan    nefan Hererces


with enmity they attacked    the nephew of Hereric;
syan Bowulfe    brade rce


thereupon to Beowulf    the broad kingdom
on hand gehwearf    h gehold tela


passed into his hands;    he ruled well
fiftig wintra    --ws frd cyning


for fifty winters    --then he was a wise king,
eald elweard--    o t n ongan


an old warden of the fatherland--    until one began
deorcum nihtum    draca rcsian


in the dark nights,    a dragon to rule,
s e on haum hofe    hord beweotode


he who in a high house    watched over a hoard,
stnbeorh starcne    stg under lg


a stark stone barrow;    the path below lay
eldum unc.    ar on innan gong


unknown to men.    There went inside
nia nthwylc    ond nah gefng


a man, I know not which,    and he groped near
hanum horde    hond gewrenne


the heathen hoard,    his hands wrapped round
since fhne    h t syan beget


an ornamented bauble,    he got that afterwards;
ah e h slapende     besyred hfde


though he who sleeping    had been tricked
ofes crfte    t se od onfand


by thief's cunning;    the people discovered that,
bfolc beorna    t h gebolgen ws.


the neighbouring folk of men,    that he was enraged.



Nealles ns geweoldum    wyrmhordan crft


He was not at all in control     of the skill of the worm-hoard,
sylfes willum    s e him sre gesced


of his own desire,    he who sorely injured him,
ac for randlan    of nthwylces


because of dire-distress    a thief of I know not which
hlea bearna    heteswengeas floh


sons of men     fled hostile blows,
rnesearfe    ond ar inne weall


in need of a hall    and there within raged,
secg synbysig    sna onwacade


a man haunted by guilt,    immediately watched over;
t gan m gyste    gryrebrga std


then against the stranger    stood horror and terror;
hwre fyrensceapen    


nevertheless upon the wicked one    


                                 se far begeat


                                 poured peril.
sincft shte    ar ws swylcra fela


He sought treasure-gold,    there was many such,
in m eorsele     argestrona


in that earth-hall,    ancient treasures,
sw h on gardagum    gumena nthwylc


as they in former days    some man,
eormenlfe     elan cynnes


this great legacy    of a noble kind,
anchycgende     ar gehdde


full of thought,    had hid there
dore mmas    ealle he da fornam


these dear treasures;    all of them Death took
arran malum    ond s n gn


in earlier times,    and then were yet one
loda dugue    s ar lengest hwearf


of the old warriors of that people,    the one who moved about there longest,
weard winegemor    wnde s yldan


the friend-grieving warden,    he hoped to delay that much,
t h ltel fc     longgestrona


so that he for a little while     the long-kept treasure
brcan mste.    Beorh eallgearo


would be able to enjoy.    The barrow all-ready
wunode on wonge    wterum nah


occupied the plain    near the water-waves,
nwe be nsse    nearocrftum fst


new on the headland,    made secure by difficult-craft;
ar on innan br     eorlgestrona


there inside bore    of the treasure of earls
hringa hyrde       handwyrne dal


a hoard of rings    a hand-fashioned share
fattan goldes    fa worda cw:


of plated gold;    some words he spoke:
'Heald n, hrse,    n hle ne mstan


'Now hold you, Earth,    now the heroes cannot
eorla ahte.    Hwt, hyt ar on earls' possessions.    Listen, it formerly from you
gde begaton    gda fornam


was obtained by good men;    war-death has taken away,
feorhbeale frcne    fyrena gehwylcne


terrible murder of life,    of crimes each one,
loda mnra     m e is ofgeaf:


my belovd people,    they gave this up to me:
geswon seledram    h nh hw sweord wege


they had seen joy in the hall;    he I have not, who might wield sword
oe fgrie    fated wage


or make beautiful    this gilded flagon,
dryncft dore    dugu ellor soc


this precious drinking vessel;    the veteran warriors are ill elsewhere;
sceal se hearda helm    hyrstedgolde


must the stern helmet    adorned with gold
fatum befeallen    feormynd swefa


stripped of its ornaments;    the burnishers slumbers,
e beadogrman    bwan sceoldon


they who war-masks    ought to brighten;
g swylce so herepd    so t hilde gebd


also so the army's coats of mail,    which in battle endured
ofer borda gebrc    bite rena


over the shattering of shield-boards    the bite of iron,
brosna fter beorne    ne mg byrnan hring


decays along with the men;    byrnie's ring may not
fter wgfruman    wde fran


with war-fighter    fare widely,
hleum be healfe    ns hearpan wyn


alongside heroes;    there was not harp's joy,
gomen globames    n gd hafoc


delight of glee-wood,    nor good hawk
geond sl swinge    n se swifta mearh


soaring through the hall,    nor swift horse
burhstede bate    bealocwealm hafa


trampling the courtyard;    baleful death has
fela feorhcynna    for onsended.'


many of my living kin    sent forth.'
Sw gimormd    gioho mande


Thus sad at heart    in grief he bemoaned
n fter eallum    unblie hwearf


one after all,    unhappily passed
dges ond nihtes    o t daes wylm


days and nights,    until the flood of Death
hrn t heortan.    Hordwynne fond


reached to his heart.    Hoard-joy he found,
eald htsceaa    opene standan


the old twilight-scather,    standing open,
s e byrnende    biorgas sce


he who, burning,    seeks barrows,
nacod ndraca    nihtes floge


the naked malevolent dragon;    he flies by night,
fre befangen    hyne foldbend


encircled in fire;    him earth-dwellers
: : : : : : : : : : : :nan.    H gescean sceall


    He has to seek
hearm on hrsan    ar h haen gold


harm in the ground,    where he heathen gold
wara wintrum frd    ne by him wihte sl.


guards, wise in winters;    he is not a bit better for that.
Sw se odsceaa    ro hund wintra


So the people-scather    three hundred winters
hold on hrsan    hordrna sum


ruled in the earth    of one of the hoard-halls,
acencrftig     o t hyne n bealch


vastly powerful,    until one angered him,
mon on mde:    mandryhtne br


a man in pride:    he bore to his liege-lord
fated wage    friooware bd


the gold-adorned cup,    begged peace-truce
hlford snne     ws hord rsod,


from his lord;    then was the hoard ransacked,
onboren baga hord,    bne getad


rings' hoard borne off,    a boon was granted
fasceaftum men    fra scawode


to the wretched man;    a lord examined
fra fyrngeweorc    forman se.


the ancient work of men    for the first time.
se wyrm onwc    --wrht ws genwad--


then the worm awoke,    --quarrel was renewed--
stonc fter stne    stearcheort onfand


he sniffed along the stone,    the harsh-hearted one found
fondes ftlst    h t for gestp


the foot-print of his foe;     he too far forward had stepped
dyrnan crfte    dracan hafde nah.


in his stealthy craft    near the dragon's head.
Sw mg unfage    ae gedgan   Provided that, one not doomed may    easily survive
wan ond wracs    s e waldendes


woe and hardship,    he who the Ruler's
hyldo gehealde.    Hordweard shte


grace protects.    The hoard-ward sought
georne fter grunde    wolde guman findan


eagerly along the ground,    he wished to find the man,
one e him on sweofote    sre getode


the one who him in his slumber    had sorely harmed;
ht ond hrohmd    hlawum oft ymbehwearf


hot and fierce-minded,    he often circled among the mounds
ealne tanweardne    --n ar anig mon


all round the outside    --not any man there
on m wstenne    hwre hilde gefeh


in that wilderness,    but he rejoiced in battle,
beadu weorces    --hwlum on beorh thwearf


of battle-work    --sometimes he turned back to the barrow,
sincft shte    h at sna onfand


sought the treasure-cup;    he suddenly discovered,
t hfde gumena sum    goldes gefandod


that a certain man had     distrubed the gold,
hahgestrona    hordweard onbd


the high treasures;    the hoard-ward waited
earfolce    o t afen cwm


with great difficulty,    until evening came;
ws gebolgen      beorges hyrde


then was enraged    the keeper of the barrow,
wolde se la    lge forgyldan


he wished the injury    to repay with flame,
drincft dre.     ws dg sceacen


the dear drinking-vessel.    Then the day was departed
wyrme on willan    n on wealle lg


to the joy of the wyrm;    he did not lie within the wall,
bdan wolde    ac mid bale fr


(nor) wished to wait,    but with bale-fire set forth,
fre gefsed    ws se fruma egeslc


infused with flame;    this beginning was terrible
lodum on lande    sw hyt lungre wear


for the people in the land,    as it soon was
on hyra sincgifan    sre geendod.


upon their treasure-giver     painfully ended.



se gst ongan    gldum spwan,


Then the demon began    to spew flames,
beorht hofu brnan    bryneloma std


to burn bright houses;    the gleam of fire rose
eldum on andan    n ar ht cwices


to the horror of the men;    nor there anything alive
l lyftfloga    lafan wolde


the hateful air-flier    wished to leave;
ws s wyrmes wg    wde gesne


the war-strength of that wyrm was     widely seen,
nearofges n    nan ond feorran


the malice of the darkly cunning one    near and far,
h se gsceaa    Gata lode


how the war-scather    the people of the Geats
hatode ond hnde    hord eft gescat


hated and humiliated;    back to his hoard he shot,
dryhtsele dyrnne    ar dges hwle


the hidden lord-hall    ere the time of day;
hfde landwara    lge befangen


the inhabitants of the land had been     seized by flame,
bale ond bronde    beorges getrwode


in blaze and in fire;    his barrow he trusted,
wges ond wealles    him so wn gelah.


his war-skill and his walls;    him this belief deceived.
ws Bowulfe    brga geced


Then was to Beowulf    the danger made known
snde t se    t his sylfes hm


quickly in truth,    that his own home,
bolda slest    brynewylmum mealt


the finest of dwellings,    in waves of heat melted,
gifstl Gata    t m gdan ws


the throne of the Geats;    that was to the good man
hrow on hrere    hygesorga mast


a grief in his heart,    of the mind-sorrows the greatest;
wnde se wsa    t h wealdende


the wise man thought    that he the Ruler
ofer ealde riht    cean dryhtne


against ancient law    eternal Lord
bitre gebulge    brost innan woll


had bitterly angered;     inside his breast welled
ostrum geoncum    sw him gewe ne ws.


with thoughts of gloom,    such was not usual for him.
Hfde lgdraca    loda fsten


The fire-drake had    the fortress of the people,
alond tan    eorweard one


by the coast-land,    the stronghold
gldum forgrunden    him s gkyning


ground down with flames;    him for that the war-king,
Wedera oden    wrce leornode


the chief of the Wederas,    studied vengeance;
heht him gewyrcean,    wgendra hlo


then he ordered to be made for him,    a warriors' protector,
eallrenne,    eorla dryhten,


all of iron,    the lord of earls,
wgbord wratlc    wisse h gearwe


a wonderous war-board;    he readily knew,
t him holtwudu    helpan ne meahte


that him tree-wood    could not help,
lind wi lge.     Sceolde lenddaga


linden-wood against fire.    He had to his seafaring-days,
eling argd    ende gebdan


the old, good noble,    abide the end
worulde lfes    ond se wyrm somod


of life in the world,    and the wyrm together,
ah e hordwelan    holde lange.


though the hoard-wealth    he had held long.
Oferhogode     hringa fengel


Then he scorned,    the rings' lord,
t h one wdflogan     weorode geshte


that he the wide-flier    would seek out with a troop,
sdan herge    n h him m scce ondrd


a large army;    he did not the strife dread for himself,
n him s wyrmes wg    for wiht dyde


nor him the wyrm's fire     esteem a bit,
eafo ond ellen    foron h ar fela


power and courage,    for that he before many,
nearo nende    na gedgde


narrowly risking,    hostilities survived,
hildehlemma    syan h Hrgres


battle-clashes,    since he Hrothgar's,
sigoradig secg    sele falsode


--victory-favoured man--    hall cleansed,
ond t ge forgrp    Grendeles magum


and in war overwhelmed    Grendel's race,
lan cynnes.    N t lasest ws


hateful kind.    Not the least was
hondgemta     ar mon Hygelc slh


the hand-to-hand encounter,    where one slew Hygelac,
syan Gata cyning    ge rasum


after the Geats' king,    in war's rushes,
frawine folca    Frslondum on


the lord and friend of the folk,    in Frisia,
Hrles eafora    hiorodryncum swealt


Hrethel's heir,    died in the drink of sword,
bille gebaten    onan Bowulf cm


beaten down by bill-blades.     Then Beowulf came
sylfes crfte    sundnytte drah


by his own strength,    he made use of the sea;
hfde him on earme    eorla rtig


he had in his arms     thirty warriors'
hildegeatwa     h t holme stg


battle-gear,    when he mounted the ocean;
nealles Hetware    hrmge orfton


not at all did the Hetwares    had need to be exaulting
fewges     him foran ongan


over the fighting on foot,    who forth against him
linde baron    lt eft becwm


bore linden-wood shields;    few came back
fram m hildfrecan    hmes nosan.


from that warrior    to visit their homes.
Oferswam siolea bigong    sunu Ecgowes


He crossed over then the flowing expanse of waters,     the son of of Edgetheow,
earm nhaga    eft t lodum


wretched and solitary,    back to the people,
ar him Hygd gebad    hord ond rce


there Hygd bade him    hoard and kingdom,
bagas ond bregostl:    bearne ne trwode


rings and throne:    in her son she did not trust
t h wi lfylcum     elstlas


that he against foreign peoples    the ancestral throne
healdan ce     ws Hygelc dad


had the power to hold    when Hygelac was dead;
n ar fasceafte    findan meahton


not the sooner the destitute ones    could find
t m elinge    anige inga


in the noble one     by any means,
t h Heardrde     hlford ware


that he to Heardred    would be a lord,
oe one cynedm    cosan wolde


or the kingdom    wished to accept;
hwre h him on folce     frondlrum hold


yet he to him among the folk    upheld with the counsels of a friend,
stum mid re    o t h yldra wear   graciously in honour,    until he grew older,
Weder-Gatum wold.    Hyne wrcmcgas


ruled the Weder-Geats.    Him banished men
ofer sa shtan,    suna hteres


from across the sea sought,    sons of Ohthere;
hfdon h forhealden    helm Scylfinga


they had rebelled against    the Helm of the Scylfings,
one slestan    sacyninga


the finest    of sea-kings
ra e in Sworce    sinc brytnade,


who there in Sweden    dispensed treasure,
marne oden    him t t mearce wear


famed chieftain;    to him it became the end;
h ar for feorme    feorhwunde hlat


there he for his hospitality    received a mortal-wound,
sweordes swengum    sunu Hygelces


from sword's swing,    the son of Hygelac;
ond him eft gewt    Ongenioes bearn


and he went back,    Ongentheow's son
hmes nosan    syan Heardrd lg


to seek his home,    after Heardred lay dead;
lt one bregostl    Bowulf healdan,


the throne he let    Beowulf hold,
Gatum wealdan    t ws gd cyning.


to rule the Geats;    that was a good king.



S s lodhryres    lan gemunde


He for the prince's fall    requital remembered
uferan dgrum    adgilse wear


in later days,    to Eadgils he became
fasceaftum frond    folce gestpte


a friend in his plight;    with men he supported
ofer sa sde    sunu hteres


over the wide sea    the son of Ohtere,
wigum ond wapnum    h gewrc syan


with warriors and weapons;    he had vengeance then
cealdum cearsium    cyning ealdre binat:


in cold grief-bringing ventures,    he deprived the king of his life:
sw h na gehwane    genesen hfde


so he each of the enmities    had survived,
slra geslyhta,    sunu Ecgowes,


dire conflicts,    the son of Ecgetheow,
ellenweorca    o one nne dg


deeds of courage,    until the one day,
h wi m wyrme     gewegan sceolde.


when he with the serpent    must struggle.
Gewt twelfa sum    torne gebolgen


Then he went,    one of twelve, swollen with anger,
dryhten Gata,    dracan scawian


the lord of the Geats,    to behold the dragon;
hfde gefrnen    hwanan so fah rs


he had heard then    whence this feud arose,
bealon biorna:    him t bearme cwm


wicked hostility for men:    to his bosom came
mumft mare,     urh s meldan hond


the precious vessel,    through the informer's hand;
s ws on m rate     reottoa secg


he was in that     group    the thirteenth men,
s s orleges    r onstealde


he who this strife's    origin brought about,
hft hygegimor    sceolde han onon


the gloomy-minded captive;     he was obliged, humbly, thence
wong wsian    h ofer willan gong


to lead the way to the place;    he went against his will
t s e h eorsele    nne wisse


to where the earth-hall he    alone knew,
hlaw under hrsan    holmwylme nh


the cairn under the ground    near the surging of the sea,
gewinne     s ws innan full


the struggle of the waves;    it was full inside
wratta ond wra    weard unhore


of jewels and intricate metal-work;    an unpleasant guard,
gearo gfreca    goldmmas hold


ready, eager war-fighter    held golden treasures
eald under eoran    ns t e cap


old under the earth;    that was not an easy bargain,
t gegangenne    gumena anigum.


to obtain    for any man.
Gest on nsse    nheard cyning


Then on the headland sat    the violence-hard king,
enden halo bad     heorgenatum


while prosperity bid    to his hearth-companions,
goldwine Gata    him ws gemor sefa


the gold-friend of the Geats;    in him his heart was sad,
wafre ond wlfs,    wyrd ungemete nah


restless and slaughter-eager,    fate all too near
s one gomelan    grtan sceolde,


which the old man    must greet,
scean swle hord,    sundur gedalan


seeking the treasure of his soul,    sever asunder
lf wi lce    n on lange ws


life from limb;    it was not for long then
feorh elinges    flasce bewunden.


the nobleman's life    would be wound in his flesh.
Bowulf maelade    bearn Ecgowes:


Beowulf spoke,    the son of Edgetheow:
'Fela ic on giogoe    grasa gens


'In youth I many    war-storms survived,
orleghwla    ic t eall gemon


in battle-times;    I remember all of that;
ic ws syfanwintre     mec sinca baldor


I was seven-winters (old)    when me the lord of treasure,
frawine folca    t mnum fder genam


the lord and friend of the folk,    took from my father;
hold mec ond hfde    Hrel cyning


held and had me    King Hrethel,
geaf m sinc ond symbel    sibbe gemunde


gave me treasure and feast,    recalled kinship;
ns ic him t life    lra wihte


I was not by him in life    less in aught,
beorn in burgum    onne his bearna hwylc


a man in citadel,    than each of his own sons,
Herebeald ond Hcyn    oe Hygelc mn.


Herebeald and Haethcyn    or my Hygelac.
Ws m yldestan    ungedfelice


For the eldest was,    unfittingly,
mages dadum    mororbed strd


by a kinsman's deeds    a death-bed strewed,
syan hyne Hcyn    of hornbogan


when him Haethcyn    from a horn-bow
his frawine    flne geswencte


his friend and lord    struck down with an arrow,
miste mercelses    ond his mag ofsct


missed his mark    and his kinsman shot dead,
bror erne    bldigan gre


the one brother the other    with a bloody bolt;
t ws feohlas gefeoht     fyrenum gesyngad,


that was an irreparable fight,    grieviously wronged,
hrere hygeme    sceolde hwre sw ah


heart-wearying in the breast;    yet must though
eling unwrecen    ealdres linnan.


the noble unavenged    be parted from life.
Sw bi gemorlc    gomelum ceorle


In the same way it is tragic    for an old  man
t gebdanne    t his byre rde


to abide    that his son rides
giong on galgan:    onne h gyd wrece,


young on the gallows:    then he utters a dirge,
srigne sang    onne his sunu hanga


a sorrowing song,    that his son hangs
hrefne t hrre    ond h him helpan ne mg


for the pleasure of the raven,    and he can not him help,
eald ond infrd    anige gefremman


old and experienced,    any provide;
symble bi gemyndgad    morna gehwylce


ever is reminded    each morning,
eaforan ellors     res ne gme


of the other-world journey of his son;    another he heeds not
t gebdanne    burgum in innan


to wait for    within the strongholds,
yrfeweardas    onne se n hafa


guardian of inheritance,    when the one he has
urh daes nd    dada gefondad


through Death's compulsion    experienced deeds;
gesyh sorhcearig    on his suna bre


he sees, sad and sorrowful,    in his son's dwelling
wnsele wstne    windge reste


a wine-hall wasted,    a wind-swept resting place
rote berofene    rdend swefa


bereft of joy;    the riders sleep,
hle in homan    nis ar hearpan swg


heroes hidden in graves;    there is not sound of harp,
gomen in geardum    swylce ar i waron.


revelry in the courts,    such as long ago there was.



Gewte onne on sealman    sorhlo gle


He goes then to his bed,    sings a song of sorrow,
n fter num    hte him eall t rm


one man on account of one man;    it seemed to him all too roomy,
wongas ond wcstede.    Sw Wedra helm


the fields and the dwelling-place.    Thus the Helm of the Wederas
fter Herebealde    heortan sorge


on account of Herebeald    heart's sorrow,
weallinde, wg:    wihte ne meahte


welling, endured:    not a whit could he
on m feorhbonan    faghe gebtan


on that life-slayer    settle a feud;
n ar h one heaorinc     hatian ne meahte


nor the more for that warrior    could he show hatred
lum dadum    ah him lof ne ws


with hostile acts,    though he by him was not loved;
h mid are sorhge     him so sr belamp


he then with that sorrow,    which on him that sorely befell,
gumdram ofgeaf    godes loht gecas


he gave over human joys,    choose God's light;
eaferum lafde    sw d adig mon


to his heirs he left,    as does a fortunate man,
lond ond lodbyrig     h of lfe gewt.


the land and the folk-citadel,    when he departed from life.
ws synn ond sacu     Swona ond Gata


Then was injury and strife    of the Swedes and the Geats
ofer wd wter    wrht gemane


over the wide water    a quarrel shared,
heren hearda    syan Hrel swealt


hard military-spite,    after Hrethel died,
oe him Ongenowes    eaferan waran


and to him Ongentheow's    heirs were
frome fyrdhwate    frode ne woldon


vigorous and martial;    they did not wish friendship
ofer heafo healdan    ac ymb Hrosnabeorh


to hold across the ocean,    but around Hreosnabeorh
eatolne inwitscear    oft gefremedon


horrible, malicious raiding    often committed
t magwine    mne gewracan,


that kin-friends    of mine avenged,
fahe ond fyrene    sw hyt gefrage ws


feud and crime,    as it was famous,
ah e er his    ealdre gebohte


though one of the two with his    life paid,
heardan cape    Hcynne wear


a hard bargain;    for Hathcyn was,
Gata dryhtne    g onsage.


the Geats' lord,    war impending.
ic on morgne gefrgn    mag erne


Then I heard in the morning    that one kinsman the other
billes ecgum    on bonan stalan


with bill's edges    took vengeance on the slayer,
ar Ongenow    Eofores nosa


there Ongentheow    is attacked by Eofor;
ghelm tgld    gomela Scylfing


the war-helm slipped asunder,    the agd Scylfing
hras heaoblc    hond gemunde


fell battle-pale.     The hand remembered
faho genge    feorhsweng ne oftah.


feuds a-plenty,    did not withhold life-blow.
Ic him mmas     h m sealde


I to him the treasures,    which he had given me,
geald t ge    sw m gifee ws


repaid in war,    as was granted to me,
lohtan sweorde    h m lond forgeaf


with flashing sword;    he gave me land,
eard elwyn    ns him anig earf


earth, the joy of homeland;    there was not for him any need,
t h t Gifum     oe t Gr-Denum


that he among the Gifthas    or the Spear-Danes
oe in Sworce    scean urfe


or in the Swedish Kingdom    needed to seek
wyrsan wgfrecan,    weore gecpan:


a worse war-eager fighter,     to buy with wealth:
symle ic him on fan    beforan wolde


always, in the foot-troop, I him    wished to go before,
na on orde    ond sw t aldre sceall


alone in the vanguard,    and thus must I always
scce fremman    enden is sweord ola


act in battle,    while this sword endures
t mec ar ond s    oft gelaste


that which me, early and later,    has often served,
syan ic for dugeum    Dghrefne wear


since I, in front of the legions,    of Daeghrefn was
t handbonan,    Hga cempan


his slayer by hand,    the champion of the Hugas;
nalles h frtwe     Frscyninge


in no way the precious ornaments    to the Frisian king,
brostweorunge     bringan mste


breast-adorning,     was he able to bring,
ac in cempan gecrong    cumbles hyrde


but rather with his contingent fell    the banner's keeper,
eling on elne    ne ws ecg bona


the noble in courage;    blade's edge was not the killer
ac him hildegrp    heortan wylmas


but my battle-grip on him    his heart's beats,
bnhs gebrc.    N sceall billes ecg


his bone-house, broke.     Now I must with bill's edge,
hond ond heard sweord    ymb hord wgan.'


hand and hard sword    fight for the hoard.'
Bowulf maelode    botwordum sprc


Beowulf declared,     spoke vow-words
nehstan se:    'Ic gende fela


for the last time:    'I have risked many
ga on geogoe    gt ic wylle


wars in my youth;    yet I wish,
frd folces weard    fahe scan,


old, wise warden of the folk,    to seek vendetta,
marum fremman    gif mec se mnsceaa


to earn renown,    if me that wreaker of evil
of eorsele    t gesce.'


from his earth-hall    ventures out to greet.' 
Gegrtte     gumena gehwylcne


He then saluted    each of the men,
hwate helmberend    hindeman se


bold helm-bearers     for the final time,
swase gesas:    'Nolde ic sweord beran


dear companions:    'I would not bear a sword,
wapen t wyrme    gif ic wiste h


a weapon against the wyrm,    if I knew how
wi m glacean    elles meahte


against the monster    else I might
gylpe wigrpan    sw ic gi wi Grendle dyde


grapple for glory,    as I did before with Grendel
ac ic ar heaufres    htes wne


but I there furious fire's    heat expect,
res ond hattres    foron ic m on hafu


fierce and poisonous;    therefore I have on me
bord ond byrnan    nelle ic beorges weard


shield-board and byrnie;    nor will I from the barrow's guard
oferfln ftes trem    ac unc sceal


flee a foot    but for us it must
weoran t wealle    sw unc wyrd geto


happen at the wall    as Fate allots us,
metod manna gehws    ic eom on mde from


the Creator of all men;    I am bold in spirit
t ic wi one gflogan     gylp ofersitte.


that I against the war-flier    forbear from boast.
Gebde g on beorge    byrnum werede


You, await here on the barrow,    clad in byrnies,
secgas on searwum    hwer sl mge


warriors in war-gear,    which better can
fter wlrase    wunde gedgan


during the slaughter-clash    survive wound
uncer twga    nis t ower s


of the two of us;    it is not your adventure,
n gemet mannes    nefne mn nes


nor in the power of men,    save mine alone.'
Wt he w glacean    eofoo dale


He knew that against the beast    he would deal out his strength,
eorlscype efne    'Ic mid elne sceall


achieve noble rank;    'I must with courage
gold gegangan    oe g nime


gain the gold,    or war takes,
feorhbealu frcne    fran owerne.'


terrible deadly wound,    your lord.'
rs b ronde     rf retta


Then he arose by means of his shield,    the bold warrior,
heard under helme    hiorosercean br


severe under his helm,    he wore sword-shirt
under stncleofu    strengo getrwode


under stone cliffs,    trusted in the strength
nes mannes    ne bi swylc earges s.


of a single man;    such is not the coward's way.
Geseah be wealle    s e worna fela


He saw then by the wall,    he who a great number,
gumcystum gd    ga gedgde


nobly good,    wars survived,
hildehlemma    onne hnitan fan


battle-clashes,    when armies collided;
stdan stnbogan,     stram t onan


it stood by the stone-arch,     a stream out from there
brecan of beorge    ws are burnan wlm


breaking out of the barrow;    there was the brook's surge
heaofrum ht    ne meahte horde nah


hot with deadly fire,    he could not near the hoard
unbyrnende    anige hwle


without burning    for any space of time
dop gedgan    for dracan lge.


endure the depths    on account of the dragon's fire.
Lt of brostum     h gebolgen ws


Then he let from his breast,    when he was angered,
Weder-Gata lod    word t faran


the Weder-Geat's leader,    a word burst out,
stearcheort styrmde    stefn in becm


the staunch-hearted one roared;    his voice came in,
heaotorht hlynnan    under hrne stn


ringing battle-clear    beneath the hoary grey stone;
hete ws onhrred    hordweard oncnow


hate was aroused,    the hoard-guard knew
mannes reorde    ns ar mra fyrst


man's voice;    there was not more time
frode t friclan    from arest cwm


to ask for peace;    first came forth
oru glacean    t of stne


the monster's breath    out of the stone,
ht hildeswt    hrse dynede


hot battle-vapour;    the earth thundered;
biorn under beorge    bordrand onswf


the warrior below the barrow    swung his shield-boss
wi m gryregieste    Gata dryhten


against the terror-guest,    the Geats' lord;
ws hringbogan    heorte gefsed


then was the ring-coiled one's    heart incited
scce t sceanne    sweord ar gebrad


to seek strife;    his sword before drew
gd gcyning    gomele lfe


the good war-king,    ancient heirloom,
ecgum unglaw    aghwrum ws


imprudent with sword-edges;    was in each
bealohycgendra    brga fram rum


of the harm-intending ones    terror of the other;
stmd gestd    wi stapne rond


firm-spirited stood    with his steep bossed-shield
winia bealdor     se wyrm gebah


the brave leader of the friends,    while the serpent coiled
snde tsomne    h on searwum bd


together swiftly;    He in war-gear waited;
gewt byrnende    gebogen scran,


went then burning     gliding coiled,
t gescipe scyndan    scyld wl gebearg


hastening to his destiny;    the shield defended well
lfe ond lce    lassan hwle


life and body    for a lesser time
marum odne    onne his myne shte


the famed chieftain,    then his mind desired,
ar h fyrste    forman dgore


where he that time    for the first day
wealdan mste    sw him wyrd ne gescrf


had to wield it,    as Fate had not decreed for him
hr t hilde:    hond p brad


glory in battle:    he raised up his hand,
Gata dryhten    gryrefhne slh


the Geatish lord;    the ghastly-hued one he struck
incgelfe     t so ecg gewc


with his ancestoral sword,    so that the edge weakened
brn on bne    bt unswor


bright on bone,    bit less fiercely
onne his odcyning    earfe hfde


than its tribe-king    had need
bysigum gebaded.     ws beorges weard


driven in distress.    Then the barrow's ward was
fter heauswenge    on hroum mde


after the war-blow    in a fierce spirit;
wearp wlfre    wde sprungon


he spewed slaughter-fire;    widely spread
hildeloman.     Hrsigora ne gealp


battle-light.    Of war-victory did not boast
goldwine Gata    gbill geswc


the gold-friend of the Geats;    his war-bill failed,
nacod t ne    sw hyt n sceolde


naked in the violence,    as it should not have,
ren argd    ne ws t e s


the excellent old iron;    that was not an easy accomplishment,
t se mara    maga Ecgowes


that the famed    son of Edgetheow
grundwong one    ofgyfan wolde


this earth    should be willing to give up;
sceolde willan    wc eardian


he was obliged to be about to    inhabit a dwelling
elles hwergen    sw sceal aghwylc mon


elsewhere,    as must every man
latan landagas.    Ns long t on


abandon loaned-days.    It was not long to when
t glacean     h eft gemtton:


that the fierce enemies    again met each other:
hyrte hyne hordweard    hreer ame woll


the hoard-guardian heartened himself,     his breast swelled with breath,
nwan stefne    nearo rwode


another time;    cruelly suffered,
fre befongen    s e ar folce wold.


encircled in fire,    he who had once ruled a nation.
Nealles him on hape     handgesteallan


Not at all him in a troop     the hand-companions,
elinga bearn    ymbe gestdon


nobles' sons,    around him stood
hildecystum    ac h on holt bugon


with valour in battle,    but they sunk to the forest,
ealdre burgan    hiora in num woll


to protect life;    in one of them surged
sefa wi sorgum    sibb' afre ne mg


his heart with sorrows;    kinship can never
wiht onwendan    m e wl ence.


aught be altered,    in him who thinks properly.



Wglf ws hten     Woxstnes sunu


Wiglaf he was called,    son of Weohstan,
loflc lindwiga    lod Scylfinga


noble shield-fighter,    man of the Scylfings,
mag lfheres    geseah his mondryhten


kinsman of lfhere;    he saw his liege-lord
under heregrman    ht rwian


under the war-mask    suffering heat;
gemunde re    h him ar forgeaf


he remembered then the honour    that he had given him before,
wcstede weligne    Wagmundinga,


lush dwelling-place    of the Waegmundings,
folcrihta gehwylc    sw his fder hte


to each folk-rights,    as his father had owned;
ne mihte forhabban    hond rond gefng


then he could not hold back,    his hand seized his round shield,
geolwe linde    gomelswyrd getah


yellow lindenwood,    he drew his ancient sword;
t ws mid eldum    anmundes lf


it was among men    the legacy of Eanmund,
suna htere    m t scce wear


son of Ohthere;    of him in battle was,
wrcca winelasum    Wohstnes bana


of the friendless exile,    Weohstan his slayer
mces ecgum    ond his mgum tbr


by maiche's edges,    and to his kinsman he brought back
brnfgne helm    hringde byrnan


bright-gleaming helm,    ringed byrnie,
ealdsweord etonisc    t him Onela forgeaf


an old ogrish sword;    that to him Onela returned,
his gdelinges    ggewadu


his kinsman's    war-garment,
fyrdsearo fslc    n ymbe fahe sprc


war-devised clothing;    he did not speak of the feud,
ah e h his bror bearn    bredwade


though he his brother's son    had slain;
h frtwe gehold    fela missra


he held the treasures    for many seasons,
bill ond byrnan    o t his byre mihte


bill and byrnie,    until his son could
eorlscipe efnan    sw his arfder


accomplish noble deeds    like his old father;
geaf him mid Gatum     ggewada


then, among the Geats, he gave him     war-clothing,
aghws unrm     h of ealdre gewt


of all kinds, in countless number,    then he went from life,
frd on forweg.     ws forma s


wise, on the way forth.    Then was the first time
geongan cempan     t h ge ras


for the young champion,    that he the rush of war
mid his frodryhtne    fremman sceolde


with his noble lord    had to perform;
ne gemealt him se mdsefa    n his mgenes lf


his spirited heart in him did not melt away,    nor the remainder of his strength
gewc t wge    a se wyrm onfand


fail in the fight;    then the wyrm had discovered,
syan he tgdre     gegn hfdon.


when they together    had come.
Wglf maelode    wordrihta fela


Wiglaf spoke,    many proper words
sgde gesum    --him ws sefa gemor--:


he said to his companions    --his heart was sad in him--:
'Ic t mal geman     ar w medu gun


'I recall that time,     where we partook of mead,
onne w gehton    ssum hlforde


when we promised    to our lord
in borsele     s s bagas geaf


in the beer-hall,    he who gave us rings,
t w him ggetawa    gyldan woldon


that we to him for the war-gear    wished to repay,
gif him yslicu    earf gelumpe,


if for him such    a need arose,
helmas ond heard sweord.     h sic on herge gecas


with helmets and hard swords.    Because of that he chose us from the army
t yssum sfate    sylfes willum


for this adventure    of his own desire;
onmunde sic mara    ond m s mmas geaf


he deemed us worthy of renown,    and gave me these treasures,
h sic grwgend    gde tealde


because he us spear-warriors    considered excellent,
hwate helmberend    ah e hlford s


bold helm-bearers,    though the lord for us
is ellenweorc    n hte


this valiant work    intended alone
t gefremmanne,    folces hyrde,


to perform,    the keeper of the folk,
forn h manna mast     mara gefremede


because he of men the most    glories has achieved,
dada dollcra.    N is s dg cumen


the most audacious deeds.    Now is the day come
t re mandryhten    mgenes behfa


that our liege-lord    has need of strength
gdra grinca    wutun gongan t


of good war-men;    let us go to,
helpan hildfruman    enden hyt s


aid the battle-leader,    while the heat lasts,
gldegesa grim.    God wt on mec


the fierce fire-terror.    God knows of me
t m is micle lofre     t mnne lchaman


that to me it is much more agreeable,    that my body
mid mnne goldgyfan    gld fmie


with my gold-giver    the fire embraces;
ne ynce m gerysne    t w rondas beren


it does not seem proper to me,    that we bear shields
eft t earde    nemne we aror mgen


back to our land,    unless we first can
fne gefyllan,    feorh ealgian


fell the foe,    defend the life
Wedra odnes    ic wt geare


of the chief of the Wederas;    I know well,
t naron ealdgewyrht     t h na scyle


that his deeds of old are not such,    that he alone should
Gata dugue    gnorn rwian,


of the Geats' retinue    sorrow suffer,
gesgan t scce    rum sceal sweord ond helm


to sink in strife;    for the two of us must sword and helm,
byrne ond byrduscrd    bm gemane.'


byrnie and rich shroud    both share.'
Wd urh one wlrc    wgheafolan br


Then he waded through the smoke of slaughter,     bore his war-head
fran on fultum    fa worda cw:


to the support of his lord;    a few words he spoke:
'Lofa Bowulf,    last eall tela


'Dear Beowulf,    carry out all well,
sw on geogufore    gera gecwade


as you in youth-life    long ago said,
t ne late    be lifigendum


that you would not allow,    with you still living,
dm gedrosan    scealt n dadum rf,


glory to fail;    you must now in bold deeds,
eling anhdig,    ealle mgene


a noble firm in mind,    with all of your strength,
feorh ealgian    ic fullastu.'


defend your life;     I shall support you.'
fter m wordum    wyrm yrre cwm


After those words    the wrathful wyrm came,
atol inwitgst    re se


awful cruel visitor    a second time,
frwylmum fh    fonda nosian


with hostile, gleaming flood of fire    to seek his foes
lra mannasydaudio    lg um for


the hated humans;    the flame came forth in waves,
born bord wi rond    byrne ne meahte


burned shield to the boss;    the byrnie could not
geongum grwigan    goce gefremman


to the young spear-fighter    lend support
ac se maga geonga    under his mages scyld


but the young man,    under his kinsman's shield
elne geode     his gen ws


courageously advanced,    when his own was
gldum forgrunden.     gn gcyning


consumed by fire.    Then again the war-king
miht gemunde    mgenstrengo slh


remembered his strength,    with mighty force struck
hildebille    t hyt on heafolan std


with his battle-bill,    so that it stood in (the serpent's) head
ne gended    Ngling forbrst


driven by violence;    Naegling burst asunder,
geswc t scce    sweord Bowulfes


failed in the fight    Beowulf's sword
gomol ond gragmal    him t gifee ne ws


ancient and silver-streaked;    it was not granted to him,
t him renna    ecge mihton