- a 'page' of a manuscript; abbrev. as fol.
, e.g. f.180 = folio 180
- the face of a manuscript page; in an (open) codex, the top side of the right-hand page; abbrev. as r
, e.g. f.179r = the recto of folio 179
- the back of a manuscript page; in an (open) codex, the top side of the left-hand page; abbrev. as v
, e.g. f.179v = the verso of folio 179
The dating of manuscripts is often indicated
in a compressed form using roman numerals, as thus:
's. x' indicates a 10th-century manuscript, 's. ix' indicates
a 9th-century manuscript, &c., &c.
's.' stands for Latin saeculo.
6th-century=501-600AD, 7th-century=601-700AD, 8th-century=701-800AD, 10th-century=901-1000AD,
11th-century=1001-1100AD, &c., &c.
Futher conventions include:
Suprascript '1' for first half of a century: s. x1
Suprascript '2' for second half of a century: s. x2
Suprascript 'in' for first quarter of a century: s. xin
Suprascript 'ex' for final quarter of a century: s. xex
Suprascript 'med' for two middle quarters of a century: s. xmed
Turn of a century may be indicated by s. ixex-s.
xin (for 875-925AD) or by c. 900
For more specific range of dates or for a more specific approximate date
'c.' for circa may be used.
Dates given in arabic numerals, unaccompanied by 'c.', are precise
dates, e.g., 687x702 specifies the period between 687-702AD.
notes of the form [Gneuss 399] refer to the list number assigned
to a manuscript in H. Gneuss's handlist of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts*
[above notes taken largely from:
Brown, Michelle P. (1990). A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from
Antiquity to 1600. London & Toronto: The British Library & University
of Toronto Press, pp. 2-3.]
(* = Gneuss, Helmut. Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts:
a list of manuscripts and manuscript fragments written or owned in England
up to 1100. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies,
Digital Scriptorium - Data Dictionary (C. W. Dutschke)